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37022 — 21- 


of the 

Bureau of Yards and Docks 

Navy Department 

World War 



Navy Department, 
Washington^ February 10^ 1921. 
My Deau Admiral : It was through the efforts of the Bureau of 
Yards and Docks that the facilities of the Na^'y ashore were extended 
so successfully to meet the increased demands brought upon them 
during the World War. 

It appears desirable, therefore, that the work of the bureau, in 
providing the necessary training camps, air stations, storage facili- 
ties, hospitals, radio towers, ship-repair facilities and dry docks, 
etc., in this country and abroad, should be made a matter of record. 
Kindly prepare such a description, which will, I am sure, be of value 
to the Navy and to others interested in the Navy. 
Very sincerely, yours, 

Josephus Daniels, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Eear Admiral C. W. Parks (C. E. C), U. S. N., 
Chief of Bureau of Yards and Docks^ 

Navy Department, Washington., D. C. 



Navt Department, Bureau or Yards and Docks, 

Washington, D. C ., February 28, 1921. 

My Dear Mr. Secretary: In accordance with your instructions 
of the 10th, I have caused to be prepared the accompanying series of 
chapters of an historical nature, dealing mainly with the activities 
of this bureau during the World War. In the nature of the case 
it has been considered advisable to outline the status of most of the 
Navy's shore facilities prior to the declaration of war by the United 
States; and in several instances the scope of the war program as 
undertaken during 1917 and 1918 made it impracticable arbitrarily 
to terminate the narrative with the date of the armistice. Neverthe- 
less, the account as it now stands represents in the broader sense 
of the term a careful record of war activities, limited, of course, 
by the exigencies of space in a compilation of this kind. 

It is fitting at this time that I should make due acknowledgement 
of the enthusiastic assistance rendered in the preparation of this 
document, in the midst of their regular duties, by officers of the 
Civil Engineer Corps and bureau employees having charge of war 
projects either in the office or in the field. Contributions were re- 
ceived from officers now on bureau duty, as follows : 

Naval Ordnance Plant, South Charleston, W. Va., by Capt. R. E. Baken- 
hus (C. E. C), U. S. N.. assistant chief of the bureau. 

Housing for the Navy, and Shipyard and Industrial Plant Extensions, by 
Rear Admiral H. H. Rousseau (C. E. C), U. S. N. 

Public Worlvs Organization and Station Development at Great Lakes, 
1918, and Construction of the Pearl Harbor Dry Dock, by Commander 
Geo. A. McKay (C. E. C), U. S. N. 

The Lafayette Radio Station, Croix d'Hins, France, by Commander F. H. 
Cooke (C. E. C), U. S. N. 

Radio Stations, Marine Corps Projects, and Fuel Oil Storage, by Com- 
mander E. C. Sherman (C. E. C), U. S. N. R. F. 

Naval Academy Extensions and Emergency Hospital Construction, by 
Commander F. W. Southworth (C. E. C), U. S. N. R. F. 

Dry Docks, by Lieut. Commander H. D. Rouzer (C. E. C). U. S. N. R. F. 

Aviation Stations, by Lieut. K. B. Bragg (C. E. C), U. S. N. 

United States Helium-Production Plant, and Work at Ordnance Stations, 
by Lieut. Willard A. Pollard (C. E. C), U. S. N. 

Contributions from officers in the field were the following: 

Yard Development, Housing, Water Supply, Shipbuilding Dock, and 
Training Camp, Puget Sound, and Training Camp at Seattle, by Capt. 
L. E. Gregory (C. E. C), U. S. N. 


Expansion of the Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, 1917, by Com- 
mander Walter H. Allen (C. E. C), U. S. N. 

Air Stations Abroad, General Discussion, by Commander E. H. Brownell 
(C. E. C), U. S. N., and Commander A. W. K. Billings (C. E. C), U. S. 
N. R. F. (inactive list). 

Corps Activities in Haiti, by Commander E. R. Gayler (C E. C), U. S. N. 

Cori>s Activities in Santo Domingo, separate contributions by Lieut. Com- 
manders Ralph Whitman and R. M. Warfield (C. E. C), U. S. N. 

Corps Activities in the Virgin Islands, by Lieut. Commander Gaylord 
Church (C. E. C.),U. S. N. 

Five Naval Air Stations in the Vicinity of Brest, France, and Fuel Oil 
Storage Abroad, by Lieut. C. P. Conrad (C. E. C), U. S. N. (resigned). 

Training Camps at Pelham and City Park, N. Y., by Commander E. C. 
Brown (C. E. C), U. S. N. R. F. (inactive list). 

Fleet Supply Base, South Brooklyn, N. Y., by Commander E. S. Nugent 
(C. E. C), U. S. N. R. F. (inactive list). 

Naval Air Station at Chatham, Mass., Naval Training Station at Cod- 
dington Point, Newport, R. I., and Aviation Assembly and Repair Base 
at Eastleigh, England, by Lieut. Commander F. N. BoUes (C. E. C), 
U. S. N. R. F. (inactive list). 

Contributions by civilian members of the bureau were as follows : 

Power Plants, by Mr. L. W. Bates, project manager. 

Maintenance and Operating Division of the Bureau, by Mr. Wm. M. 
Smith, head of division. 

Personnel in General, by Mr. E. W. Whitehorne, chief clerk. 

Technical Personnel, by Mr. Chas. Morgan, chief draftsman. 

Naval Training Camps, by Mr. C. E. Hall. 

General Development of Yards and Stations, Storage Facilities, Ship- 
building and Repair Facilities, and Gun Shop, Washington, D. C, by 
Mr. R. F. Bessey. 

Submarine Bases, Emergency Fuel Depots, and General Yard Develop 
ment, by Mr. L. H. Sinclair. 

Bureau Organization, Civil Engineer Corps, U. S. N., Potomac Park Of- 
fice Buildings, Aviation Stations, and Dry Docks, by Mr. T. J. Mosley. 

Naval Proving Ground and Powder Factory at Indianhead, Md., by Mr. 
W. D. Kneessi. 

Civil Engineer Corps, U. S. N. R. F., and Appointments to Civil En- 
gineer Corps, U. S. N., by Mr. L. A. Morrison. 

Construction Division of the Bureau, by Mr. E. H. May, head of division, 
and Messrs. S. L. Ward well, R. S. Hart, R. J. Potbury, and H. A. 

The chief of bureau has acted as editor of this history, aided by 
Capt. Bakenhus, assistant chief. Mr. T. J. Mosley has reviewed the 
manuscrijDts, Mr. William Partridge has had charge of the illustra- 
tions, and Miss Edna L. Bemis has prepared the bulk of the contri- 
butions for the press. 

Very respectfully, 

C. W. Parks, Chief of Bureau. 
Tiio hcmorable Josephus Daniels, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



* Introduction 17 

* Chapter I. The Bureau of Yards and Docks 21 

'** II. The Corps of Civil Engineers, United States Navy 33 

III. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md 37 

IV. Naval training camps 41 

V. Marine Corps projects 93 

VI. Emergency hospital construction 97 

VII. General development of yards and stations 129 

VIII. Shipbuilding and repair facilities 355 

IX. Shipyard and industrial plant extensions 215 

X. Dry docks - 237 

XI. Power plants 255 

XII. Public works at ordnance stations 279 

XIII. Armor and projectile plants, Charleston, W. Va 301 

XIV. Storage facilities 317 

XV. Storage for fuel oil 359 

XVI. Radio stations 365 

XVII. Submarine bases 381 

XVIII. Shore facilities for aviation 395 

XIX. United States Helium-Production Plant 437 

XX. Activities of the Corps of Civil Engineers in the West Indies 449 

XXI. Construction Division of the bureau 455 

XXII. Maintenance and Operating Division of the bureau 463 

XXIII. Emergency office buildings, Potomac Park, Washington 479 

XXIV. Housing for the Navy 495 


Air Stations abroad. United States Naval: Page. 

Graphical representation of certain classes of construction at 423 

Location map 420 

Types of standard portable buildings for 424 

Akron, Ohio : 

Navy extension to works of Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. ; machine 

shop 225 

Alexandria, Va. : 

Torpedo assembly plant; seaplane view 286 

Anacostia, D. C, Naval Air Station : 

Existing plan, showing temporary buildings 403 

Permanent plan 403 

Annapolis, Md., Naval Academy: 

Bancroft Hall extension, east wing 30 

Plot plan 36 

Power plant, 750-kilowatt turbo-generator as installed in 272 

Seaplane view Fronti-spiece. 

Seamanship and Navigation Building 39 

Arcachon, France : 

United States Naval Air Station ; seaplane view 428 

Bay Ridge (Brooklyn), N. Y. : 

Receiving Ship Barracks; general view 60 

Boston, Mass., Navy Yard : 

Foundry, first extension 173 

Foundry, second extension 173 

General storehouse 319 

Brooklyn, N. Y. : 

Armed-guard camp. City Park ; general view 60 

Naval Hospital — 

Building " F " 117 

Emergency buildings> : 116 

Plot plan 116 

Supply Base. (See South Brooklyn.) 
Buffalo, N. Y. : 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporntion (Ltd.) ; turbine shop 231 

Camden, N. J. : 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Navy extension to plant of 226 

C;ipe May, N. J. : 

Naval Air Station — 

Barracks for 200 men 410 

Seaplane hangars, curve-truss, sliding-door type 406 

Seaplane hangar, straight-truss type 405 

Seaplane view of 398 

Typical dirigible hangar 409 



Cape May, N. J.- — Continued. 

Emergency Hospital — Pago. 

Isolation ward 124 

Plot plan of - 124 

Wissahickon Barracks; interior view of quarters 63 

Charleston, S. C. : 
Naval Hospital — 

Plot plan 102 

Ward buildings, showing connecting covered walk 102 

Naval Training Camp — 

General view 72 

Typical barrack 72 

Navy Yard — 

Lumber-storage building No. 1022 335 

Lumber-storage building No. 1078 335 

Marine railway, cradle ashore 212 

Marine railway, cradle submerged 212 

Pattern shop 174 

Charleston, W. Va. : 

Administration building, armor and projectile plants 308 

General view of armor and projectile plants 314 

Plot plan of armor and projectile plants 303 

Armor plant — 

Forge and furnace building, north aisle 308 

Forge and furnace building, press room 311 

Forge and furnace building, south aisle 311 

Machine shop, main aisle 312 

Machine shop, south aisle 312 

Open-hearth building, charging floor 307 

Open-hearth building, pouring aisle 307 

Projectile plant — 

General view 304 

Machine shop 304 

Chelsea, Mass., Naval Hospital: 

Seaplane view of, showing emergency units 99 

Solarium end of ward buildings 105 

Ward building 105 

Coco Solo, Canal Zone : 

Naval Air Station ; plan of 401 

Submarine Base — 

Executive officer's quarters .- 392 

Seaplane view of Submarine Base and Air Station 391 

Typical tropical barracks for 200 men 391 

Constable Hook, N. J., emergency fuel depot : 

Delivery of coal to barge 350 

Hulette unloader 349 

Loading train for delivery of coal to barges 350 

Mead-Morrison coal unloader 349 

Erie, Pa. : 

Erie Forge Co. ; general view of Navy extension to plant of 222 

Fort Worth, Tex., United States Helium-Production Plant : 

Bird's-eye view 439 

. Compressor building, interior view 444 

Plot plan of plant 440 

Separation building, interior view ; 444 



Foundry for industrial yard, bureau layout for 182 

Great Lakes, 111., Naval Training Station : 

Plan of 'J'6 

Plot plan of hospital reservation l-"> 

General, typical, bureau design :'>-" 

Guipavas, France, United States Naval Air Station : 

Dirigible hangar ■t;^>l 

Seaplane view of station 431 

Hampton Roads, Va., Naval Operating Base: 

East Camp — 

Barrack group_- 67 

Boiler plant '1 

Drill hall "1 

Laundry and galley 68 

Plan of East Camp . 60 

Post office 68 

Typical barracks : 67 

General development — 

Aviation .station showing utilization of lagoon 138 

Bulkheads along Boush Creek 134 

Bulkheads for aviation pier 134 

Concrete sheet-pile protection of existing bulkhead walls of 

lagoon 138 

Filling behind bulkhead 133 

General plan showing improvements to 1920 140 

General plan of site, 1917 140 

Merchandise pier, bulkhead fill not made 137 

Pier No. 3 137 

West bulkhead before filling 133 

Industrial boiler plant 266 

Naval Air Station — 

Barracks and mess hall 410 

Barracks and mess hall, view of court 410 

Kite-balloon hangar 409 

Seaplane hangars; curve-truss, sliding-door type 4(10 

Seaplane hangars; straight-truss, rolling-door type 405 

Seaplane view of 399 

Naval Hospital — 

Plot plan 121 

Type of emergency hoi^iiital construction ^-u 

Ward buildings 121 

Ward interior 122 

Storage, etc. — 

Aircraft storehouse (three-story) 334 

Cold-storage warehouse and ice plant 330 

Design of cold-storage plant 330 

Fleet supply station group 345 

One of two 1,400-foot merchandise piers 336 

One-story general storehouse 325 

Six-story general storehouses, building 101 323 

Six-story general storehouses, building 103 323 

Submarine Base; construction of pier at south of basin 392 


Haugars, typical : Page. 

Details of seaplane-liangar framing, straiglit-truss, 75-foot span 408 

Elevation of standard curve truss, 112-foot span, for seaplane hangar 408 

Elevation of standard 151-foot seaplane hangar 408 

Hoboken, N. J. : 

Stevens Institute ; Steam Engineering School 62 

Hospital bases, east and west coasts, prewar design for 98 

Indianhead, Md., Naval Proving Ground and Smokeless Powder Factory : 

Blending tower 294 

Soda storehouses , 293 

Turbo-generator, 7,500-kilovolt-ampere, in power plant 276 

Key West, Fla. : 

Seaplane view of Naval Air Station 400 

Lafayette Radio Station. Croix d'Hins, France : 

Ensemble of completed towers 378 

Erection tower in process of construction 374 

Erection tower in service 377 

General layout, showing camp and construction plant 368 

Individual tower with panel points indicated 373 

Post-armistice erection, showing use of gin pole on upper panels of 

tower 377 

Tower footings as designed by French engineers 378 

Lamberts Point, Va., Bunkering Depot: 

DeMayo elevator installation, Pier 4 353 

Mitchnei* elevators, stream fueling barge, and escalade in operation. 

Pier 4 353 

Machine shop for industrial yard, bureau layout for 182 

Mare Island, Calif., Navy Yard : 

Boat-storage building (timber) 333 

Boiler installation at power plant 275 

Causeway connecting with mainland 151 

Causeway connecting with mainland ; bascule bridge raised 151 

Double slip for destroyer construction 196 

Electrical storehouse 346 

Floating crane (150-ton) 209 

Structural shop 168 

Navy yard, ideal type 130 

New London, Conn., Submarine Base : 

Battery-overhaul building 387 

Elevated and underground distributing systems 269 

Engine room of power plant, showing mechanical equipment 269 

Industrial group 387 

Officers' quarters 389 

Panorama of base 383 

Plan of base 384 

Shore accommodations for submarine crews 388 

Torpedo shop 388 

Typical barracks for .500 men 389 

New Orleans, La., Naval Hospital : 

Administration building 107 

Plot plan 107 

Ward buildings 108 


Newport News. Va. : 

Bunkering Depot — Page. 

DeMayo elevators in operation 354 

Derricks for supporting DeMayo elevators 354 

Navy extension to plant of Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock 

Plan 222 

Ship fabricating shed ^ 222 

Newport, II. I. : 

Naval Hospital — 

Contagious wards 106 

Plot plan 106 

Naval Torpedo Station; power plant 266 

Naval Training Station — 

Temporary barracks 50 

Temporary barracks and permanent construction 50 

New York, N. Y., Navy Yard : 

Double shipbuilding slips 191 

General plans of shipbuilding slip No. 1, as reconstructed 19S 

General storehouse 320 

Interior of extension to heavy machine shop 179 

Light machine and electrical .shop nearing completion 179 

Structural shop 166 

Structural shop, partial interior view 166 

(See also Brooklyn.) 
Norfolk, Va. : 

Naval Hospital — 

Emergency buildings ' 108 

Main hospital and emergency group 111 

Plot plan 111 

Type of emergency hospital construction 126 

Naval Magazine, St. Juliens Creek ; torpedo storehouse 285 

Navy Yard— 

Battleship-building slip — 

General view 187 

Launching of destroyers 188 

Cranes — 

Auxiliary htting-out cran&s nearing completion 205 

Floating crane (150-ton) 210 

Locomotive crane (oO-ton), Dry Dock No. 4 206 

Dry docks — 

Dry Dock No. 4, plan and sections 238 

Dry Dock No. 4, U. S. S. Wisconsin entering '_ 241 

Dry Dock No. 6, before first flooding ceremonial, looking 

toward head end 242 

Dry Dock No. 7 242 

Dry docks with vessels docked 241 

Fitting-out pier; general plans 198 

General development — 

Construction of concrete retaining wall 142 

Quay wall construction, jetting of concrete piles in fore- 
ground 142 

Schmoele tract after development , 141 

Schnioele tract before development 141 


Norfolk, Va. — Continued. 

Navy yard — Continued. Page. 

Power plant, view from south 258 

Battery of boilers 258 

Reciprocating air compressor 272 

Shops — 

Foimdry 171 

Machine shop. 177 

Machine shop, interior of main aisle 177 

Steel-storage shed 165 

Structural shop 165 

Organization of Bureau of Yards and Docks, chart of 24 

Painiboeuf, France, United States Naval Air Station : 

Canvas dirigible hangar 428 

Frame dirigible hangar, early construction view 427 

Frame dirigible hangar, late construction view 427 

Parris Island, S. C. : 

Marine Barracks ; emergency hospital buildings, showing wards and 

solarium 122 

Pauillac, France, United States Naval Air Station : 

Seaplane hangars 432 

Seaplane view of portion of station 432 

Pearl Harbor. Hawaii, Naval Station : 
Dry Dock No. 1— 

Admitting water through caisson for testing pumps 250 

General view during construction, showing sections in place 250 

General view of interior from head end 246 

Interior view after first pumping 245 

Pump well after launching from floating dock 249 

Pump well before launching from floating dock 249 

A'iew of completed structure at formal opening 246 

Pelham Bay Park, N. T. : 
Naval Hospital — 

Plot plan 112 

Surgical ward 112 

Naval Training Camp — 

Administration building and unit " N " 53 

Partial view of camp 54 

Pensacola, Fla., Naval Air Station : 

Concrete retaining wall for pier 152 

Pier, dredging, and fiUing-in progress 152 

Seaplane view of station 413 

Personnel, Bureau of Yards and Docks: 

Commissioned, enlisted, and civilian personnel of the Bureau of 

Yards and Docks at the time of the armistice 26 

Executive personnel of the bureau, commissioned and civilian 23 

Organization chart of bureau 24 

Personnel, technical, of bureau, chart showing variation of 29 

Philadelphia, Pa. : 

Naval Hospital, Grays Ferry Road — 

Plot plan 123 

Ward buildings 123 

Naval Hospital, League Island — 

Plot plan 101 

Wards and subsistence building 101 


Philadelphia, Pa. — Continued. 
Navy Yard — 

Cranes— ^"^®- 

Construction view .S.")U-ton fittinji-out ci-iine ~0l 

Fitting-out cranes, 350-ton and auxiliary 205 

Locomotive cranes (50-ton), for Dry Dock No. 3 210 

Otticial test of H.'iO-ton tilliiiy-out crane 202 

Twenty-five-ton locomotive crane on elevated trestle 475 

Dry Dock No. 3 under construction 245 

Emergency barracks for recruits 63 

General views — 

Looking east from radio tower 144 

Looking west from radio tower 145 

Power plant — 

Ash-removal system 257 

Coal-handling installation 182 

General view showing coal and ash handling plant 257 

Generator-room end of plant 181 

Overhead coal bunkers 182 

View taken from crane runway of shipbuilding slip 181 

Shipbuilding slips Nos. 2 and 3 — 

Inboard view 186 

Outboard view 185 

Slip No. 2; general plans 198 

Shops — 

FoundiT 1T2 

Foundry, interior view 172 

Machine shop and " extension " 178 

Machine-shop extension, main aisle interior 178 

Pattern shop and storage building 174 

Plate shop, interior 167 

Structural shop 167 

Structural shop and .shipbuilding slips 145 

Structural shop, mold loft 168 

Storehouses — 

Advance-base storehouse for Marine Corps . 346 

Boat and general storagQ building, partial interior 333 

Emergency storehouse 329 

Portsmouth, N. H. : 
Naval Hospital — 

Plot plan 104 

Psychiatric wards 104 

Navy Yard — 

Lumber-storage building 336 

Submarine-building slips 196 

Power plant for indu.strial yard, bureau layout for 182 

Providence, K. I. : 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation (Ltd.) ; boiler shop 231 

Puget Sound, Wash., Navy Yard : 
General storehouse — 

Exterior 325 

Interior view, ground floor 326 

Interior view, top floor 32G 


Puget Sound, Wash., Navy Yard — Continued. 

Grading and filling operations^ Page- 
Filling operation in progress 147 

Filling operation in progress, sliowing extension of shore line — 147 

General view of operation 148 

Grading operation completed, slope protection 148 

Shipbuilding dock — 

Construction view showing caisson 392 

General view showing U. S. S. Pyro under construction 192 

General plans 198 

Power plant — 

Boiler installation 275 

Turbo-alternator 276 

Temporary general storehouse 329 

River Rouge, Mich., works of Ford Motor Co. : 

Building " B," Navy extension to plant 225 

Plan showing Navy extensions 224 

Rockaway, L. I. : 

Seaplane view of Naval Air Station 397 

San Diego, Calif. : 

Marine Corps Base — 

Bird's-eye view 95 

General layout 94 

Parade ground 96 

Naval Air Station — 

Administration building 415 

Barracks No. 2 416 

Commanding officer's quarters 416 

Dirigible hangar 418 

Plan of station 414 

Seaplane hangar 415 

Student officers' quarters . 416 

South Brooklyn, N. Y., Fleet Supply Base: 

Eight-story storehouses, power plant, and construction office 340 

Storehouses S-1 and S-2, with power plant 339 

Squantum, Mass., destroyer plant: 

(General view during construction 219 

Interior view of wet slip 220 

Shore end of building slips 219 

Wet slips and building slips 220 

Torpedo racks and crane, typical, as designed by the bureau 285 

Training camps, naval, as completed during emergency period, chart 

showing 81 

Transportation facilities at navy yards: 

Adaptation of yard truck and semitrailer for boat haulage 477 

Typical yard crane truck for heavy weights 472 

Typical yard crane truck handling life raft 472 

Typical yard 5-ton locomotive crane 476 

Typical yard 5-ton truck and trailer 477 

Typical yard locomotive and dump cars 476 

Typical yard locomotive crane 475 

Typical yard motor street sweeper 471 

Typical yard 7-ton back-dumping truck 47J 

37022—21 2 


Wards Island, N. Y., Emergency Hospital: Pae*- 

Nurses' quarters 11" 

Plot plan of hospital 118 

Seaplane view of hospital 99 

Wash in -ton, D. C. : 

Eniorjrenc'.v office buildinjrs for Navy and War Departments, Potomac 

IMrd's-eye view 481 

Curves showing labor displacement 491 

Perspective of Navy unit 484 

Typical floor plan of Navy unit 485 

Naval Hospital, emergency buildings — 

Types of construction (two plans) 126 

View of eastern group 115 

View of western group 115 

Navy Yard — 

Storehouses — 

Design of general storehouse 324 

General storehouse group 324 

Interior of general storehouse 324 

Shops — 

Gun shop 294 

Machine shop 299 

Pattern shop 299 

DOCKS, WORLD WAR, 1917-18. 



The public works of the Navy comprise practically all construction 
of shore establishments, such as dr}^ docks, marine railways, ship- 
building ways, harbor works, floating and stationarj^ cranes, power 
plants, coaling plants, ]:)ridges, streets and grounds, radio towers, 
aviation stations; heating, lighting, telephone, sewer, and transpor- 
tation systems : and all buildings, for wdiatever purpose needed, under 
the Navy and Marine Corps. 

Since the passage of the naval appropriation act of April 4, 1911, 
the Bureau of Yards and Docks has been charged with the design and 
construction of the public works and public utilities of the Navy, 
wherever located, and irrespective of the bureau or office of the Navy 
Department which may use or operate them and the appropriation 
or fund from which their cost may be defrayed. 

Until the United States entered the World War such public works 
were confined to the United States and its possessions, but later it 
became necessary to provide public works in countries with which the 
United States Avas associated in carrying on the war. 

The groAvth of the Navy in materiel and in personnel during 1917 
and 1918 M-as phenomenal, and public works required on account of 
this increase cost several times as much as the total value of those 
Avorks existing at the time of entering the Avar. 

The develo])ment of the shore investment in public works AAas quite 
marked immediatel}^ after the Spanish War, but the j)ace set imme- 
diately after that Avar Avas relaxed, and in 1917 the shore establishment 
Avas inadequate for the demands then throAvn upon it. The Bunce 
Board in 1897 had pointed out the inadequacy of existing dry docks 
and proposed a program of dry-dock construction, naming some as 
immediately necessary and others that should be built later. The 
present chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks was recorder of that 
board, and has followed dry-dock construction with the greatest inter- 
est in view of information acquired during the sitting of the board. 



The Hon. John D. Lon^ij, who was then Secretary of the Navy, acted 
promptly on the report of the board, and the Con<rress was so favor- 
ably impressed that appropriations were almost immediately made 
for the construction of four large graving docks and a large steel 
floating dock. Notwithstanding this and later congressional action 
in providing for other docks, the number that the board had found 
to be immediately needed was not completed and ready for use until 
1919, when the Pearl Harbor Dock was completed. 

In 1897 the value of all public works in the then existing 18 navy 
3'ards and naval stations was $53,000,000. The dry docks and build- 
ings were small and old, and were more suited to the repair of the 
ships of 1860 to 1870 than for the " white squadron " of the eighties. 
The buildings were inadequately heated and lighted ; they were almost 
devoid of cranes, and the poAver facilities were insufficient. 

For many years after steam propelling engines had been installed 
in naval ships, most cruising was under sail, and steam was used as 
little as possible. A few coal sheds, without mechanical equipment, 
had been provided for storing the small amount of coal that the Navy 
carried in stock. Shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish War the 
need for modern and adequate coal storage became urgent, and the 
Belknap Board made a study of the requirements and recommended 
that plants with mechanical equipment be built at several points along 
the coast. 

In 1897 the largest ships had a mean draft of less than 25 feet, and 
one officer predicted that future naval ships would have a draft of 
not more than 26 feet, since a greater draft w^ould limit the number 
of harbors that such ships could enter. The vessels then built had not 
made deep channels and deep berths necessary, and the berths at most 
of the navy yards were not suitable for ships of greater draft. 

In 1898 steps were taken to provide modern shops, a better water 
front, more dry docks, and improved coaling facilities. Within the 
next few years the advance in all of these lines was marked. 

These improvements made it necessary to increase the several 
power plants in the navy yards, and it soon became apparent that 
there was a large duplication in generating apparatus and in dis- 
tributing systems. To overcome this lack of economy, the naval act 
of April 27, 1904, provided for centralizing all power plants and 
distributing systems under the cognizance of the Bureau of Yards 
and Docks, and, in accordance with this law, a central power plant, 
serving all activities, has been established in each navy yard and 
naval station. 

The principles established as the result of investigation just prior 
to and during the Spanish War laid the foundation for the tre- 
mendous developments of the World War, and this was simply an 
expansion and not the inauguration of new prinfiplos. 


In 1913, at the beginning of the present administration, the value 
of the public works at the then existing navy yards and naval sta- 
tions was $191,000,000, This shows a large increase in shore facili- 
ties since the year of the Spanish War, but does not show a growth 
commensurate with that of the fleet. 

During the same period a great advance had been made in the 
establishment of radio stations, and by 1913 about 30 important ones 
were in use. 

After the beginning of the World War, in 1914, a careful survey of 
the resources of the United States was made, and it was shown that 
if this country should be drawn into the war it would be necessary 
to make immense additions to the fleet, the naval shore facilities, and 
to the merchant marine. The great naval three-year program of 
1916 provided for the expansion of the fleet, and provision was made 
for other necessary things. When the country was at last drawn 
into the war, the desirable preparations had not been made but, by 
one of the most complete mobilizations of the whole personnel and 
material resources of the country that had ever been undertaken, 
rapid progress was made, and the armistice of November 11, 1918, 
was brought about by the speed at which the country produced ships 
and every other feature required for the rapid carrying on of war. 
During this period the public works of the Navy increased in value 
from about $211,000,000 to $469,000,000. 

To expedite the construction of destroyers and other naval vessels, 
extensions were made at the plants of private shipbuilders and ma- 
chinery manufacturers at a cost of about $70,000,000; and much 
emergency construction was carried out in the countries of the allies 
and associates in the war. It will be noted that the expenditures for 
public works of all kinds carried out under the supervision of the 
Bureau of Yards and Docks during the years of the war were more 
than the total expenditure that had been made at all navy yards and 
naval stations during the preceding 125 years. 

In the following pages there will be given a more detailed state- 
ment of the work accomplished, and of the organization of the 
Bureau of Yards and Docks and of the Corps of Civil Engineers of 
the Navy, under whose direction the projects were planned and 



Prior to July 1, 1916, the bureau consisted of a chief of bureau, a 
chief clerk who acted as chief during the absence of the chief of 
bureau, a small number of civil engineers of the N'a\y, and a civilian 
personnel of 59 men and 4 women. While this force had never been 
large enough to do in the bureau all work that should have been 
done there, it became evident in 1916 that the bureau organization 
should be greatly enlarged and that the subordinates should have 
more definitely assigned duties and responsibilities. 

The act of August 29, 1916, created the office of assistant to the 
chief of bureau, and Commander A. L, Parsons (C. E. C), United 
States Navy, was appointed to fill this office. His first duty was to 
prepare a plan of organization better to systematize the work of the 

Organization of Noveniber i, 1916. — After considerable study, a 
bureau order was promulgated as of November 1, 1916, embodying 
a scheme of organization which can now be considered merely as a 
stepping-stone between two periods of history. By this scheme the 
chief of the bureau, in general command of all work under the 
bureau's cognizance, had two assistants acting under his personal 
direction and independent of all other offices. These were a private 
secretary and an engineering secretary in charge of data files, library, 
and specially assigned technical research work. 

The bureau's other functions were distributed among the following 
six " divisions " : 

(«) Office of Assistant Chief of Bureau. 

(5) Division of Mechanical, Electrical, and Routine Design. 

((?) Division of Special Design and Projects. 

{d) Construction Division. 

[e) Maintenance and Operating Division. 

(/) Clerical Division. 

The general duties of the assistant chief of bureau were to exercise 
supervision of all correspondence, to prepare the annual estimates 
for submission to Congress, to supervise organization and office 



methods, to coordinate the internal work of the bureau, to supervise 
the general development of yards and stations, and to act in all 
respects as the special representative and deputy of the chief. 

The principal defects of this organization were (a) insufficient 
specialization in the two design divisions; (b) overlapping of func- 
tions; (c) inadequacy of function, as where an integral activity was 
carried half-and-half between two divisions; {d) building the duties 
of a division to fit the various acquired proficiencies of the division's 
chosen head. 

O'rganization of March ^6, 1917 — Project managers. — These de- 
fects Avere in large part corrected by the organization order issued 
just 11 days before war was actually declared. This scheme of 
organization introduced a new vital factor, the real center of the 
bureau's operations now and the foundation for any future expan- 
sion — the project manager. 

First, however, as to divisions. The six provided under the organi- 
zation of November 1 were reduced to three : {a) The Design Di- 
vision; {h) the Construction Division; (c) the Maintenance, Op- 
erating, and Clerical Division. The Design Division combined the 
functions of the two previous divisions of routine and special design, 
under the direction of the assistant chief of bureau, who retained 
general cognizance of office methods, organization, and coordination 
of work. The Maintenance, Operating, and Clerical division was an 
amalgamation of the fifth and sixth divisions of the former scheme, 
and was placed wholly under the supervision of the then chief clerk, 
the commissioned officer previously in charge of maintenance and op- 
erating functions being relieved as needed for engineering responsi- 
bility. The Construction Division alone remained unchanged and 
was still under the direction of an officer of the corps. 

It was in the Design Division that the fundamental change was 
made. It is in the creative function of design, comprising calcula- 
tion, drafting, estimating, specifying, that the bureau manifests its 
true individuality. In the day of smaller things a limited drafting 
force could be shifted from class to class of projects ; an experienced 
(iffir-er could oversee the execution of various types of design at con- 
venience; as late as November, 1916, two groupings of the design 
function were considered a sufficient specialization. Now the mill 
was turning faster. Xew projects were croi)ping \\\) overnight, old 
ones Aveiv taking a wider scope. Engineering specialists were being 
called in to handle particular problems ; all the officers available for 
bureau duty found their attention absorbed in those construction 
projects in which each was experienced. Specialization, in the bu- 
icaii as tlnoiiglioiit the Nation, was the demand of the hour. 



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The distribution of work then effected among the seven project 
managers was the following : 

(0) New naval bases and development of existing bases. 

{b) Radio. Marine Corps, and fuel-oil station projects; construction for 

the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery; routine design; dry docks; 

power plant, Washington yard ; subsurface surveys. 

(c) Shipbuilding plants and improvements related thereto; gun shop, 


(d) Armor plant and projectile plant, South Charleston, ^Y. Va. 

(e) Facilities for aviation and submarines; patrol stations. 
if) Ordnance facilities ; storehouses. 

(g) Construction at Naval Academy; Research and Experimental Labo- 
ratory ; duties of executive officer in charge of design division 
(assistant chief of bureau). 

It is to be noted that by this time each project manager was pro- 
vided with a civilian assistant who was required to familiarize him- 
self with all aspects of the projects in hand so as to be able to carry 
forward the work in the absence of the manager. Thus was the 
specialization of project groups clearly demarked; heads of divisions 
were no longer expected to relieve one another. 

Organization, October, 1917 , to armistice. — Organization instruc- 
tions for the bureau were last printed in Bulletin No. 28, Public 
Works of tlxe Navy, for October, 1917. The scheme was based on 
several amendatory memoranda issued from time to time after March 
26, 1917, and particularly on bureau order No. 121, dated August 6. 
This plan of organization was very full, precise, and practicable, and 
continues in force to the present time essentiall}^ unmodified. 

The number of project sections was increased to 10, as a result 
both of new demands and of a completed functional distribution. 
The training camp section had been established since March to meet 
an unprecedented condition, and was handling a vast amount of work 
at this time. 

The scheme of project assignments was as follows : 

(a) Dry docks. 

(h) Armor and projectile plant. 

(c) Naval Academy. 

(d) Magazines and general ordnance facilities. 

(e) Aviation and submarine bases. 

(O Shipbuilding and yard development projects. 

(*7) Marine Corps, fuel oil, radio, and routine projects. 

(/() Hospitals. 

(i) Power plants. 

(;■) Training camps. 

An information office, formerly under the clerical division, was 
transferred to the construction division with its functions explicitly 



I Files 
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/Augtjsf - 1918 


^^ 1 


defined. Its most important duty was (and is) to furnish the con- 
nection between the bureau and the building industry. Files of plans 
and specifications under advertisement were placed under its custody, 
to be kept in convenient form for the inspection of prospective 
bidders, materialmen, and subcontractors. Data as to work on hand, 
in prospect, or completed, was to be kept available by this office, and 
other information concerning the bureau's work in general. This 
section rendered a vital service during the most strenuous days by 
relieving the executive chiefs of a mass of inquiries and discussions 
essential to the execution of contracts. 

The organization of the bureau as it existed in August, 1918, was 
substantially as outlined above, and is represented in the accompany- 
ing chart. The 10 project sections enumerated are shown as 9 
because of the fact that 2 complete sections (ordnance and avia- 
tion-submarine projects) were in charge of a single project manager. 
The Naval Academy projects are represented as a secondary activity 
of the assistant chief. A few temporary added functions; such as 
housing, are charted. These found their places as demands arose. 
The bureau's relation to the Housing Corporation was advisory only, 
and had to do with the accommodation of employees under the shore 
establishment in congested districts. 


In March, 1917, the department authorized the enrollment of both 
men and w^omen in the United States Naval Reserve Force, and the 
bureau considerably augmented its force through this medium. The 
maximum number of reservists assigned to this bureau was reached 
in November, 1918, at which time the records showed the employment 
of 197 men and 121 women, the women reservists being enrolled to 
cover the shortage of male employees caused by enlistment and con- 
scription, and to perform the work of men. 

Under the approval of the President on April 30, 1917, of an 
allotment to the department from the appropriation " National 
Security and Defense," contained in the deficiency act approved 
April 17, 1917, for the employment of experts and high-grade civilian 
assistants, the bureau brought into its service in a civilian capacity 
during the time of the emergency a maximum of 24 engineers of 
high standing in their profession. To these employees the bureau 
assigned duties of a very high grade and placed on them much 


There follows a comparative statement of the bureau's personnel, 
exclusive of officers, as it existed before the World War and at its 
conclusion, when the force was at its maximum : 

1 July 1, 1916. 

Feb. 3, 1917. 

Nov. 11, 1918. 

Cleri- Tech- 
1 cal. nical. 



Cleri- Tech- Miscel- 
cal. nical. laneous.j 

Cleri- i 

132 1 
167 i 

Tech- 1 



W omen 

10 43 


i : 

14 95 7 


354 , 



Total (bureau) 





As an indication of the increase in volume. of business during the 
war, it may be mentioned at this point that the daily average num- 
ber of letters handled by the bureau's correspondence files during 
July, 1918, was 700 ; the corresponding figure for July, 1916, was 50. 

In addition to official duties performed by the civilian personnel, 
much work of a special character was done by them in the interest of 
the various " drives " which were launched during the war. A brief 
resume in recognition of the effort expended in this class of work 
would not seem to be irrelevant when we consider the relationship 
which the results of these activities — that is to say, money and com- 
fort — bear to the successful prosecution of war. 

The civilian employees of the bureau took an active part in the 
conduct of the Liberty loan campaigns, and to them is due in a 
great measure the bureau's success in these drives. For purposes 
of canvassing the bureau for subscriptions to these loans in what 
appeared the most expeditious manner, its organization was divided 
into classes, embracing both officers and civilians, and each class 
was assigned to an independent subscription agent; these agents 
numbered eight, and three of them were women. Owing to their in- 
terest in this work, their patriotic viewpoint and pleasing address, 
coupled with a natural tendency and willingness on the part of the 
bureau's personnel to contribute to the loans, these agents met with 
remarkable success in their work. Special attention is invited to 
the fifth or Victory loan, at which time the bureau went " over the 
top." The daily bulletins issued by the Liberty loan officer for the 
department revealed the fact that this bureau alone accomplished this 

The splendid results achieved in these campaigns were due not only 
lo the efforts of the bureau's agents, but also to the hearty coopera- 
tion on the part of the entire force, both officers and civilians, and 
the high standard of the morale. 

During the period of the war the bureau disposed of war savings 
and thrift stamps to the value of $40,030.23 through its authorized 


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Each of the drives in the bureau for contributions to the Red 
Cross was conducted by women employees, who were very active in 
this cause. Their efforts met with very considerable success, and 
contributions were secured from a majority of the officers and em- 
ployees. Many of the women of the bureau were closely associated 
with the Red Cross, and contributed much of their time and skill to 
club work engaged in by that organization for the purpose of pro- 
viding wearing apparel, such as sweaters, socks, etc., for the boys 
of the Navy. This work was entirely voluntary, and resulted in 
very material increase in comfort of the enlisted force of the Navy. 

The drive for contributions to the Salvation Army was partici- 
pated in by the department, and this bureau appointed a representa- 
tive to solicit subscriptions and make collections. The campaign 
was quite successful and resulted in generous contributions by the 
bureau employees. 


The need for the preparation of the bureau's organization to re- 
ceive large volumes of work became apparent early in 1916. The 
work of securing additional quarters began soon afterwards and was 
successfully continued throughout the war as demands increased. 
The matter of obtaining additional technical men proved, however, 
to be the real problem, and one which was destined to tax resourceful- 
ness to the utmost. The first requests on tue Civil Service Commis- 
sion for lists of eligibles met with excellent results, and men were 
obtained quite readily. As the demand for technical assistance grew, 
however, both within the Government service and in the commer- 
cial world, the eligible lists were soon exhausted, with but a small 
percentage of necessary forces secured. It became evident that the 
custom of the Civil Service Commission of holding competitive as- 
sembled examinations had become impracticable in view of the ac- 
celerating requirements. This condition was overcome by inaugu- 
rating the nonassembled examination, which permitted the applicant 
to receive a rating and a permanent appointment solely upon state- 
ments made in his application. This letting down of the bars fa- 
cilitated access into Government service, and application papers 
were filed in the Civil Service Commission so rapidly that it was im- 
possible for their corps of examiners to pass primarily upon each 
application. Requests for additional technical assistants resulted in 
the delivery of hundreds of unmarked applications, thus resulting in 
the task of rating the individual being shifted to the bureau. After 
the assignment of temporary ratings the papers were returned to 
the Civil Service Commission and the markings were reviewed by 
them. After approval certain of the applicants were selected from 


the list thus created and vrere offered positions. All difficulties in 
obtaining employees did not end, however, at this point. Many of 
those who were tendered appointments never responded. Some had 
enlisted for service in the war, some had secured more lucrative com- 
mercial employment, and some negotiated for higher pay, Avhich was 
seldom offered to them. 

The net result was a relatively small percentage of acceptances, 
making the growth of the bureau's force too slow to care for the 
rapidly increasing quantity of work. The supply of applications 
soon became exhausted, thus rendering it necessary to obtain author- 
ity to make temporary appointments, subject to the individual's sub- 
sequently filing an application with the Civil Service Commission 
and sustaining his temporary appointment. This method permitted 
immediate employment of an}^ applicant to a position, and proved 
a most successful and efficient method of securing employees. Many 
excellent men were obtained, and those alread}" emploj'ed were re- 
quested to communicate with their associates in their previous posi- 
tions with a view to having them enter the bureau. Every con- 
ceivable source was drawn upon for assistance. ]Many good drafts- 
men were obtained through the medium of enlistment in the United 
States Xaval Reserve P'orce. Young men and young women who 
enlisted in this branch of the service, and who had drafting ability, 
were given work. The first " draftswoman " that the bureau ever 
employed entered through this medium. The results of these ex- 
pedients in the growth of the technical force are illustrated graphi- 
calh' b}' the accompanying chart, which continues the history of the 
technical personnel up to October 31, 1920. 

The holding of men who were anxious to enlist, after the declara- 
tion of war, proved to be a problem. It finally became so difficult 
that rigid rules were made, and adhered to, which resulted in the 
retention of most of the aspirants for enlistment honors. The Secre- 
tary of the Navy adjudged the work of the department to be essen- 
tial to the maintenance of the first line of defense at home, and dis- 
couraged the enlistment of men who were necessary to the work. 
Some broke away, however, and joined various branches of the 

There were no instances of unfaithfulness to the Government 
among the employees of the bureau. Notwithstanding the fact that 
some of the most important projects involved in the prosecution of 
the war were designed and developed by the technical force, a situa- 
tion which gave ample opportunity for the dissemination of infor- 
mation, no real grounds developed for just suspicion. Close observa- 
tion was kept on the force and every precaution taken against dis- 
lovaltv. The antecedents of the men were inquired into, and their 



habits, both within the office and on the outside, were studied. Al- 
though some were investigated more thoroughly than others, these 
special investigations developed nothing of an irregular nature. 

The conditions under which the technical force labored were ex- 
cellent. Although crowded at times, there were no complaints or dis- 

. i. z < z ^ = 

satisfaction among the men. All practicable provisions were made 
for their convenience and comfort. The rooms were always bright, 
clean, and airy, and to this fact is attributed the excellent health of 
the men during the war period. No cases of serious illness were 
recorded, and no deaths. During the period when the epidemic of 


Spanish influenza threatened to cripple all branches of the Govern- 
ment service, the work of the bureau was not seriously interrupted. 
It so happened that more of the men lost time on account of sick- 
ness in their families than for other reasons. 

There is one feature which contributed much to the successful 
execution of the bureau's work during the war which has not been 
mentioned, namely, the equipping of the technical force, especially 
the draftsmen. Probably no branch of the bureau's activities pro- 
ceeded more smoothly and efficiently than the supply division. 
When the expansion of the force started, a number of drafting 
boards and trestles were obtained. These were used temporarily 
while the regulation equipment was being procured. Too much 
credit can not be given those in charge of the supplies for the re- 
sourcefulness displayed, which resulted in deliveries and no disap- 
pointments. Requests for additional equipment and supplies always 
met with prompt response and delivery. This contributed greatly 
to the high efficiency maintained by the technical force. Miss 
Frances Salisbury had charge of this work under the Clerical Divi- 

Distribution of technical persoimel. — Referring to the account of 
the bureau's organization previously given, it is noted that the 
bureau's activities were separated into sections, each of which had at 
its head a " project manager." Certain assistants were assigned to 
the project manager, who aided him in supervising work in hand. 
To each project section were attached a corps of draftsmen and 
technical men divided into squads, each of which had its squad 
leader. The number of technical men in each section varied from 
1 to as many as 75, while the number in a squad varied from 1 to 8 
or more. Most of the sections finally developed into independent 
and general drafting forces — that is, each contained draftsmen of 
various callings, thus enabling the project manager to undertake and 
complete any assigned project without assistance from other sources. 
The principal sections, and the number of draftsmen included there- 
in on January 1. 1919, are as follows: 


Armor and projectile plant section 16 

Shipbuilding and yard development section 60 

Magazines, storehouses, general ordnance, aviation, and submarine base 

section 73 

Training camp section 16 

Marine Corps, fuel oil, radio, and I'outine section 22 

Hospital section 23 

Dry dock section 5 

Power plant section 27 


If the urgency or volume of work in one section became such as 
to require additional men, they were procured from other sections 
where work would permit their release. Transfers of this nature 
were not always easily accomplished on account of the desire of each 
section head to keep his organization intact. A hearty spirit of co- 
operation, however, prevailed at all times, as a result of which the 
technical employees were placed where they were most needed. The 
outcome of all issues was unfailingly effected with a continuance of 
good feeling and mutual respect among all concerned. The experi- 
ence through which supervisors, as well the men, passed during the 
World War was one which will long be remembered as something 
well worth while and well done. 

37022—21^ 3 


Public works of the Navy are now designed in the bureau under 
the direction of officers of the Corps of Civil Engineers, and con- 
struction in the field is carried out under the direction of officers of 
the same corps. Officers of this corps also serve as public works 
officers at the navy yards and naval stations and have charge of the 
maintenance and rej^air of public works and public utilities. These 
officers have cognizance of projects in almost all branches of engineer- 
ing, and, before appointment, have been obliged to undergo an ex- 
haustive professional examination. The origin and growth of the 
corps is considered of interest. 

The official connection of civil engineers with the Navy dates back 
to an early period of the country's history; the growth of the civil 
engineering force into a commissioned corps of its present strength 
has been a gradual development. 

President Jefferson, years before the Bureau of Yards and Docks 
was established or the corps organized, conceived the idea of the con- 
struction of a huge dry dock capable of accommodating 12 frigates. 
It will be remembered that at this time ships of the line were built 
of wood, and were very small compared with present-day standards. 
Jefferson's idea was to have a tide-water basin from which ships 
could be raised by locks to an upper basin, 24 feet higher. The 
upper basin was to be 800 feet long and 175 feet wide. After the 
water was drained out of it, the ships would be left high and dry. 
Benjamin Henry Latrobe was called in as consultant on this scheme. 
He considered it feasible and executed the drawings, but the project 
failed of accomplishment because a congressional appropriation could 
not be obtained for it. 

The connection of Latrol)e, an eminent civil engineer, with a naval 
sliore project such as the foregoing indicated the essential relation 
between fleet and land construction which has since continually 
grown closer. 

The next notable instance of a similar character occurred within 
the period of administration of the Board of Naval Commissioners, 
with the employment of Loammi Baldwin, jr., on the construction 



of the dry docks at Charlestown (Boston), Mass., and (iosport 
(Norfolk), Ya. Born in Massachusetts in 1780, the third son of 
a colonel in the Continental Army who Avas himself an engineer of 
repute, Loammi Baldwin numbered among his early works a note- 
Avorthy dam on the Union Canal, in Pennsylvania, the construction 
of the Bunker Hill Monument and the water supply system of Bos- 
ton. The Boston and Norfolk dry docks, the great works of his 
life, were built concurrently from identical plans during the years 
1827 to 1834." His assistants were Capt. Alexander Parris and W. P. 
S. Sanger at Boston and Norfolk respectively. The two docks thus 
built are still in commission, unexcelled examples of their era. 

In addition to this Avork, Baldwin was engaged in 1827 as con- 
sulting engineer to a body of commissioners to examine the various 
navy yards and form plans for their future improvement. From 
1826 to 1835 he made surveys of New York Harbor to determine 
the best location for a dry dock. This work, however, was not car- 
ried out until after his death. He furnished complete plans for a 
marine raihvay at Pensacola, Fla. 

The administration of the Board of Naval Commissioners was 
superseded by the bureau system by authority of law in 1842. Only 
five bureaus were at first provided for, the first to be named being a 
" Bureau of Navy Yards and Docks." The personnel of the first 
force of this bureau included W. P. S. Sanger as " Civil Engineer," 
the same Sanger who was Baldwin's ]:»upil and assistant in the con- 
struction of the Norfolk Dry Dock. 

It was not long until civil engineers, attached to the Bureau of 
Yards and Docks, were regularly employed at the various yards as 
well, and in 1858 a series of rules was drawn up for their regulation 
and guidance. These rules defined the duties of the civil engineer 
very much as they have existed to the present time. Until 1867 the 
civil engineers of the Navy retained a strictly civilian status, but in 
that year Congress passed a law providing that the President might 
appoint the civil engineers, such appointment to be confirmed by the 
Senate. This act made the civil engineer a staff officer. Four years 
later Congress provided that civil engineers should be given such 
rank as the President might fix, and limited their number to 10. 

The first civil engineers to be commissioned under the act of 1867 
were : W. P. S. Sanger, F. C. Prindle, B. F. Chandler, F. A. Stratton, 
and Chas. Hastings. On account of his seniority in service, linking 
back into the beginnings of the Navy, AV. P. S. Sanger may be justi- 
fiably considered the first civil engineer of the Navy. 

He retired from active service with the relative rank of captain 
in 1881, and died in Georgetown, D. C, in 1890. He Avas the princi- 
pal engineer in the Bureau of Yards and Docks from its inception to 


the day of his retirement. No naval engineering board Avas complete 
unless he was a member of it. He took a prominent part in the build- 
ing of the Mare Island navy yard and in the development of all 
the others. He shaped the early career of the corps more than any 
other one man connected with it. 

The strength of the corps remained fixed at 10 until long after 
the close of the Civil War, the period from 1867 to 1883 being one 
of pronounced naval inactivity, not to say stagnation. At the out- 
break of the Sjjanish-American War, however, the number of civil 
engineers was increased to 18 through discretionary powers vested 
in President McKinle3^ Further increases were secured through the 
efforts of Rear Admiral Mordecai T. Endicott, Avho was chief of the 
bureau from April 4, 1898, to January 5, 1907. The small corps of 
18 was wholly inadequate to the requirements of an expanding navy, 
and an increase to 40 (28 full civil engineers and 12 assistants) was 
authorized by act of Congress on March 3, 1903. 

The naval act of August 29, 1916, frequently called the prepared- 
ness act, based enrollment in the Corps of Civil Engineers upon the 
percentage of line officers, and thus on the strength of the enlisted 
personnel of the Xavy. This percentage is eight ten-thousandths of 
the total authorized active enlisted strength, but is somewhat less 
than it should be to carry on work satisfactorily for both the Navy 
and the Marine Corps. 

The same act established a Naval Reserve Force and permitted 
the enrollment of civilians in class i, complement of the Naval Re- 
serve Force Civil Engineer Corps. During the spring and summer 
of 1917 several reserve officers were enrolled. In the fall a non- 
assembled examination was held, and from about 7,000 applicants 
an eligible list of 335 candidates Avas established. 

On the date of the armistice the Civil Engineer Corps consisted of 
74 regular officers, 20 temporary officers, and 110 reserve officers. 

Rear Admiral I^ndicott (1898) was the first Chief of the Bureau 
of Yards and Docks to be appointed from the Civil Engineer Corps. 
Before his term of office was completed, the rule was established by 
law (June 29, 1906) that thereafter the chief of the bureau should 
be selected from members of the corps exclusively. The logic of 
such an enactment should be at once apparent. It was further pro- 
vided in the law of August 29, 1916, that an officer of the corps 
might be detailed as assistant to the chief of bureau. 

Rear Admiral Endicott was succeeded as chief of the ])ureau by 
Rear Admiral H. H. Rousseau, who was selected as a Commissioner 
of the Panama Canal less than three months after his appointment. 
Rear Admiral R. C. HoUiday served as chief four years and nine 
months from ^farch 26. 1907. Tender liis administration tlie con- 


solidjition of all public -works of the Navy under the Bureau of 
Yards and Docks was accomplished. 

Rear Admiral H. R. Stanford took office on January 14, 1912, and 
served as chief of the bureau four years. Rear Admiral F. R. Har- 
ris was appointed January 14, 1916. His administration embraced 
the opening period of the Great War, and was marked by an un- 
precedented expansion of the bureau's activities. He resigned to 
become general manager of the Emergency Fleet Corporation, and 
was succeeded by Rear Admiral Charles Wellman Parks, the present 
chief, on January 12. 1918. Capt. R. E. Bakenhus is the present 
assistant chief of the bureau. 


I, Md. 




At the outbreak of the war it was apparent that the training facili- 
ties for officers and men would not care for the large number that 
must be taken into active service. 

Bancroft Hall, the dormitory of the Naval Academy, had been 
designed for 500 midshipmen, but had from time to time been re- 
arranged to accommodate 1,200. Further to increase the dormitory 
accommodations it would be necessary to make additions to Bancroft 
Hall; and, as it was estimated that accommodations should be pro- 
vided for 1,000 more midshipmen, plans were prepared for the 
construction of two new wings. 

The work was authorized by Congress and an appropriation of 
$1,000,000 made on March 4, 1917. A contract was awarded on 
July 13, 1917, for the construction of the two wings. One of the 
wings was occupied in May, 1918. and the second in September, 1918, 
together providing quarters for 1.200 midshipmen and bringing the 
total capacity of the Naval Academy to approximately 2,400 men. 
The east wing and south wing are connected to Bancroft Hall not 
only by interior corridors, but also by a wide terrace surfaced with 
promenade tile, which forms the roof of the mess hall. The terrace 
aifords several entrances to the buildings and provides quick and 
easy access to the dormitories. Considering the fact that the build- 
ings are of reinforced concrete construction with Maine granite 
exterior walls, the time of completion for the work was short. 

The naval act of July 1, 1918, increased the limit of cost of the 
Bancroft Hall extension from $2,270,000 to $2,850,000. Owing to the 
unsettled conditions of the building trades and the excessive and 
constantly rising costs of labor and building materials due to war 
conditions, two additional deficiency appropriations were made. 
The appropriations for the Bancroft Hall extension are summarized 
as follows: 

Act of March 4, 1917 $1,000,000 

Act of July 1, 1918 ^_ 1,850,000 

Act of Feb. 25, 1919 750,000 

Act of July 11, 1919 325,000 

Total 3, 925, 000 



The original classroom and laboratory facilities at the Naval 
Academy proved insufficient for the increased number of midship- 
men, and two appropriations were made by Congress to meet the 
requirements: One on June 15, 1917, of $300,000 for an addition to 
Isherwood Hall; and a second on July 1, 1918, of $1,000,000, with a 
cost limit of $2,500,000, for a building for seamanship and naviga- 
tion and other instruction purposes. Of the $2,500,000 authorized 
for the seamanship and navigation building only the $1,000,000 as 
appropriated was used. A contract for the addition to Isherwood 
Hall Avas made on August 6, 1917, and a contract for the seamanship 
and navigation building, Luce Hall, was made on March 31, 1919. 
To provide intensive training for reserve officers, two temporary 
wooden buildings were erected in the vicinity of Bancroft Hall, 
and were finished complete with bedrooms, studj' rooms, and messing 

The addition of the dormitory and educational buildings necessi- 
tated an enlargement of the power plant and distributing systems 
of the academy. On July 1, 1918, an appropriation of $325,000 was 
made for improvements to the central power plant and distributing 
systems, and on July 11, 1919, $200,000 was appropriated for an 
addition to the power plant. 

The construction authorized bj^ Congress to care for the expansion 
of the Xaval Academy added four permanent and two temporary 
buildings to the group already erected. The buildings are of monu- 
mental character, of a French academic style, and are constructed 
of reinforced concrete with granite facing. B}- the addition of the 
east and south wings to Bancroft Hall, an imposing U-shaped court 
was formed, opening on Farragut Field (the parade ground) and 
affording a view of Chesapeake Ba}^ just beyond the sea wall of 
the field. 



Bancroft Hall extension, east wing, Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

Seamanship and NavigMtion Building, Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 


In the spring of 1917 there were in existence four naval training 
stations in the United States. These had a total capacity of 6,000 
men. The largest, at Great Lakes, 111., with accommodations for 
3,000 men, was opened in 1911, with an initial capacity of 1,500 
recruits. The oldest, that at Newport, for 2,000 men, was commis- 
sioned in 1881, although it had theretofore been a year in operation. 
One at Yerba Buena (Goat) Island, San Francisco Harbor, estab- 
lished in 1889, and one at St. Helena, Norfolk Navy Yard, established 
in 1908, had a capacity of 500 men each. The establishment of these 
stations was the result of a demand for a more scientific training of the 
recruit than the old training ship produced. The Navy gave up the 
system of sending recruits to such ships, and substituted the training- 
station courses for their disciplining and preliminary technical in- 
struction. The increasingly complex battleship, with its concomitant 
destroyers, colliers, supply ships, etc., demanded many specialists. 
These crews must all be given a uniform training, a foundation, 
before a choice or an allotment of rating was allowed; and trade 
schools were established for the training of ambitious reenlisted men 
or of recruits showing special aptitude. 

The establishment of stations central to recruiting districts aided 
rapid enlistment; isolation of the men in small groups before and 
after training aided in stamping out disease and proved the most 
efficient method of supplying effective, healthy men and protecting 
the seasoned men already with the fleet. 

Uniform preliminary training in fundamentals provided a founda- 
tion for future specialization and developed resourcefulness in the 
recruit, no matter to what branch of the service he was finally at- 
tached. Replacements and new units necessitated a steady flow of 

That the system on which these older schools was founded was 
sound and flexible is shown by the facility with which the land- 
trained crews adapted themselves to the requirements of the new 
arms — seaplanes, balloons, and submarines. The final test came 
during the war, when the Great Lakes Station alone, averaging at 



first 200 new men a month, finally received in July, 1918, 28,000 
lecruits in that one month. 

The S3'stem stood the strain of a total enlargement from four sta- 
tions with 6.000 men in training at the beginning of the war to 40 
stations, established or under construction, with accommodations for 
191,000 men in winter and 205,000 in summer, at the signing of the 

Some conception of this growth can be gleaned from the fact that 
$1,500,000 Avas originally contemplated as a sufficient sum for naval 
training camps, whereas $75,000,000 had been appropriated or spent 
at the cessation of hostilities. 

This rapid enlargement required immediate construction of a vast 
number of buildings necessarily temporary in character, their loca- 
tions in many cases unprepared for building sites; but their erection 
was done at maximum speed Avith all possible economy at a period 
when priorities in material and transportation were problems of the 
gravest import. 

Not only were buildings provided for barracks, mess halls, and 
schools, but drill grounds, athletic fields, roads, paths, heating and 
power plants and their feeding and lighting conduits, water supply, 
sewers, and drainage, were all laid out at maximum speed to meet not 
only the requirements of the moment but also possibilities of indefi- 
nite expansion. 

Upon the Bureau of Yards and Docks, charged with the construc- 
tion of all shore establishments of the Navy, fell the responsibility of 
designing and erecting the necessary training station facilities. Work 
was begun only u^^on our entering the war, and a rigid survey was 
made of the special requirements of naval training camps. Studies 
were based on the experience of the few existing establishments, and 
took large account of their organization and operation. 

Designs were made for a chain of 20 cantonments linking up both 
coasts with the Great Lakes and providing accommodation for 80,000 
recruits. This was sufficient for the immediate emergency only, and 
a continual expansion, both in number of stations and capacity, kept 
I'^ace with the increase of the Navj'^ as a whole. 

It is a matter of some satisfaction to the bureau that its organiza- 
tion in 1917 enabled it to conduct its emergency naval camp con- 
struction with a remarkable measure of success. Early contracts 
were made on the cost-plus basis, but the interests of the Govern- 
ment were safeguarded by careful inspection and supervision. While 
this form of contract, in general, may be subject to debate on groimds 
of economy, it proved for the time being the most speedy, and re- 
sulted in the early completion of the buildings so absolutely neces- 
sary for the accommodation of recruits. The time of completion 
of each camp was short. An extension of the Great Lakes station to 


accommodate 17,000 men was finished in four months. The first 
training camp at Hampton Eoads for 10,000 men was completed in 
three and one-half months, three weeks of which time was consumed 
in draining, stumping, and clearing the site, over 4,000 workmen 
being employed in this alone. 

At the Philadelphia Navy Yard site cantonments for 5,000 men 
were built in three months. In Brooklyn, quarters for 3,000 men 
Avere erected in 30 days. 

In several cases the work of construction was done by enlisted men 
of the Navy, in others by navy-yard labor employed under the super- 
vision of public works officers, and the large remainder was handled 
through commercial contracts. 

During the peak of construction, 50,000 men were employed on the 
training camp projects alone. The results are a source of great 
pleasure when the hampering elements are considered. The build- 
ings are admirably arranged on architectural lines with simple 
masses, all exposed surfaces are painted, and at this writing grass 
and planting enhance the central features of the stations. 

Close cooperation with the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery was 
maintained in the planning of these training camps to meet the 
Bureau of Navigation's demands for an ever-increasing expansion of 
facilities, and all credit attaching to the control of sickness in these 
establishments during the war is due to the Bureau of Medicine and 
Surgery for the rigid requirements and remedial suggestions laid 
down by it. 


For a proper understanding of the conditions governing the plan 
of a naval training station, an insight must be had into the daily 
life of the recruit it houses. 

Upon his arrival at the station he is held for observation for 21 
days in what is known as the " incoming " isolation group, and is 
housed in a barrack accommodating 12 men. If he is infected with 
any communicable disease, it will develop in that length of time and 
onl}^ 11 men will have been exposed. 

In this detention camp he is under constant medical observation, 
and for the protection of the main camp he is isolated by a zone 10 
feet wide formed by two high barbed-wire fences. Each unit has 
its own dormitories, mess room, serving room, and latrine. His food 
comes in vacuum containers from a special centrally located kitchen. 
His dishes never leave the building, but are sterilized in each serving 
pantry. His clothes, however, are taken to the general laundry in 
special bags and sterilized before being laundered. This isolation 
camp is provided with its own dispensary, officers' quarters, and bar- 
racks similar to those in the main regimental group. 


At the end of his three-Aveek period of medical observation he is 
enrolled in a regimental training unit and is housed in a barrack 
containing from 54 to 140 men. He now advances in his training, a 
landsman to be made into a sailor before treading the deck of a ship. 
He sleeps as a rule on a stout canvas hammock slung G feet above the 
deck, as the floor is called. That hammock he suns daily on a long 
pipe railing 'just outside the barrack. His spare garments are 
stowed in a clothes bag kept lashed with a clove hitch to a jackstaff 
in precisely its proper location. His valuables are locked in a ditty 
box stowed in its proper niche on a steel rack. 

He spends an allotted portion of his time in a building provided 
with a scrub deck for washing clothes exactly as on shipboard. He 
takes his meals in a large, airy mess hall accommodating from 2,000 
to 5,000 men, equipped with regular tables and benches and the full 
outfit of mess gear. His working day is divided by Navy bugle calls 
into school, drill, guard duty, and fatigue. His drill is conducted 
in bad weather in a huge hall 100 by 600 feet with an unbroken roof 
span, one such hall being provided for each 5,000 men. A dock is 
equipped for his training in handling small boats, with davits for 
raising and lowering these and a boathouse for their storage. Row- 
ing tanks and swimming pools are provided for his instruction in 
oarsmanship and swimming, and even his athletic amusements are 
planned to develop his sense of teamwork, as it has been found that 
the battleships flying the efficiency pennant are usually the ones the 
members of whose crews furnish the winning athletic teams. 

His evenings are spent in study or recreation, and the Y. M. C. A. 
and K. of C, as well as hostess houses, give him a variety of choice. 

After a period of training whose length is governed somewhat 
by the demand for men for the fleet, he is withdrawn into an out- 
going detention or isolation camp, under the same conditions as 
when he entered, for the same period of time, so that any possible 
disease he may have contracted during training, in spite of careful 
medical supervision, will develop, and so protect the crew to which 
he will be assigned. 

To house, subsist, and instruct even 5,000 recruits a large number 
of buildings arc required, and these must be so located and planned 
as to minimize costs and time in both communication and operation. 

The barracks, accommodating from 54 to 140 men each, are ar- 
ranged in regimental units, each witli its own mess hall, galley, dis- 
pensary, and attendant buildings. 

The regimental barracks are further subdivided into brigade units, 
each with its proper headquarters. Schools, drill halls, a physical 
instruction building, and swimming pools are apportioned to 5.000- 
man units. The camp as a whole must be equipped with a heating 
and' power plant, storehouses, fire engine houses, telephone service, 


garbage incinerator, and shops, as necessarily as a city requires its 
public utilities. 
These buildings are grouped in the following main divisions: 

1. Administration group. 

2. Isolation group. 

3. Main regimental group. 

4. Service group. 

5. Hospital group. 

6. Educational and recreational group. 

The administration group occupies a central location, and com- 
prises the buildings or building for office administration with proper 
subdivisions for executive and general offices. Officers' quarters, 
officers' mess and kitchen canteen, warrant officers' quarters, armory, 
wireless station, and telephone central complete the group. 

The isolation group has been briefly described above. The 12- 
man barracks in its " incoming " and " outgoing " halves are each 
completely self-contained, with all living facilities under one roof. 

The main regimental group is composed of barracks, latrines, mess 
halls, dispensaries, scrub decks for washing clothes and hammocks, 
a regimental office building for every regiment, brigade headquarters 
for every brigade, cooks' barracks, officers' quarters, chief petty 
officers' quarters, and a regimental quartermaster building, and in 
this group lie the parade ground, athletic ground, fire engihe house, 
drill halls, and physical instruction building. 

The commissary group contains the storehouses, refrigerator plant, 
bakery, and general store building for supplies, clothing, and camp 

The service group contains the buildings for garage, blacksmith 
shop, carpenter shop, electrical shop, paint shops, central heating 
and power plant, coal handling apparatus, garbage incinerator, and 
other necessar}^ services; water plants, water supply filtration, 
sewage disposal, service roads of concrete, walks, of either cement or 
wood, and the lighting of grounds and flood lighting of the boundary 
fencing also fall under this group. 

The educational and recreation group contains buildings especially 
equipped for the various purposes. In it may be found a general 
school, commissary school, rigging school, carpenter school, yeoman 
school, electrical school, music school, swimming school, radio school, 
and officers' school. 

The recreation buildings, if any, are equipped for moving pic- 
tures or entertainments, although the Y. M. C. A. and K. of C. 
usually have their own recreation buildings and comforts. 

The buildings are constructed of wood, erected on wood or con- 
crete posts, except those in which concrete floors are required. The 
sills, floors, and beams are of wood, the floors double-laid with water- 


proof paper between courses. The Avails are sheathed inside with 
matched or composition board. The outside walls are sheathed, 
except in the southern climate. A layer of tarred paper is used for 
this purpose, and the sides are covered with drop siding of vertical 
boards and battens. The roofs are sheathed solid and are usually 
covered with ground slag or ready roofing. 

Every possible comfort is afforded that good discipline permits, 
and every known medical precaution protects the health of the 


This brief description of the general facilities required in a train- 
ing camp gives slight conception of the magnitude of a camp project 
in its entirety, nor does it suggest the variations of the general 
scheme required for the several classes of training at different 

The Bureau of Navigation, in governing the training operation, 
assigned to each camp certain schools of special instruction. These 
schools, of course, required special facilities in addition to the ordi- 
nary requirements of general training. While some of these schools 
were housed in existing structures, necessitating in such cases no actual 
building construction, the equipment and necessary improvements 
were provided by the Bureau of Yards and Docks in all instances. 

Building construction was carried on at the various locations indi- 
cated below, and in the following brief on each of these places 
no detail has been attempted. The intention is merely to emphasize 
the almost simultaneous growth of the several stations, since it 
would be impossible within the compass allowed to go into the varia- 
tions of design and equipment for improvement of all places of 
training and instruction provided for the Navy during the 


Receiving ship, Boston, Mass. {Commonwealth Pier.) — On April 
19, 1917, the receiving ship personnel were transferred from the 
navy yard, Boston, to the Commonwealth Pier, South Boston. Cer- 
tain parts of this immense inclosed structure, belonging to the State 
of Massachusetts, were leased by the Navy ; and with the installation 
of a heating system and toilet facilities, together with the proper 
equipment, comfortable accommodations were soon provided for 
housing and messing 2,500 men. 

Training Camp, BumJdn Island. — Earlj'^ in May, 1917, Bumkin 
Island, in Boston Harbor, was leased from its owner, Mr. A. C. Bur- 
rage, a Boston philanthropist who had erected on the island a large 
building for use during the summer as a children's hospital. On 


May 28, a few officers and men arrived at the island and, using the 
hospital as quarters, began preparing a training camp. Barracks 
were occupied as fast as built, the arriving recruits dividing their 
time between general training and constructing barracks for more 
men. During July contracts were awarded for additional barracks, 
drill and mess halls, together with heating, lighting, water, and fuel 
systems. By November a model camp for 1,000 men was complete, 
utilizing the hospital building for administration, hospital, and 
officers' quarters. 

Realizing the possibility of overcrowing and the- resulting detri- 
ment to the health of men housed at all stations, the Bureau of Medi- 
cine and Surgery early in 1918 prescribed certain minimum allow- 
ances for sleeping quarters. These specifications required that a 
minimum of 50 square feet of floor space and 450 cubic feet of air 
space be provided for each man, with the further requirement that 
5 feet be maintained from head to head of men sleeping. The situa- 
tion often prevented immediate observance of these provisions. In 
the present case, however, every effort was made to meet them, and 
in July, 1918, a contract was awarded which supplied housing 
designed to accommodate 1.100 additional men on the basis of the 
prescription. This work was completed in the latter part of the 
year, and with the quarters already in use a total capacity of 1,750 
men was provided. 

Training Cainp^ Hingham. — Available ground at the naval maga- 
zine, Hingham, Mass., was authorized as a site of a camp in April, 
1917, and a contractor then constructing buildings at the magazine 
was instructed to build certain temporary structures for camp use. 
Additional barracks, together with heating and other appurtenances, 
were contracted for in September, which when completed, in October, 
1917, provided a camp for approximately 600 men. Fire-protection 
system, dispensaries, water supply, and a 1,100-man extension to the 
camp were completed under contract by October 17, 1918. 

It is interesting to note that Hingham was originally planned to 
serve as a quarantine camp in case of an outbreak of contagious 
diseases on Commonwealth Pier, the capacity of Bumkin Island 
having become inadequate. When the first part of the camp was 
completed, in the fall of 1917, recruits destined for general training 
^vere sent to Hingham for outfitting and a three-weeks period of 
detention and preliminary training, and were then transferred else- 
Avhere to complete their course or assigned to special training, this 
being a point of selection for special instruction schools. When the 
condition arose which the Hingham camp had originally been de- 
signed to meet (influenza epidemic of August, 1918) it was' not avail- 
able, being fully occupied for indispensable training; purposes. The 
37022—21 4 


situation was met, however, by the establishment of tent camps on 
the State muster grounds at Framingham, Mass. 

Harvard Radio School, Canihridge, Mass. — In mid April, 1917. 
through the courtesy of Harvard University, a school was estab- 
lished in the Crufts Laboratory to meet the demand for men trained 
in radio work. The men were messed by the university at a cost of 
$5 each per week, and Avere housed in a college dormitory at $3.25 
per week, paying their expenses from their subsistence allowance of 
$1.25 per day. It was not long before the school had reached its 
total possible capacity of 500 men, and expansion was provided by a 
further arrangement with Harvard College for an additional 500 
men. This, however, did not suffice, and it became necessary to 
construct barracks and instruction buildings on land in the vicinity. 
The mayor of Cambridge was requested to offer the Navy the use 
of Cambridge Commons. This he did, and after some local oppo- 
sition had been overcome, ground was broken on June 6 for the 
erection of barracks for 1,800 men. The work Avas completed in 43 
working-daj'S, and provided complete facilities for quartering and 
instruction, the messing being continued under an arrangement with 
the university. Perhaps one of the items of greatest interest in the 
design of this camp was the objection of local authorities to defacing 
their park by cutting down trees, and the obvious difficulty was ex- 
perienced of designing buildings and locating them so as to avoid 
the planting. As the work was finally accomplished, only three trees 
were removed, with the result that this camp presented, no doubt, 
the best appearance of any built during the war period. The build- 
ings, painted a loAv-visibility green amid the heavy foilage, presented 
an appearance of long existence rather than temporary expediency. 

Fuel-oil school, Quincy, Mass. — Contracts for a large number of 
destroyers had been awarded to the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corpo- 
ration at this point, and in order that trained firemen, at least fa- 
miliar with the vessels to which they were to be detailed, might be 
available upon completion of a ship, a fuel-oil school was established 
at this site. The school was operated for a while in plant buildings, 
but increasing numbers which were required led to the authoriza- 
tion in June, 1918, of the construction of a barracks and instruction 
building for 100 students. 

Prison cam/p, Portsmouth. — With the expansion of the Navy it is 
only natural there should be a proportionate increase in prison fa- 
cilities. However, only one important addition to shore prisons was 
made during the war, and that at the site of the naval prison in 
the navy yard, Portsmouth, N. H. On December 15, 1917, the Bureau 
of Yards and Docks wrote Portsmouth that at a conference between 
the Secretary of the Navy, the Judge Advocate General, and a repre- 


sentative of the bureau it had been decided to make immediate addi- 
tional provision for prisoners by the erection of temporary buildings. 

It contemplated immediate construction for 300 prisoners ; ultimate 
expansion to a capacity of 1,000. In the yard's reply facts were 
brought out which indicated that the immediate need was greater 
than that contemplated, and acting upon these recommendations and 
the authority of the Secretary, the bureau prepared plans for the 
award of a contract on December 29, 1917. This contract provided 
for the construction of barracks, a mess hall, and other facilities for 
housing 500 prisoners. Almost before the work was begun the 
necessity for further expansion was realized, and facilities increas- 
ing the total to 840 men were added to the contract. This work was 
completed April 13, 1918, and still greater enlargement was con- 
tracted for in August, 1918, which, when completed in December, 
1918, increased the capacity of the temporary prison to 1,384 men. 

MaHne hm^racks for prison guard^ Portsmouth^ N. H. — This proj- 
ect is dealt with in the chapter on Marine Corps construction. 


Training Station, Nexofort, R. I. {Coaster'' s Harhor Island). — As 
previousl}^ mentioned, the Newport Training Station is the oldest of 
the permanent training establishments, and at the declaration of 
war was capable of handling 2,000 men. The buildings were of a 
permanent type but few in number and were not adapted to the ac- 
commodation of any considerable increase in complement. The 
War College building is located on this island, and with the closing 
of the college this building was occupied as camp administration and 
district headquarters. Tents, cots, and other necessary materiel were 
purchased to care for the surplus influx of men to be trained here, 
the population of the island being reported as 6,000 on May 10, and 
10,000 on July 10, 1917. 

In the meantime every effort was being put forth to replace tents 
with suitable habitation, temporary barracks being constructed on 
nearly all available spaces, and by fall the winter quarters had been 
increased to house a total of 8,000 men. The heating system for 
this camp presented an interesting problem, the desirability of 
constructing several temporary units or one central power plant 
of a more permanent type being debated, 

In this connection a few words from Capt. Bennett's history of 
the training division, Bureau of Navigation, are found of interest : 

The heating problem at the Newport Training Station was deemed suffi- 
ciently important and peculiar to warrant building a complete and permanent 
new central power plant, rather than pi'ovide a number of smaller isolated units 


Temporary barracks uud pLrMiaiiont. cim.strucliou, Aaval Training Station, Newport, II. I. 

T"'iri[irir:i ry li;i rr.-i. 1.-. \ ,, ,1 I i 


as was (lone at (ii'cat Lakes and in most oilier stations and camps. Conditions 
surrounding the execution of this contract were sucli that, despite early letting, 
it was not completed in time to take over the whole load of the station during 
the winter of 1917-lS, thus causing the conmuuiding officer many serious hours 
(luring that trying winter. With its assistance, in its partially finished state, 
the living quarters of officers and men were, however, kept heated and lighted. 
It may not be inappropriate to remark, for the benefit of those charged with 
similar responsibility in the future, that for quick ""nd certain results tempo- 
rary construction would seem to present certain advantages, even though the 
need for additions of a permanent nature be fully recognized and allowed to 
proceed simultaneously. 

In meeting a heating problem such as the above, one must keep 
in mind the necessity for economical operation. The difficulties pre- 
sented by supervision as well as those of transporting fuel, supplies, 
and debris must always be weighed against the economy of cen- 
tralization, the housing of the plant being only a minor factor. 

Coddington Pointy Neioyort^ R. I. — Further expansion of the camp 
on Coaster's Harbor Island, although recommended by the com- 
manding officer, was not considered advisable by the Bureau of 
Navigation. It did, howcA^er, advocate the purchase of a tract of 
land to the northeast of the island on the mainland, the only separa- 
tion being a narrow arm of the bay navigable only by the smallest 
craft. This tract is known as Coddington Point. 

On April 17, 1918, the mayor of Newport wired the Secretary of 
the Navy offering this land to the Government for $100,000, the 
city having procured an option at $150,000, and being willing to 
pay the difference. Eventually Congress appropriated the necessary 
funds, and this 1G1.4 acres was made available for another camp as 
an adjunct of the training station, Newport. 

Just at this juncture the Ignited States Ship])ing Board called 
upon the Navy to ]je prepared to furnish 200,000 trained men for 
their ships listed for delivery ])rior to January 1, 1020, and the 
Bureau of Navigation then felt that the time had arriA'ed to provide 
a large increase at Newport. A camp for 15,000 men, with necessarjr 
additional auxiliary buildings, incoming and outgoing detention 
groups, and a ship's company unit Avas contemplated. Bids for this 
work were opened on August 2G, 1918, and the contract was awarded 
within a day or t^vo thereafter. 

The construction of this camp with all facilities for heat, light, 
and poAver, together with roads, Avalks, sewer and water systems, 
fences, street lighting, fire-pressure mains, sewage-disposal plant, 
piers, and coal-handling devices Avas pursued rapidly. When, how- 
eA^er, the signing of the armistice caused sudden and radical changes 
in all plans contingent on the prosecution of the Avar, the develop- 
ment of Coddington Point Avas at once arrested. The capacity of the 
camp as completed Avas only 8,000 men. 


Delay incident to the curtailment of contracts for this work, as 
well as the passin^: of the emergency, hindered the completion of 
even this reduced portion until early in 1920. (See note at end of 
chapter on the latter i)hases of this project.) 

Cloyne Fields Newport^ li. I . — Reports from the second naval 
district during April. 1917, indicate particularly energetic enroll- 
ment of recruits. In fact, it is said that in mid April the training 
station had been filled with regulars, and soon thereafter all the 
accommodations of the shore establisliment and on the few small 
vessels of the district had been filled. Men were quartered in the 
Y. M. C. A., a church building, and elsewhere, and new men con- 
tinued to arrive at the rate of 75 per day. Newport could offer very 
little in the way of accommodations, and attempts to lease additional 
facilities were for a time unavailing. 

About May 1, however, the commandant obtained a lease on the 
athletic field belonging to the Cloyne School of Newport. The 
construction of a camp was begun promptly, and within, four weeks 
600 men moved into the l)arracks completed. Others followed as 
completion progressed. The original capacity contemplated was 
1,000 men, but before this figure- was reached a second 1,000-man 
unit was authorized and added. In compliance with the require- 
ments of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, previously explained, 
the capacity of this cnmp was afterwards officially designated as' 
1,600 men. 

Suhmarine Base, New London, Conn. — While training was actually 
carried on and barracks for housing the men were constructed at New 
Ix)ndon, the activities were properly those of a submarine base and 
are alluded to in the chapter so designated. 


At the beginning of hostilities there were a number of battle- 
ships and several other men-of-war in a reserve status at the navy I 
yard, New York, and several auxiliary vessels were sent to this 
yard to be fitted out. These, together with ex-German 'merchant 
ships later sent to the yard to be fitted as troop ships or cargo trans- 1 
ports, were utilized for housing recruits and members of the Naval > 
Reserve mobilized at this point. There were only three places! 
ashore available for liousing and instruction, with a total capacity of] 
approximately 1,500 men. These quarters were immediately occu-j 
pied. They comprised the U. S. S. Granite State, moored at a pier ii 
the Hudson River at the foot of Ninety-sixth Street, accommodating! 
about 400 men, and assigned to the Naval Militia; the Naval Militia] 
Armory at Fifty-ninth Street, Brooklyn, locally known as the " Fed- 


eral rendezvous,*' providing for 600 men ; and the naval Y. M. C. A., 
near the yard, where about 500 men could be housed and subsisted. 
These did not begin to meet the demands for quarters, and a tent 
camp for 1,000 men was established at Tarry town, N. Y., but was 
abandoned in the early winter of 1917. Another summer camp was 
established at Summerville, X. Y., for about 600 men. However, 
the need for further expansion was soon paramount, and, upon the 
authority of the department, what was afterwards Iniown as Base 
Six, in reality a hotel at Bensonhurst. Long Island, was leased, there- 
by releasing the three locations previously mentioned for special 
school purposes. 

Bensonhurst was soon known as a training camp of the third 
district, and continued operating as such until the occupanc}' of 
Pelham, when general training was discontinued and only special 
classes of instruction were maintained. Its normal capacity was only 
1,200 men, and this was far exceeded in the summer of 1917. 

On August 4, 1917, the director of training (Bureau of Naviga- 
tion) reported in part as follows: 

The lack of competent instructors to take charge of outlying section bases 
and carry on the instruction, and also the impossibility of securing the neces- 
sary equipment for these small detached groups, have rendered a definite ad- 
herence to any prescribed routing of instructions absolutely impossible. 

This and similar communications and reports of inspection em- 
phasized the need of centralizing the training activities in the dis- 
trict, with the result that the following camps were constructed : 

Pelham Bay Park^ N. Y. — About June 15, 1917, it was estimated 
that a minimum of 7.215 men would be required for duty afloat in 
district vessels. This took no account of the district shore personnel, 
nor of the men who might have to be trained in this district for gen- 
eral service. From every point of view it was evident that increased 
training facilities had to be provided at once, and subsequent to a 
conference between the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation and the 
district commandant, together with an inspection of sites under con- 
sideration, the Bureau of Navigation requested on June 25, 1917, that 
the Bureau of Yards and Docks proceed with the erection of a train- 
ing camp for 5.000 men at Pelham Bay Park, N. Y. Plans and 
specifications were prepared and consent of the owners of the prop- 
erty (the city of New York) Avas secured. A contract was awarded, 
and actual construction began about the 1st of August. The con- 
struction had advanced sufficiently by the first week in October to 
permit training of a limited number ; the formal commission followed 
on November 7, with facilities available for a full complement of 
5.000 men. 


During September it became apparent that there would be need 
for eventual expansion of the camp, when the Bureau of Yards and 
Docks received the following letter : 

Navy Department, Bureau of Navigation, 

Washington, D. C, January 2Jf, 1918. 

To : Bureau of Yards and Docks. 

Subject: Pelliam Bay barracks, increased facilities. 

1. It has been definitely decided that the Navy will be required to man all 
ships chartered by the Army as troop, animal, or cargo transports. 

2. Demands for manning large numbers of each type of vessels have been 
received with practically no warning, and are taxing the Navy's facilities for 
supplying trained men. It is evident that further demands may confidently be 
expected, also with little or no warning, and it is now beyond question that a 
very considerable increase in facilities for training the crews is an immediate 
and urgent need. 

3. Some 75 per cent of the transport vessels are expected to fit out in New 
York. Owing to the suddenness of the demands to take over the vessels, the 
training and depot facilities must be at that place if the Navy is to respond 
efficiently to these demands. 

4. The cheapest method of meetin^f these demands will be to expand on 
existing station, as some of the existing facilities will not need to be duplicated. 
Operating overhead charges will also be much less if an existing station is 
expanded in lieu of starting an additional one. 

5. It is requested that the Bureau of Yards and Docks at once undertake to 
secure from the authorities of New York City nominal lease of additional 
land at Pelham Bay Park, contiguous to the land now occupied by the naval 
training camp, and provide training facilities for 10,000 additional men ; it is 
desired that about 20 per cent of these facilities constitute an isolation unit. 

L. C. Palmer. 
Approved : 

JosEPHus Daniels, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

The consent of the city authorities was not received until the last 
of February, 1918, and the construction of the camp on a day-labor 
basis was begun under the supervision of an officer of the Corps of 
Civil Engineers. Completion on August 1 was contemplated, but 
as a matter of fact the incoming detention for 2,000 men was com- 
pleted on June 1, and began the training of recruits immediately. 
The main camp for 8,000 men was ready for occupany on July 1, 
1918, and thus, with the hospital facilities which were finished a 
little later, the total capacity of 15,500 was res^'hed. 

Particulars of the execution of the Pelham extension are here in- 
serted from the personal account of the officer in charge. Commander 
E. C. Brown (C. E. C), U. S. N. K. F. (inactive) : 

It was perfectly apparent from the outset that the prosecution of this job 
at the rate required would only be hampered by the intervention of a con- 
tractor. Authority to hire labor without reference to civil service laws was 
obtained from the President, and authority to purchase in advance of requisition 
was obtained from the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts. 


Offices were opened at 101 Park Avenue. New York City, on the 21st of 
February, with no organization. On tlie 1st of March purchasing, traffic, ac- 
counting, estimating, drafting, engineering, and other departments were com- 
pletely organized, as well as the entire field force, which was under the 
supervision of INIr. W. S. Faddis, who consented to act as general superintend- 
ent in the field, with the consent of his company. 

Besides proper organization, some other innovations were introduced in the 
building of this camp, aiding materially in reducing its costs and expediting its 
completion. Two sawmills containing 20 saws of various types each were 
erected, and all material for the entire job was scheduled and cut in these 
mills. No other saw was allowed to be used on the work until boarding 
commenced. Each gang did its own work in rotation. The first gang dug the 
postholes and put in the concrete bottom ; the second gang placed foundation 
posts, sills, and floor beams; a third gang erected the stud walls and roof 
rafters ; the next gang did the boarding and put in the window frames. 

Ground for the isolation camp was broken on March 15, and 88 buildings 
were completely framed on March 29, after a total of 88 working hours. It 
is interesting to note that although this camp was built in less time than any 
other of the same size, there was no overtime. The isolation camp was oc- 
cupied on June 1, and the entire camp July 1. The formal flag raising took 
place July 4, when the Secretary of the Navy made the dedicatory address. The 
hosp'tal was completed on the 1st of 

It is interesting to note that in all of this work only two items were sublet : 
(1) A radial brick chimney, and (2) a small amount of pile driving. All 
other work, including lighting, heating, and plumbing, was done by the or- 
ganization of the officer in charge. The heating work was most successful on 
account of the excellent des'gn of Mr. Henry C. Meyer, jr., a consulting 
mechanical engineer of New York City. Many innovations were introduced in 
the electrical work, such as the assembling and reeling of distribution wires 
in tbe shop. When a building was to be wired, after the collar beams were 
in. this reel would be dragged over the top of the collar beams, all of the 
laterals falling into their proper places. In this way one electrician and one 
helper completely wired the building in one hour. The excellent installation 
resultmg proved later by actual test to give twice the light with one-half the 
wattage used in some regular electric layouts in other camps. Cre'dit for the 
success of this part of the work should be given to Mr. Bassett Jones, a con- 
sulting electrical engineer of New York. 

The most interesting thing about this proposition, which was the only large 
camp built without a contract, is that it was possible to get the best talent to 
step into the various branches of the organization. Due credit must be given 
to the following men, in addition to those above mentioned : 

:Mr. George H. Creasy, who gave up a large private business to act as plumbing 
superintendent ; IMr. Albin Gustafson, who gave up his private business to act 
as electrical superintendent ; Mr. K. G. Smith, a civil engineer, who gave up his 
I'l'ivate work to act as office manager. 

The cost of the Pelham operation done directly without contractors was 18 
cents a cubic foot, including concrete roads, heating, lighting, plumbing, sewage 
disposal, pier.s, coal-conveying apparatus, power house, and everything complete. 

A system of ventilation was used throughout in the design of Pelham, in 
which, by boxing two of the floor beams, air was carried in from the outside 
under the radiators placed centrally, and out through holes in the ceiling 
through suction-draft ventilators. On actual test the air in each building, with 
all windows and doors closed was completely changed sis times in an hour. 


Twenty million board feet of lumber, mostly spruce, was landed on the job in 
eight weeks. None of the lumber ordered through governmental agencies ar- 
rived until six weeks afterwards, when the camp was practically completed. 

City Parh^ Brooklyn., N. Y. — As previously stated, men mobilized 
at New York were being quartered in various vessels. Needless to 
say, such accommodations were but a poor makeshift. Repairs and 
alterations, which were going on daj^ and night in the fitting of the 
vessels for service, made living conditions aboard about as bad as 
could be, to say nothing of the interference which the presence of 
this personnel no doubt offered in the prosecution of such repairs. 

Late in June the commandant reported having secured from the 
city authorities the free use of a small public park just outside the 
navy-yard wall. The Bureau of Yards and Docks was requested to 
undertake the construction of a receiving-ship barracks of a capacity 
as great as this plot of land would allow. 

In spite of the somewhat indefinite nomenclature which the pres- 
sure of war imposed on the training establishments, it is well at 
this point to set forth clearly the central intention of a receiving- 
ship camp. Such camps were situated near or at ports and bases, 
and replaced the actual receiving ships as the latter were outgrown 
c*i pressed into service. Primarily, then, these camps were reservoirs 
or clearing houses for already trained personnel awaiting assignment 
to vessels, and the training features were made secondary to urgently 
required barrack and messing facilities. Such a notion is to be con- 
veyed in general whenever the term " receiving-ship camp " is used. 

The third naval district, with New York as its headquarters, was 
naturally swarming with the new nav^al personnel before the war 
had been many weeks in progress. Mobilized from all sources, fed 
in through the training-camp and naval militia systems, they were 
passing through in a swelling stream to their manifold war assign- 
ments — particularly in the opening period as armed guards for 
merchant vessels. 

Hence the insistent demand for receiving-ship quarters ashore, and 
the City Park camp met a most vital need as a clearing station for 
the armed guard. 

Particulars of the remarkable progress made in the construction 
of this camp for 3,000 men are herewith abstracted from the persona] 
account of the officer in charge of construction, Commander E. C. 
Brown, who also conducted the Pelham Park extension operation 
above noted: 

The tentative plot plan layout was verbally approved by the Chief of the 
P.ureau of Yards and Docks on June 28, 1917. The working plans were started 
June 29, and including lighting, heating, and plumbing, were completed live 
days later, July 3, and submitted to the bureau for approval July 4. Ground; 
was l)roken on July ;" and work started on July G by the general contractors. 


The original plans were carried out with the exception of the mess hall, 
which was changed to the stand-up cafeteria system upon advice being received 
that more than the 3,000 men who were to be housed in the park camp would 
have to be messed there. The installation provided has operated with eminent 
success. It necessitated enlarging the messing facilities somewhat and caused 
some delay in the starting of this building, but the building was completed with 
the rest of the camp. The construction work was practically completed on 
August 4, and from that date until August IS all equipment was installed. All of 
this equipment was purchased through the public works officer with the excep- 
tion of the mess gear. 

On August 10, the date originally promised by the public works officer, the 
men moved into the camp — the first meal served being breakfast, August 11, 
at which time 6,800 men were served in 45 minutes. Housing facilities were 
provided for 3,000 enlisted men, and approximately 20,000 meals per day were 
served. The average time required to serve one meal for 6,300 men on the con- 
tinuous system was about one hour. 

The cost of the camp was slightly under $400,000, including double-deck pipe 
rail bunks, bunk bottoms, concrete roads and walks, lighting, heating, plumbing, 
refrigerators, ranges, kettles, bake ovens, tables, furniture, and all equipment 
with the exception of mess gear. On the basis of 3,000 men housed and 6,000 
men subsisted, the camp represents an average from a cost standpoint of 4,000 
men, making tbe individual price of the camp, complete, $100 per man. This 
price includes the buildings which were added to the original layout, namely, 
hospital, dispensary, canteen, and administration building, and offices for chap- 
lains and armed guards. 

It will be noted from the foregoing that all the men quartered at 
the navy yard Avere messed at City Park, but all in excess of 3,000 
continued to sleep aboard the ships being repaired. Later, however, 
in order that the sanitary requirements of the Bureau of Medicine 
and Surger}^ might be observed, the capacity of City Park was fixed 
at 2,500 men. 

Ellis Island. — Reports dated August 10 and September 10, 1917, 
indicate a receiving-ship personnel present in the navy yard of 4,800 
and 6,300, respectively. These men in excess of the 2,500 provided 
for at City Park were quartered on the various ships at the yard, but 
with the commissioning of some of these vessels the need for addi- 
tional quarters became apparent. An excursion steamer, the Adiron- 
dack ., was leased for the purpose of housing 1,000 men, but was found 
to be totally unsuited for the purpose. The sanitary conditions on 
these ships were entirely unsatisfactory, and it is said that the young 
men who came to them from civil life formed a most erroneous idea 
of the naval service, and these ideas became more or less public and 
did the service considerable harm. Meanwhile, the armed guard was 
crowded in City Park beyond safe health conditions. Pelliam was 
turning out personnel to man not only the Navy but also Shipping 
Board vessels. Thus the housing of " general detail " men was be- 
coming a serious problem. 


Cciicnil virw, Aiinid (iiiaiil Cnnip, City I'ark, Brooklyn, N. V 


CiMU'inl view. Hocoivins Ship r.;irr:\rl;s. I'.iiy Kidv'c (Brooklyn), N. Y. 


Ellis Island was particularly well located, and its facilities were ex- 
cellent for this use, besides being ready; but it was onl}^ after consid- 
erable correspondence that the Department of Labor turned over for 
the joint use of the Army and Navy accommodations for 3,500 men, 
in which quarters the Navy finally secured space for 2,000, The first 
draft arriving on February 2, 1918, began equipping and completing 
arrangements for successive drafts, until by April 1,000 men were 
quartered ; and not long afterward the full 2,000 were accommodated. 
This station remained in commission as a part of the receiving ship 
at New York until the end of hostilities. 

Receiving Ship, Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, N. Y. — The agreement with 
the owners of the Adirondack and Morse excursion steamers used as 
part of the receiving ship, in addition to the undesirable features 
previously mentioned, required the early return of these ships to the 
owners. To meet this situation, a conference was held, at which 
several methods of possible solution were discussed. Meanwhile it 
had become necessar}^ to transfer men from the receiving ship to 

Upon the recommendation of the commandant, permission Avas ob- 
tained from the city authorities to occupy a portion of the parkway 
of the shore drive known as Bay Eidge Boulevard, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
On April 18, 1918, the Bureau of Navigation requested the Bureau 
of Yards and Docks, following the Secretary's approval, to proceed 
with the erection of barracks for 5,000 men on this site. This re- 
quest was canceled, however, and some delay occurred while con- 
sideration was being given an alternative proposition. The project 
was a little later reauthorized, and bids were opened July 15, 1918, 
followed by an award of contract. The first men were quartered 
late in October, and additional transfers were made as fast as build- 
ings were completed; but the new cantonment was not finished in 
time to be of much use as a receiving ship during the period of hos- 
tilities. However, it was particularly valuable during the demobili- 
zation period. 

Some conception of the necessity of receiving-ship barracks at 
New York can be gleaned from the fact that approximately 182,000 
naval ratings passed through the port, notwithstanding the difficul- 
ties encountered, and between August, 1917, and March, 1919, as 
many as 1,300 were handled in one day. 

Steam Engineering School, Stevens Institute, Hohoken, N. J. — On 
February 27, 1918, the president of Stevens Institute of Technology, 
Hoboken, N, J., addressed a letter to the department confirming a 
tentative agreement which had been made for placing the institute 
at the disposal of the Navy for the period of the war. The burden 
of providing crews for the Emergency Fleet vessels then under con- 



struction required also the instruction of apt men as officers. The 
officer material schools were then in full operation, and Stevens 
Institute afforded especial oj^portunity to give instruction to en- 
gineering classes. The school started in March with a small class, 
but the accommodations for housing and keeping the men under 
military control were poor. It finally became necessary to build 
quarters and a three-story brick building for 300 men. These, to- 
gether with a temporary mess hall and cooks' barracks, were erected 
on the institute campus, the work being completed about May, 1918. 

Steam Engineerinu S. 1, 

I i..lM,krll, N. J. 


Philadelphia^ Pa. — Prior to March 1, 1917, the receiving-ship of- 
fices at Philadelphia occupied three or four small rooms in a navy- 
yard building, and the men were quartered in vessels moored at the 
yard. When war was declared men began to arrive in such large 
numbers that existing accommodations were immediately crowded. 
In addition to recruits, this station began to receive the naval militia 
from several States, for which it had been designated as the rendez- 
-\ous. These men were quartered on all available ships, including 
one or two ex-German merchant-type cruisers interned there. How- 
ever, the necessity for quarters ashore was soon recognized, and on 
April 25 the Bureau of Yards and Docks Avas requested to erect bar- 
racks for 5,000 men. The site selected was on the east end of League 


Emergency barracks for recruits, Navy Yard, Philadelphia. Pa. 

Interior view of quarters, Wissahickon Barracks, Cape May, N. J. 
37022—21 5 


Island, and work was begun on May 1, 1917. By the middle of 
July enough buildings were completed to permit the housing of a 
limited number of men. By the end of that month there were 1,800 
in camp, and b}' early winter the full complement of 5,000 had been 
reached. The medical authorities reported the camp overcrowded, 
and the normal capacitj' was then reduced by about 20 per cent. The 
existing seamen's barracks was overhauled and made habitable for 
about 300, and a tent camp was maintained for 500 men when weather 
permitted. This camp was functioning not only as a receiving ship 
but as a training camp in addition, and its war-time history is one of 
almost continuous congestion. Early in the spring of 1918 it had 
become entirely inadequate; and on March 15, 1918, the Bureau of 
Navigation wrote the Bureau of Yards and Docks requesting that it 
undertake the construction of additional barracks and facilities, 
which, when completed in November, provided a total capacity, ex- 
clusive of tents, of 6,400. 

Wissahickon Barracks^ Cape May^ N. J. — On Ma}^ 28, 1917, an al- 
lotment was authorized for the construction of a naval training camp 
for the fourth naval district, and after consideration of many pos- 
sible sites an agreement was made on June 14 for the use of a farm 
at Cape ^lay, N. J. On June 16 the Bureau of Yards and Docks 
placed a contract for the necessary construction to accommodate 2,000 
men. The city of Cape May laid mains and furnished water for the 
cost of pumping and permitted the use of their sewers without 
charge. On August 7 this camp, known as Wissahickon Barracks, 
was ready for operation, but as constructed it was already inade- 
quate for district needs. Indeed, it became necessary to send several 
thousand fourth-district men to Great Lakes and other stations to 
meet the conditions. 

Only one extension to Wissahickon was ever built, and that was 
a 500-man detention camp, which was authorized in June, 1918, and 
which was about completed at the time of the armistice. Another 
extension of the camp was authorized in September, 1918, which 
would have increased the total capacity to 6,500 men. Plans and 
specifications were prepared and ready for release to bidders on the 
date of the armistice, which stopped the project altogether. 

Cooking School^ Naval Tlome^ Philadelphia^ Pa. — Prior to the war 
cooking schools had been maintained in the permanent stations at 
Newport and San Francisco, but these had only a limited capacity. 
With the advent of war the necessity of providing cooks, not only for 
vessels, but also for camps and other shore stations, was first met 
by the enlistment of men who had practiced allied occupations in 
civil life. To meet the rapid growth of the Navy, however, it became 
Decessar}' to instruct men in the culinary art at schools established 


in the various districts. In general, such a school was operated as 
an adjunct to a camp, but in the fourth district a cooking school was 
established at the Naval Home, employing the existing galley for 
practice purposes and accommodating the men in tents heated with 
oil stoves. In the summer of 1918, when the Shipping Board re- 
quested the Navy to man their vessels, this school was extended, and 
barracks and instruction buildings were erected which were reported 
to reiDi-esent the finest equipment and best planned cooking school in 
the country. In the galley cooking appliances which were especially 
adapted to instruction, such as glass-front ovens, etc., were installed, 
and an elevated platform facilitated the observation of galley activi- 
ties by the class under instruction. 


Norfolk^ Va. — The naval training station, Norfolk, known as St. 
Helena, was established in 1908 on a site along the Elizabeth River, 
just opposite the navy yard. The commanding officer of the training 
station was also in command of the receiving ship at Norfolk, which, 
in addition to the old warships Richmond and Cumberland^ com- 
prised also a considerable camp on shore when the war began. Thus, 
both physically and administratively, the receiving ship and the 
training station were very closely allied. The original training sta- 
tion had grown from its original capacity until at the beginning of 
the war, including the receiving ship and its facilities, it had a total 
capacity of 3,555 men. With the declaration of war men began to 
pour in rapidly, and at first the overflow were sheltered in tents. 
This station had, however, developed a small bungalow type to house 
10 men, and it was found that a tent for 3 men occupied nearly 
as much space as one of these structures. The bungalow was already 
standardized, and was of such simple construction that it could be 
readily erected in quantities by station labor, and most important of 
all, it was more suitable for the winter weather in that climate. Be- 
fore the winter of 1917 had set in, sufficient bungalows had been 
completed to raise the total capacity of the station to 7,679. The re- 
quirements of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, set forth in 
previous connections, subsequently reduced the capacity to 4,254 men. 
This camp was abandoned when the naval operating base at Hamp- 
ton Roads became available, the site being designated as an annex to 
the navy yard. 

Naval Operating Base^ Hampton Roads ^ Va. — A detailed account of 
the development of this base in its various phases is given elsewhere 
in this volume. Only a summary of the training facilities provided 
will be attempted here. 


An act of Congress, approved June 15, 1917, authorized the Presi- 
dent to commandeer the tract of land, with all appurtenances thereto, 
which had been the site of the Jamestown Exposition. The total 
tract taken over was 443 acres, of which 268 were assigned to the 
training station. The congested condition at St. Helena emphasized 
the necessity of additional training facilities in the vicinity of this 
important port. Plans had been prepared which, with very minor 
subsequent additions for special purposes, provided for a capacity 
of 13,500 men. Construction was begun as soon as possible, and on 
October 12, 1917, a little less than four months from the date of 
approval of the act of authorization, it was reported that one regi- 
ment from St. Helena had been moved to the naval operating base, 
with appropriate ceremonies. From this date the population of the 
station increased rapidly. New regimental units were being com- 
pleted and turned over to the commandant every week or two. It 
Avas not until April, 1918, however, that the training station at St. 
Helena was completely superseded by Hampton Roads, as the former 
had to be used for some time as an outfitting station or incoming 
detention camp. From a complement of 1,669 on October 17, 1917, 
the new station (Hampton Eoads) had increased to a total of 
12,693 on November 27, 1918. 

In connection with the construction of the training station at 
Hampton Roads, an item deserving of special mention is the electrical 
and general school buildings erected. These semi-permanent struc- 
tures — mill construction with brick veneer — were originated through 
the necessity for an electrical school. The electrical school was first 
designed with special facilities for the purpose, the general school 
being a reproduction in exterior appearance, but in interior arrange- 
ment providing only the facilities of a modern school building. The 
construction of the electrical school was an outgrowth of the con- 
gestion existing at New York, this institution having first been housed 
at Pratt Institute. The building as designed for Hampton Roads 
provided for the operation of boilers by a student class, the steam 
produced being utilized in generators used for demonstration before 
another class. The current thus produced was distributed through- 
out the building and was utilized for the benefit of classes being in- 
structed in the operation of various electrical appliances. Rooms 
were also provided with special ventilation to facilitate the study of 
storage batteries and gas engines. Later an especially interesting 
adjunct to the electrical school was constructed, this being a device 
known as the " TJ . S. S. Electrician^'''' which was, within the practical 
limits of land structures, a battleship, especially so far as related to 
the electrical instalhition involved. Besides classrooms, there were 
installed in this school l)uihling many of tlie electrical appliances 

s^?sL Training Station 


37022 — 21. rTo face Dage 66.) 



1 B ''-' il!' ■ t'a « spy' 


V a B ® 8 9 B^ 


fffla^Be Ba"Bo"p,; - • i/Bfl"9(i Ba^BeM 

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Barrack group, East Camp, Hampton Roads, Ya. 

yv >«^t; 


Typical barracks, East Camp, Hampton Roads, Va. 



Lauiiili\ and i;allry, Kasl Caiii|i, llaiiipuai l:uail>, ^ a. 

I'ost oflici', East t amp, liaiii|iluii lioads, \a. 


used on shipboard, such as searchlights, signals, cranes, and turret 
moving and ventilating devices, so that opportunity might be 
afforded to demonstrate the practical use of such apparatus. 

East Gamf^ Hampton Roads. — Upon receipt of information in 
Jul}', 1918, that the United States Shipping Board would call upon 
the Xavy for approximately 200,000 trained men for tlie ships to be 
completed before January 1, 1920, an estimate of the situation indi- 
cated that the Navy's total existing housing and training facilities 
must be increased at once by approximately 30,000 men. About one- 
half of this number were provided for at the naval training station, 
Newport (Coddington Point), as hereinbefore discussed, and it was 
considered that the remainder should be cared for in the vicinity of 
Hampton Roads. After consideration of the available sites, one at 
Yorktown, Va., was selected, and a complete camp with all facilities 
for 14,000 men, together with an 800-bed hospital and accommoda- 
tions for a hospital personnel of 400, was designed. Bids were to be 
opened September 9, 1918, but further consideration led to the can- 
cellation of this project in favor of an equivalent camp to be erected 
on a tract of about 370 acres across Boush Creek, opposite the train- 
ing station, Hampton Roads, and subsequently known as " east 
camp " site. Work was promptly undertaken on this location. The 
proximity of the new camp to the naval operating base eliminated 
the necessity of separate administration, and thus several of the camp 
buildings were omitted, as was the entire hospital portion of the 
project. The signing of the armistice arrested this project before 
the barracks were ready for occupancy. The work was well under 
way, however, and the camp was finally completed as contemplated; 
and being the last one that was designed and constructed, it had the 
benefit of the experience gained during the construction of the other 
stations. For that reason, it is to-day the best example of a naval 
training camp constructed during the war period. 

Ensigns'' School^ Annapolis, Md. — At the outbreak of hostilities 
many men of education had enrolled as officers in the Naval Reserve 
Force and many of them, especially former members of the United 
States Power-boat Squadron, had had prewar training in the duties 
of officers. There had also been one or more summer cruises aboard 
the ships of the battle fleet by civilians, the so-called " naval Platts- 
burg." It was realized, however, that further instruction was neces- 
sary before such men could be assigned to positions of responsibility 
under war conditions. The establishment of the district officer ma- 
terial schools at the various stations was one step toward the solu- 
tion of the problem, wdiile another was a plan formulated late in 
May, 1917, to utilize during the summer the space vacated by the 
graduating class of the United States Naval Academy, together with 


the academy organization and equipment, for a short intensive course 
for such partially trained officer personnel. On June 6, the initial 
class of about 200 were assigned quarters in Bancroft Hall, which 
had been vacated by the graduating class. They were given a course 
of about 10 weeks, the results of which were so gratifying that it 
was decided to continue the plan. As the existing accommodations 
were filled by midshipmen of the new class, it was necessary to build 
barracks and increase the staff of instructors. Temporary barracks 
for 300 student officers were erected, and the second class reported 
on October 10, 1917. The course was then extended to 16 weeks, and 
a further increase was made by erection of a barracks and mess hall 
for 150 men, which was completed in four weeks. Thus a school 
having a capacity of 450, which was augmented during the summer 
by use of the vacant rooms in Bancroft Hall, was completed to re- 
main in operation throughout the period of hostilities. 

Marine Camp^ Quantico, Va. — This important project is discussed 
in the chapter devoted to construction for the Marine Corps. 


Charleston^ S. C. — Mobilization of reserves and volunteers at the 
navy yard, Charleston, S. C, so overcrowded the existing receiving 
ship (U. S. S. Hartford) and other available accommodations that a 
small tent camp was pitched early in 1917 to accommodate the over- 
flow. More habitable structures were required, however, and on April 
26, 1917, an allotment was telegraphed which authorized the con- 
struction of a camp for 1,000 men, work to be done by yard labor, 
assisted by enlisted men. These buildings, designed locally, were of 
a semibungalow type, intended to accommodate 25 men each, so con- 
structed as to admit a maximum of light and air in good weather, and 
capable of being closed with canvas curtains in inclement weather or 
heated by trash stoves in cold weather. 

About this time, the authorities of the city of Charleston tendered 
the free use of land just outside the navy-yard boundary and adjacent 
to the 1,000-man camp then under construction. Accommodations at 
all camps were so seriously overcrowded that it was decided to accept 
this offer and utilize it for the expansion necessary. Accordingly, on 
May 3, 1917, the Bureau of Yards and Docks was requested to pro- 
ceed with construction to increase the facilities so as to care for a total 
of 5,000 men, including certain additional construction for the 1,000- 
man camp previously authorized. 

Ground was broken on the 1,000-man portion within the yard on 
April 30, and the work was completed on June 8. At this time about 
735 men were under training, in addition to the personnel quartered 
on the Hartford. On this date (June 8) the contract-built portion 


Drill hall at East Cami.. llaiiii>ic.ii Va, 

Boiler plant. East Camp, Hampton Roads, V; 


Typical liarrack. Xa\al Trainiiis Cam|i, Charh'^ton, S. C. 



;: _^j|M^SSSiBl^^S&8^^9^^^ 



General view, Naval Training Camp, Charleston, S. C. 


for 4,000 men on city property Avas about 50 per cent completed, but 
the delay in getting equipment nullified to a great extent the immediate 
benefit of this construction. A sanitary survey by the Bureau of 
Medicine and Surgery resulted in the application of the strict speci- 
fications for sleeping quarters, i. e., 450 cubic feet of air space per man, 
with not less than 5 feet between heads of sleeping men. As these 
barracks had but 220 cubic feet of air space on a 5,000-man basis, the 
capacity of the camp was reduced to 2,500 men. It was the original 
intention to use the camp to train naval reserve forces, and no deten- 
tion camp was provided; the almost continuous outbreak of con- 
tagion, however, necessitated the establishment of a tent detention 
camp. The latter on April 16, 1918, was ordered to be replaced by 
standard detention-camp barracks for 600 men. This, together with 
the new barracks which had been constructed meantime for the ma- 
chinist's mate school, soon provided a total capacity (exclusive of 
tents) for 3,500 men under training. 

Marine Barracks, Pari^ Island, S. C . — This work was carried along 
with other emergency camp construction, but a discussion of it will 
be found in the chapter on Marine Corps projects. 


Key West, Fla. — Early in the period of hostilities the comman- 
dant leased at small cost the P. & O. steamship wharf at Key West, 
with its covered sheds and adjacent land, as a site for mobilizing 
and training such men as might be enrolled there. On June 1, 1917, 
the Bureau of Navigation requested Yards and Docks to increase 
the capacity to a total of 1,000 men by the erection of barracks, a 
galley and mess hall, etc. This camp was probably the cheapest 
erected during the war, and no attempt was made to secure a desir- 
able plan, it being only possible, after utilizing the existing sheds, 
to erect structures of odd shapes and sizes on the available spaces 
adjacent. It is interesting to note that, notwithstanding these con- 
ditions, records indicate that finished training was given some 2,400 
men, and partial training to about an equal number of others. Capt. 
Bennett, in commenting on this station in his " History of Work of 
the Training Division," writes in part as follows : 

Perlmps the most remarkable feature of all was the health conditions which 
prevailed. Only two deaths occurred at the camp, one of which was a drown- 
ing accident. The camp bore its share of the influenza epidemic, but in a 
total of 464 cases every one recovered. The epidemic was so severe among the 
civilian population that the camp furnished personnel for operating the city 
gas works, to assist in the work of the city's post office, and in compounding 
prescriptions in the drug stores of the city, which had been wholly unable to 
meet the demands incident to the epidemic. 



Nev) Orleans^ La. — The mobilization center for the eighth naval 
district was the naval station, New Orleans, where the seaman bar- 
racks was used for habitation until the requirements of war necessi- 
tated, late in April, 1917, the establishment of a tent camp. Con- 
ditions in this district were typical of those prevailing generally, 
although the immediate consequences were much less serious on the 
south and west coasts than in those districts bordering on the At- 
lantic — the latter being required to. effect a large-scale coast-defense 
system immediately. Congestion in the northern training centers 
caused the transfer of many men to the southern districts, where 
greater facilities were immediately available. The tent camp at 
New Orleans provided for 1,000 men, and although the commandant 
during the summer of 1917 urged that it be replaced by wooden bar- 
racks before the hurricane season, the Bureau of Navigation decided 
against the recommendation. The tent camp was never completely 
replaced by wooden construction, though two barrack buildings with 
a maximum capacity of 116 men each were built by enlisted labor 
and a latrine for their inhabitants was built by station labor during 
the fall of 1917. 

During July, 1917, the commandant recommended the establish- 
ment of a camp annex at West End Park, which had been tendered 
free of charge by the city authorities. Here boat exercises and 
small-arms firing, which were impossible at the yard, could be con- 
ducted. A wooden cantonment for 250 men was authorized on this 
site, it being the plan to detail successive drafts from the yard camp 
for a few weeks' practice in the desired exercises. Later, when the 
requirements of Medicine and Surgery made it necessary to reduce 
the capacity of this camp, additional barracks and service buildings 
were erected so as to increase the capacity of the camp to about 500 

Gulfport.^ Miss. — Accommodations at the training stations, as soon 
as established, were alw^ays one or more laps behind in the race with re- 
quired capacities; and in an effort to cope with the situation, new and 
distinct locations were selected as temporary expedients. Such camps, 
however, expanded beyond early intentions and finally were looked 
upon as permanent for the period of the war. One of the early 
emergency locations selected was that of the Mississippi Centennial 
Exposition grounds at Gulfport, Miss., the inauguration of the ex- 
position having been indefinitely postponed on account of the war. 
The exposition buildings, which were nearing completion, were uti- 
lized as far as possible, and these, with a considerable amount of 
auxiliary construction, provided a truly efficient camp for 2,000 men. 
Construction work began on November 25, 1917, and notwithstand- 


ing additions authorized from time to time, the camp was commis- 
sioned about the middle of April, 1918. 

Pensacola, Fla. — While training was actually carried on at Pensa- 
cola, it was of a special type — aviation — and further reference to 
the bureau's activities at this station will be found in another 


Great Lakes^ III. — As previousl}- stated, Great Lakes was the 
largest of the four permanent training stations existing prior to the 
war. This station had a capacity of 3,000 men, and occupied a 
tract of 167 acres located about 33 miles north of Chicago and over- 
looking Lake Michigan. Increased recruiting began in this district 
as early as October, 1916. An average of 191 men monthly were 
received at the station during the first three quarters of 1916. From 
that time on, the average steadily increased until in March, 1917, 
1,364 new recruits arrived, and in April 9,027. A large proportion of 
these men were quartered in tents, while others were examined, out- 
fitted, and sent to other stations after only a few days at Great 
Lakes. A detailed account of the growth of the station's housing 
facilities is quite impossible within the limits assigned, covering as it 
would the entire period of hostilities. 

The use of tents could obviously not be continued because of the 
winter climate of this region, but before other quarters could be pro- 
vided a colony of more than 5,000 tents was in operation, the men 
being accommodated in a comparatively primitive manner. In order 
to eliminate these conditions it became necessary to secure more 
ground, and after a full discussion it was decided to adopt at Great 
Lakes a regimental unit system of expansion, each unit providing 
for about 1,728 men. These regiments were then to be grouped 
into camps, the size and location of which were determined by the 
topography of the available land as well as by the military necessity. 

On October 11, 1918, the station occupied more than 1^00 acres 
and comprised about 775 buildings. Without recounting in detail 
the history of each addition necessitated as the war went on, it may 
be recorded that the following camps were finally provided, the 
main station and Camp Barry being the only ones existing prior to 
the war, and the latter only in the sense that it was erected upon 
the original 167-acre tract : 


Regiment. Camp. 


First ! Camp Perry 

Second do 

Third I do 

Fourth do 

Fifth Camp Dewev 

Sixth ' do 

Seventh ■ do 

Eighth Camp Decatur... 

Ninth i Camp Farragut . . 

Tenth Camp Ross 

Eleventh I Main station 

Twelfth 1 Camp PauIJones. 

Thirteenth do , 

Fourteenth i Camp Barry 

Fifteenth [ Aviation Unit 

Sixteenth ' Camp Luce , 

Seventeenth | do 

Eighteenth do 

Nineteenth I Camp Lawrence . . 

Twentieth do , 

Twenty-first do 

Twenty-second do , 

Recruit training. 




Hospital corps and yeoman schools. 
Radio school. 
Incoming detention. 

Main hospital. 

Public works division. 
Ship's company. 
Incoming detention. 
Aviation schools. 
Outgoing detention. 

Outgoing detention and public works. 
Recruit training. 


S. A. E. Officer-material school. 

The capacities of these camps varied with their types and uses, but 
the following excerpt from a letter of the commandant, Capt. W. A. 
Moffett, United States Navy, under date of August 28, 1918, will 
serve to illustrate the strides being made to complete by fall a capac- 
ity to accommodate, in round numbers, 50,000 men : 

I am inclosing data giving the capacity of ttie station. You will note that the 
" safe " winter capacity is 44,754 on a basis of 450 cubic feet per man, and that 
the summer capacity is 52,317. Fifty-two thousand three hundred and seventeen 
does not include men in tents. We have 17,000 men in tents, which means that 
next summer we could house comfortably 70,000 men. In regard to the safe 
winter capacity of 44,754, I will say that you can safely count on a practically 
safe capacity of 50,000 men. If necessary, we can put a couple of thousand men 
in each of the drill halls and in other places. I would also say that if the 
necessity arises I would not hesitate to take 60,000 men during the winter. 

The total cost of the expansion accomplished at Great Lakes under 
all contracts let during the emergency period was approximately 
$17,127,000. The reader will note the contrast between this figure 
for one station and the $1,500,000 at first contemplated as the total 
which would be required for all stations. 

For a closer study of the organization which handled the immense 
development of Great Lakes and of the results accomplished, refer- 
ence is made to two articles at the end of the present chapter, con- 
tributed by officers of the Corps of Civil Engineers who had succes- 
sive local charge of the projects involved. 

Tramiiifj Camp, Detroit, Mich. — On February 7, 1918, tlie Bureau 
of Navigation wrote requesting Yards and Docks to provide, at the 
earliest possible date, barracks at the River Rouge plant of the Ford 
Automobile Co., Detroit, Mich., for selected portions of prospective 
crews who were to man the " Eagle " boats then under construction 
by the company. This request Avas given the Secretary's approval, 
limiting initial construction to a capacity of 1,000 men and 200 
officers, two davs later. 

iNG SiysnoN 



37022—21. (To face page 76.) 


Plans were quickly prepared, and actual construction work on a 
site about 500 yards from the shipyard was begun on February 16, 
1918. On May 31, 1918, the bureau was requested to add to the camp 
certain additional structures which would provide for special instruc- 
tion in the operation of Eagle boat machinery, together with other 
facilities for administration. 

A camp for 1,000 men and 200 training officers was constructed, 
provision being made for a possible future extension to the capacity 
originally desired. Work was completed on June 8, 1918, and the 
camp remained in operation until after the signing of the armistice. 


Training Canip^ San Diego, Calif. — The camp at San Diego, like 
Gulfport, was established temporarily to relieve overcrowding at 
other stations. Late in April the park commission of San Diego 
offered the free use of certain of the buildings in Balboa Park, which 
originally formed a part of the Panama-California Exposition. The 
overcrowding of the regular naval stations throughout the country 
caused the department after investigation to accept this offer. After 
some minor repairing and equipping, the first draft of 70 men was 
received May 20, 1917, and by June 6 provision had been made to 
accommodate 2,000 at each mess, so that the full capacity of 4,000 
men could be subsisted in two shifts. The outbreak of contagion in 
July necessitated the establishment of a tent isolation camp of about 
500 tents, which w^ere sent by express from the nearest source of sup- 
ply (New Y®rk City) , with instructions to put all hands under canvas 
until the situation had improved. From then on Balboa Park be- 
came substantially a tent camp, although improvements to the build- 
ings were made which ultimately provided for a total capacity of 
5,000 men. The necessity for expanding this camp became apparent 
toward the end of the war period, and suitable sites for the erection 
of barracks were being investigated, which but for the signing of the 
armistice would probably have been erected on land adjacent to San 
Diego Bay. 

Training Camp, San Pedro, Calif. — On June 6, 1917, it was re- 
ported that part of a pier and shed of concrete construction, located in 
San Pedro (Los Angeles Harbor), Calif., and capable of accom- 
modating 1,000 men, was offered free for the period of the war. By 
the installation of equipment and minor improvements, such as plumb- 
ing and partitions, a camp was put in commission on June 11. Addi- 
tional space was later secured, but as a part of the original was 
turned over to the submarine forces only about 1,200 men could be 
cared for at any time. Additional quarters for 2,400 men were 
provided in tents erected on land adjacent to the pier, of which a 
capacity of 800 was isolated for incoming detention purposes. On 


this extension wooden structures used as mess houses, auxiliary build- 
ings, and instruction halls were erected. 


Naval Training Station^ San Francisco, Calif. — In 1898 a training 
station, the only one on the west coast, was established on a small 
island in San Francisco Bay known as Goat Island or Yerba Buena, of 
which 107.3 acres was devoted to the naval reservation. This site is by 
no means ideal for a training station because of the precipitous slopes 
to be found. For this reason serious difficulties were encountered in 
accomplishing the necessary w\ar-time expansion. The existing main 
barracks consisted of a single story-and-a-half wooden building 
of inferior design and poor ventilation, but affording habitation for 
a maximum of 625 men. The onlj^ increase possible at this point 
would have been effected by tearing down this structure and erecting 
a two or three story building on the same site, and this was deemed 
unwise. The old Marine barracks some distance away was converted 
into a detention quarters, which, together with certain cabins adjacent 
thereto, was capable of housing about 240 men. By an ingenious 
arrangement of tents in terraces on the hillside, shelter was provided 
for the increasing war personnel. The improvised detention barracks 
(originally built for 80 Marines) was overcrowded and insanitary 
and soon proved entirely inadequate for the new demands. As soon 
as tents became available, this old building was abandoned as a 
barracks and utilized for kitchen, mess hall, offices, dispensary, etc. 
It became necessary to extend even the tent camps, and this was made 
possible only hj the use of a part of the lighthouse reservation on 
the island. Latrines, washhouses, and a new galley designed for 
5.000 men were erected near the old barracks, but winter conditions 
were not considered sufficiently severe at this point to justify the 
replacing of the tent camp with wooden barracks, especially in view 
of the topographical difficulties attending such construction. 

Receiving Ship, Mare Island, Calif. — Early in April, 1917, the 
total estimated capacity for recruits received at Mare Island was 
only GOO, to obtain which it was contemplated making use of the 
seamen's barracks and a ship moored at the yard. It was suggested 
that a portion of the then projected prison camp could be built which 
would provide for an additional 500 men. However, the Bureau of 
Navigation, in view of the conditions at San Francisco, felt that 
this capacity was too small, and on April 25, 1917, wired the yard 
to consider the erection of temporary barracks for 5,000 men. This 
was the inception of the training camp at Mare Island, which was 
afterwards designated as an annex to the receiving ship. It was 
not until September 1, 1917, that the receiving-ship establishment 


was formall}' commissioned, tlie command including' about 100 men 
on the U, S. S. Intrepid^ a barracks building for 500 men. and the 
new camp, which b}' this date was practically completed. While 
this provided for a total of 5,600 men, the total capacity was reduced 
to 3,120 when the sanitary requirements of the Bureau of ^Medicine 
and Surgery were applied. 


Training Camp, Puget Sound Navy Yard. — Like all other naval 
districts, the thirteenth felt the need for additional accommodations 
at an early date. The Naval Militia of Oregon and Washington were 
mobilized at the Puget Sound yard, and added about 700 to their 
complement within about 10 days after war was declared. In addi- 
tion, recruits were flowing in. On May 10, 1917, the commandant 
advised that 1,600 men were already assembled. These were being 
c-(uartered aboard the U. S. S. Philadelphia, long used as a receiving 
ship at Puget Sound, and the U. S. S. Boston, which had been 
pressed into service to supplement the former. In addition, a tent 
camp was put in operation on May 15, and continued until October, 
when the occupants were transferred to wooden barracks. These 
wooden barracks were decided upon when the Bureau of Yards and 
Docks, on May 12, 1917, was requested to erect a camp for 5,000 
men. The area selected offered difficulties to rapid construction, it 
being largely a wooded swamp. Enlisted forces were utilized for 
cutting trees, pulling stumps, and filling marsh}^ areas, while the 
buildings were erected by station labor. Double-deck bunks were 
used in these barracks, and later, when Medicine and Surgery re- 
(|uirements were applied, the maximum capacity was reduced about 
50 per cent. This reduction was compensated for by the establish- 
ment of a tent camp, heated by oil stoves, and by the remodeling of 
an old marine barracks, previously condemned. 

Training Camp, Seattle, Wash. — The following information is pre- 
sented from the personal account of the civil engineer officer then in 
charge of public works at Puget Sound, Capt. L, E. Gregory : 

Early in Juue of 1917 it was decided that a training camp should be built on 
a portion of the grounds of the State University at Seattle for the purpose of 
training recruits for the Navy. The authorities in charge of this university, 
under the direction of Dr. Henry Suzzallo, were most enthusiastic in their de- 
sire to place at the disposal of the Government the facilities of the university, 
in order that they might be made of greatest use during the continuation of 
the war. As its location was immediately uix)n water which had a direct con- 
nection with the sea, it was natural that this institution should lean moi*e 
strongly to the Navy, inasmuch as so many other universities throughout the 
country not so situated were in a position to give greater assistance to the 
Army. Arrangements having been made with the Navy Department for the 
construction of such a camp, plans were made early in June for a temporary 
tent camp for housing 500 men. As the location was such that yard labor was 
37022—21 G 


not available, the work was placed under contract with a local concern on 
June 29, 1917, and Commander Miller Freeman, U. S. N. R. F., who had for 
several years been greatly interested in the State naval militia, was placed 
in command. A'ery quick worlv was done on this camp, for on .July 27 an in- 
spection was made preliminary to its being placed in actual commission. 

Hardly had the camp been made ready for the 500 recruits from the State of 
Washington when it was decided to train an additional 500 men from Oregon, 
necessitating additional construction. Thereafter, the construction had to be 
augmented frequently on account of the constant increases in the number of 
recruits authorized for training. A very high class of men were obtained in this 
section, and advantage was taken of the univer.sity facilities for classroom 
work. This even extended to instruction in aviation, and an aviation school 
was one of the adjuncts of the camp toward its latter days. This addition was 
made possible through the generosity of Mr. Boeing, the head of the. Boeing 
Airplane Factory in Seattle. He presented to the university much equipment 
for experimentation in aeronautic work, and this was of great value in training 
Navy recruits. 

The capacity of the training camp was increa.sed to such an extent that at 
the time of the signing of the armistice there were about 3.000 men under i!i- 
struction therein. 


The idea of the " composite camp " is introduced as a conception 
unifying and correlating the diverse components of the emergency 
training system as treated individually in the foregoing. The thought 
of the camps as a composite is indeed not misleading, if considera- 
tion be given the relation the one station bore to another. One camp 
often centered about a special instruction school, and drew its 
students from the apt personnel of other camps. Some were used as 
general training centers, while others functioned as mobilization 
imclei from which men were distributed to the various training 
camps, while still others operated as receiving ships or barracks for 
the armed guard or general detail, drawing their complement from 
the forces who had completed training at various points. The 
promiscuous use of the term " station " and " camp " may be con- 
fusing to those who were active in this branch of the naval service, 
for during the war the t^vo terms took on distinct meanings, the lat- 
ter indicating only those activities of a temporary nature, while the 
former designated one of the four original permanent locations and 
incident growth about them. Even this distinction does not entirely 
eliminate the composite camp, for all were organized and operating 
to the same end — to man the Navy — and with a view to picturing the 
growth of training facilities the accompanying cumulative curve has 
been prepared. This curve takes into account only completed work, 
both at the armistice and at other times. Work nearing completion 
at the armistice, if shown, would have indicated a higher maximum 
and a still more rapid rate of progress. 

The reader must not reach the conclusion that the composite camp 
theory permitted a standardization of design, for in fact the training 



activities of the Navy are iinitied only through the coordination of 
their management and operation. The only approach to standard- 
ization came near the end of the period of hostilities, when the de- 
tention or isolation-camp barracks were developed — this being one 
feature common to all camps regardless of their special activities. 
Toward the end, the main barracks in the general training camps 
were being standardized, but in nearly all of the later extensions 
some minor changes were necessitated to meet the requirements of a 
particular location. 

No general scheme for the arrangement of buildings could be de- 
vised, as each site presented a different problem. Some camps, en- 











































aooo c 

SI -A 















Chart showing naval recruit-training fa- 
cilities as completed during emergency 

tirely distinct from the existing naval establishment, naturally re- 
quired administrative and industrial groups which were unnecessary 
when the new development w^as to become a contiguous part of an 
existing station. More often, the utilities to be provided presented 
a greater problem : in some locations the existing water supply, sewer, 
gas, and electric systems could be utilized, wdiile in most instances 
the existing facilities, if any. wqvq not of sufficient ca])acity to care 
for the proposed construction. 

Harvard Radio School, Pelham Bay Park, City Park, and in fact 
most of the camps near large cities, were amply supplied by the city 
utilities, but on the otlier hand the requirements of Coddington 


Point necessitated the installation of both fresh and salt water sys- 
tems, the fresh water being supplied from Newport mains, while 
salt water for bathing, flushing, and fire protection was pumped 
from the bay. 

The sewer problems Avere often difficult, and sometimes necessitated 
special disposal plants : and very often sump pumps were re(piired. 

East Camp, Hampton Eoads, was provided with a single boiler 
plant for heating the entire establishment, while the topography of 
Coddington Point made it necessary to abandon the economy of a 
single plant and install three distinct power units. 

The roads, walks, electrical distribution, and street and fence 
illumination were all items presenting individual problems at each 
location, and one charged with the design of similar projects must 
consider them as such. 

The war developed two distinct tj'pcs of camps, both of Avhich 
were extremely satisf actor}' ; one l)ased on a unit system — at Great 
Lakes — grew to be the greatest of all, owing largely to the space 
available for expansion, while the other type may be described as a 
complete camp constructed at one time for the ultimate capacity 
permissiV)le under site conditions. 

East Camp. Hampton Poads. the last to be erected, was based 
on the latter scheme. This camp for 14,000 men, complete with the 
exception of an administration building, was executed in one opera- 
tion, and embodies in its design all the experience gained in the con- 
struction of over 40 previous camps. 



One of the civil eiij^inecr officers, Lieut. Conmuuuler F. N. Bollos (C. E. C. ). 
U. S. N. R. F., wlio liiid been on foreign duty, was ordered back to the United 
States shortly after tlie signing of the armistice, and was at once assigned duty 
at Newport, R. I., as officer in charge of construction for the completion of 
the Coddington I'oint project. This station was originally designed to accom- 
modate 15,000 men, but with the signing of the armistice was curtailed to 
10,000 men, and later to 8,000. The cutting down of the size of the station in- 
volved a complete redesign of all the services, such as tlu; heating, water 
supplj', sewer system, and electrical distribution. Tiie total expenditun^s on 
the work were in the neighborhood of six millions of dollars. 

The locations of many of the ))uildings had to be changed in order to make 
the remaining units complete, and this necessitated a rearrangement of the 
system of concrete roads. A great deal of design work was also necessary on 
the steam-heating system, the sewage dispo.sal, and the water-front develop- 
ments. A coal handling and storage plant was designed and constructed, and 
a boat basin and causeway, involving much dredging and subaqueous concrete 
placing, was also put tlintugh. This part of the work was all done during the 
winter of ]9]f)-20. wliicli was the most severe on record at Newport. There 


were maiij' days upon which it was impossible to reach the site of the work, 
due to the deep snows or intense cold. 

The curtailment in the size of the station also meant that the several con- 
tracts coverini,' the work had to be refigured to determine the compensation 
due till" contractors for the work which they actually performed and for the 
surplus materials on the site. This proved a very arduous task, requiring 
several months of close application and frequent trips to Washington to confer 
with the authorities at the bureau. 

I'robably the most serious difliculty encountered was the constant trouble 
with the labor unions, the disputes all arising from controversies within the 
unions themselves as to jurisdiction over the work. Newport and Providence 
locals of the various trades each claimed cognizance, and as a consequence 
the work was tied up several times for extended periods. 



The Great Lakes station is situated on the western shore of Lake ^Michigan, 
34 miles north of Chicago. It was originally constructed during the period 
1905-1911, and this construction was of a substantial and fireproof character, 
for a designed capacity of about 1,500 men. Its cost, including hospital, harbor, 
power plant, tunnels, sewage disposal and water filtration systems, bridges, 
etc., was about $3,500,000. A large drill hall was provided, and also a large 
instruction building, containing classrooms, auditorium, gymnasium, swim- 
ming pool, and recreation facilites. Liberal provisions were made for showers 
and plumbing, all buildings were heated from a central plant, and indirect heat- 
ing and ventilation were added wherever there was danger of congestion. 
It was a source of disappointment to the builders of the station that it was 
not used to its full capacity prior to 1917, owing to a more or less prevalent 
belief that its location was ill considered. 

When, before the war started, Capt. W'illiam A. Moffett became commandant, 
he appreciated to the full the advantages of location and the possibilities of the 
station, and urged that the station be used to the limit of its capacity. When 
war was declared, the advantages of location were immediately proved, and 
he was faced with the necessity of using tents to house the large number of 
incoming recruits. He advocated immediate construction of camp buildings, 
and by interviews with the Secretary and the chiefs of the Bureaus of Naviga- 
tion and Yards and Docks, he later secured approval for the construction of a 
camp for 15,000 men. 

The Bureau of Yards and Docks was impressed with the possibilities of this 
station, and, cooperating with the Bureau of Navigation and the commandant, 
took especial interest in this construction. Inasmuch as plans had to be pre- 
pared as work progressed, and only about three months remained before cold 
weather, it was decided to construct the camp under cost-plus-percentage con- 
tracts for the entire job. 

Instead, however, of following the Army practUv of letting one contract for 
the entire camp, the bureau divided the main building construction into three 
equal parts, as nearly as coidd be arrar.ged, with the object, first, of securing 
more rapid construction ; and second, of obtaining competition in economical 
and efficient construction Ijetween the different contractors. This plan proved 

»By Commander George A. McKay (C. E. C), U. S. N. 


most successful, and as the work progressed \hv operation rapidly developed 
into a race between three principal contractors. 

The original station covered a tract of land comprising KU) acres, extending 
about three-fourths of a mile from the tracks of the C. &. N. W. and C. & M. E. 
Railways, east to the lake, with a water frontage of about one-half mile. The 
commandant, foreseeing tiie need of expansion, had arranged leases for large 
tracts of additional land, north, south, and west of the original site. 

It was decided to place seven regiments of 1,700 men each, about 12,000 in 
all, west of the tracks, with Camp Dewey for three regiments to the north, 
and Camp Perry for four regiments, to the south. Two new receiving camps for 
observation of incoming men, of 1,700 capacity each, were planned to be 
located south of the original station and east of the railroad tracks. These 
were called Camps Farragut and Dec-atur. One outgoing assembly camp of 
1,700 men, called Camp Ross, was located between a ravine bounding Camps 
Farragut and Decatur on the east and the hospital. It was also planned to 
construct buildings for a 1,000-bed hospital expansion, together with buildings 
for contagious wards. North of the originaF station was located the large tent 
camp, known as Camp Paul Jones, which it was desired to convert into wooden 
barracks construction by means of such enlisted labor as would become available. 
About the middle of July, 1917, cost-plus-percentage contracts were let as 
follows : 

Paschen Bros., Camp I'erry, four regiments. 

John D. Griffith & Son Co., Camp Dewey, three regiments plus one extra 
drill hall and miscellaneous buildings. 

J. C. Hey worth, Camp Farragut, one regiment ; Camp Decatur, one regi- 
ment ; Camp Ross, one regiment ; and hospital buildings of 1,000-bed 

C. E. Carson Co., .seven contagious wards in addition to three then inider 
construction by same company. 

Leyden & Ortseifen, roads and walks and sewage disposal system. 

Leyden & Ortseifen, water supply and sewer distributing systems. 

C. & N. W. Ry., bridges and railroad tracks. 
The plans for hospital buildings were prepared at the bureau. Other plans 
were prepared at the station. Plans for .sewage disposal wer«' prepared by a 
fa-m of consulting sanitary engineers of Chicago. 

The building contractors, accompanied by a committee of lumber dealers 
from Chicago, came to Wa.shington in July, and with a i-epresentative of the 
bureau visited the various material committees organized iinder the Council 
of National Defense, and also the headquarters of the Construction Corps of 
the Army. Arrangements were made to secure the benefit of the standard 
prices for building material as agreed upon for the Army camps. In the case 
of lumber, however, the bureau decided upon a different course. Quotations 
having been received from the council's lumber committee on a sample bill of 
lumber taken from a preliminary plan for a barracks building, ba.sed on the 
proposition of shipping lumber direct from the mills, freight was added; and 
against this sum the lumber dealers from Chicago submitted a figure from 
stock in C^hicago. The latter was between .$7 and .$8 per 1,(K)0 board feet 
above the lumber committees' quotation plus freight, this diff(>rence represent- 
ing the cost of unloading into yards, storage, handling, and loading for ship- 
ment out of yards. Also a better quality and higher grade of material were 
covered. The bureau was agreeable to accepting a bid equivalent to $5 per 
1,000 above the basic figure, and this was eventually agreed upon, the lumber 


dealers of Chicago binding themselves to deliver all lumber at the station as 
required, on 48 liours' notice, at $36 per 1,000 board feet. There was at this 
time a large stock of lumber in Chicago. The bureau, being much concerned 
in securing a completed camp by fall, considered this policy much safer than 
i-isking deliveries from the mills, already pressed by large Army orders, not 
to mention congested transportation conditions. As it turned out, the regu- 
larity with which the lumber was secured enabled the thousands of carpenters 
employed to work througli the entire job without interruption or disorgani- 
zation, thus effecting a saving estimated to have been practically equal to 
excess cost of the local supply. The bureau's prompt decision on this point 
permitted the camp to be completed on time. Experience on deliveries of other 
materials used, none so important or requird so quickly after contracts 
were let, proved that had the lumber orders been placed at the mills as late 
as the middle of July, the camp could never have been completed and occupied 
during September and October of the same year. The bulk of the cnmp was 
occupied about two months after construction started. 

Commander George A. McKay, who had been the engineer for the building of 
the original station, was detached from the bureau on July 16, 1917, and re- 
IX)rted at Great Lakes as public works officer in charge of construction on July 
18. Plans were under way and construction had just started under the direc- 
tion of Commander Norman M. Smith. The first problem, both for Government 
and contractors, was one of organization. From the wealth of available per- 
sonnel existing near the station the commandant had selected and commissioned 
a number of civil and mechanical engineers, architects, and accountants. Re- 
cruits were being received, trained, and dispatched to the fleet by thousands. 
There had been placed in operation a system of cataloguing these men, and among 
them were found a large number of trained young men with special qualifications. 
It was thus a simple matter to secure assistants, and the Government construc- 
tion organization was rapidly perfected. 

The preparation of plans was at first under Lieut. Clark, who was succeeded 
by Ensign Cramer when the former took charge of the material-order section. 
The draftsmen were either commissioned or enlisted personnel and turned out 
without delay the hundreds of plans required on all parts of the camp construc- 
tion. All power plant, mechanical, and electrical plans were prepared by one 
squad and sewer and water service plans by another. 

The material-order section was of particular importance. Each contractor 
was required, before placing orders for any material, to submit to this section 
a material-order request in quadruplicate, giving a description of material, the 
quantity, the firm or firms from whom purchase was desired, and the price. 
The quantity was not closely checked, as the contractor was held responsible. 
The material-order section would approve the price, if correct ; and if not, 
would indicate where and from whom purchase should be made. The officer 
in charge of this section, Lieut. E. H. Clark, was an architect of experience in 
Chicago and was very familiar with the local markets. In cases of doubt he was 
able to secure, by telephone or telegraph, immediate competitive bids on the ma- 
terial in question. The fact that there were several independent contractors 
securing quotations on similar material helped this section to secure competitive 
prices. Much of the material, such as roofing, paint, piping, etc., was purchased 
from approved firms at prices fixed by the material committees of the Council of 
National Defense. Large items, such as radiators, valves, hydrants, boilers, wire 
rope, etc., were taken up immediately with, the largest national dealers, bids 
were secured on the entire estimated quantities, and orders placed accordingly 
for all contracts. On approval of a purchase order one copy, signed by the 


officer iu charge, went to the contractor as authority to purchase, one to the 
material inspector for checking material as unloaded from the car, one to the 
accountant for checking of bills and preparation of vouchers for payment, and 
(he remaining copy was retained in the material-purchase section for reference 
and record. 

The material inspection and checking section was under the control of Car- 
penter C. J. Lishman, whose energy and initiative made this branch a success. 
He had from 30 to 40 enlisted men as checkers. These men were placed 
according to their past experience, and evei'y article received was tallied, 
inspected, and recorded as unloaded. Every stick of lumber received was 
surveyed and accepted or rejected, and the amounts found w'ere sent to the 
accounting section for checking bills for voucher payment. As many as 67 
cars of material were unloaded in a da3'. The section for expediting and 
tracing shipments, in charge of Lieut. Bower, transferred from the inspection 
force, performed most excellent work in securing prompt deliveries. This 
officer gave particular attention to boiler deliveries, and spent much time 
at various works expediting shop constructions. Early consideration was 
given to the feasibility of ordering, checking, and accounting for plumbing, 
steam-fitting, and electrical supplies, and of prosecuting these items of con- 
struction, and it was decided to be impracticable to attempt to check all the 
miscellaneous items of small parts and fittings and tools entering into these 
classes of work. Accordingly, as rapidly as plans were completed for each 
camp, bids were taken, both by the general contractor concerned and the officer 
in charge, and subcontracts were let through the general contractor for power 
plant efiuipment, stacks, and guys; plurrrbing, heating, lighting, skylight and 
sheet metal construction, etc. In some cases, such as for certain kitchen equip- 
ment, material was purchased direct by the Government and installed by sub- 
contract. Cement was purchased under Navy standard contracts. The princi- 
pal assistant to the officer in charge, Lieut. Willard Doud, was directly respon- 
sible for the securing and letting of subcontracts. 

The chief inspector of construction over all camps, Lieut. It. K. Merrill, was 
ably supported by his assistants assigned to particular duties at each camp. 
These inspectors were directly responsible for the quality of workmanship on 
constiniction, and they concentrated on this feature. They also reported on all 
cases of threatened shortage of material, and were responsible for the care and 
inventory of tools and the prevention of waste of material. 

P3nsign H. A. Stanley was in chai'ge of the accounting section and timekeepers, 
and had 80 to 40 assistants, mostly enlisted personnel. Under a head timekeeper 
3 or 4 timekeepers, as required, were assigned to each contract. Each workman, 
on reporting, secured his time check, which he carried with him during the 
day and deposited on leaving at the completion of a day's work — these opera- 
tions being witnessed by the timekeepers. In addition to this, the timekeepers 
passed from building to building and group to group, and checked the men 
by name and check nunrber once each morning and each afternoon. If a man 
was not found on the work, in addition to checking in and out morning and 
evening, he was not paid. Thousands of men were employed and m-any, 
particularly laborers, were foreigners, mostly Italians. The checkijig was most 
thoroughly done, and resulted in several arrests being made for attempted im- 
personation. Payments were witnessed by the same timekeepers. 

To prevent the unauthorized presence of strangers in the camps, each work- 
nran wore an enameled badge bearing the name of the contractor and a number 
corresponding to that on his time check. These badges also assisted in identi- 
fying the men, particMilarly on the special transportation trains from Chicago. 


Another case of petty fraud uncovered was in the abuse of transportation 
tickets. Three special trains carried about 1,500 worlvmen eacli to and from 
Chicago daily. These men traveled on 25-ride interchangeable commutation 
tickets purchased by and carried by the contractors' timekeepers, who passed 
through the train with the conductor, identified the workmen, and counted and 
paid for the number traveling on each contract. It was suspected that enlisted 
men and others were at times passed and paid for by some of the contractors' 
timekeepers. Arrangements were made to put three chosen enlisted men on each 
train on a certain day, with the result that fraud was discovered and those 
guilty were discharged. A liberal estimate was made of the extent of the loss, 
and it was charged back to the contractors. Following this, all checking of men 
on transportation trains was performed by the Government timekeepers. 

The accounting section was also responsible for all payments. Toward the 
end of each month each contractor assembled all paid bills and pay rolls and 
forwarded these, in duplicate, to the accounting office. These were checked 
and each original was attached to an original of public bill for the monthly 
payment by the Government. As the vouchers came to the public-works officer 
for signature, each individual receipt was initialed by, first, the man respon- 
sible for the correctness of the price paid, as compared with the authority to 
purchase ; second, by the man responsible for quantity, as compared with the 
material inspector's report ; third, by the man responsible for the correctness 
of arithmetical extensions ; fourth, by a man responsible for general features, 
such as debits for discount for prompt payment when conditions of purchase so 
permitted, which debit was taken by the Government, whether advantage of 
the discount had been taken by contractor or not ; examination as to whether 
voucher was an original paper or duplicate and properly executed, etc. Finally 
it was initialed by the head of the accounting section for complete certification. 
Certain monthly vouchers on certain contracts amounted to nearly three- 
quarters of a million dollars and covered hundreds of transactions, yet they 
were put through for payment in a few days. It was necessary, however, to 
throw out at times doubtful bills, pending further analj'sis, and these were 
taken up on the following month's vouchers. 

The foregoing covers that part of the public works organization dealing with 
contract work. The quickness with which the organization was assembled and 
commenced operation, and the results obtained, were possible only because the 
young men available were of the highest standard. The section heads particu- 
larly showed marked efficiency in initiation, judgment, energy, and tireless 
effort. Every man in the organization appeared to realize the importance of 
his particular duty as a link in the complete chain, and every man was hard 
pressed to keep his section from dragging. There was no question of hours, 
and work proceeded through Sundays and holidays, many putting in 12 hours 
a day. 

Inspectors' reports of trouble were discussed, auJ suggestions made for speed- 
ing construction, at organization conferences held thrice weekly, at 5 p. m. 
Advantage was had of individual experiences, and eaclv was inspired to harder 
effort by the accomplishments of the others. Speed" and cost were given the 
closest attention, and the question, " What will be found wrong when the camp 
is used?" was constantly before the conference for study, with the result that 
Avhen winter came the anticipated troubles did not materialize. The Govern- 
ment organization as a whole rapidly became most proficient, and, as in the 
case of other camp performances, records were constantly being broken. When 
in the fall it was discovered on a Saturday morning that an additional boiler 
plant of 900 horsepower was necessary as a result of the addition of a number 


of buildiugs along the north side of the original station, it was decided to con- 
struct an additional lieating plant. The boilers required were located, by long- 
distance telephone, at Kewanee, 111. The Chicago agent was found (on the 
golf links), the boiler dimensions were secured, and the boilers ordered. Plans 
v.ere then drawn, bids taken, contracts let, materials secured, and in 15 days 
after the plant was tirst thought of, the building, boilers, stack, piping, and 
underground connections were completed and the plant was delivering steam. 

The contractors employed, when work was at the maximum, in August and 
September, approximately 6,000 men. The majority of the buildings were occu- 
pied in September, and all in October, except for certain buildiugs ordered later, 
and except for the hospital buildings. The latter were delayed until November, 
their commencement having been deferred pending the completion of certain 
railway facilities. The first wards were ready on November G, the others 
following rapidly, and the last two wards were completed by November 28. 

There were constructed in the summer and fall of 1917 approximately 450 
buildings, containing 33,000,000 cubic feet, and requiring 50 acres of ready 
roofing. There were 26 separate boiler plants, containing 81 boilers giving a 
total of 7,112 boiler horsepower. In all, 324,160 square feet of radiators were 
used, with 103 miles of heating mains. Plumbing fixtures totaled : Closets, 
1,875 ; lavatories, 2,051 ; showers, 1,518 ; sinks, 605 ; other fixtures, 481. Total 
lumber used by contractors was 23,806,135 board feet. About 3,500 carloads 
of material were used on the contract work. The maximum number of cars 
discharged in one day was 67. 

The costs on the contracts covered in the foregoing amounted to $5,507,571.22. 

This construction, together with Camp Paul Jones (constructed by enlisted 
forces) and the original station buildings, gave accommodations, without crowd- 
ing, for about 27,000 men. 


The expansion effected at Great Lakes in 1917 provided most satisfactorily 
for the emergency that had arisen, but the l)eginniug of 1918 saw no intermis- 
sion in the tide of recruiting from the Middle West, which, by the fall of the 
year, was to demand a station capacity of at least 50,000. 

The public works officer, Commander W. H. Allen, who arrived on the project 
in January, 1918, to relieve Commander McKay, found the 1917 camps com- 
pleted and occupied, and he proceeded at once to the duties lying ahead. 

Modifications of the former organization were effected, in line with later and 
relatively stabilized construction conditions. The organization finally adopted 
in the spring of 1918 is outlined below. 

Dire<'tly under the pul)llc works officer was tlic executive officer, Lieut. Com- 
mander Doud, whose duties, as the title implies, were to see that the orders of 
the public works officer were carried out and that the work of the various 
sections was properly performed. He handled all the minor details of the office. 

The force was organized into several divisions, as follows : The clerical di- 
vision under a chief clerk, Mr. H. C. Litchfiehl, which looked after all work of 
correspondence, accounting, and making requisitions; the projects division under 
Lieut. Munroe, which had charge of all drafting, specifications, and surveying; 
the contract division under Lieut. Clark, which took charge of the supervision 
of all work done through Yards and Docks contracts ; the station labor division 
under Lieut. Beard, which had charge of all the work done by the enlisted and 
civilian force, both construction and maintenance and operation, and which 

> By Commander W. H. Allen (C. E. C), TJ. S. N, 


was divided into several sections, such as tlie building section, power section, 
transportation section, grounds section, and railroad and coal section ; the 
regimental division, under Lieut. Davis, which had charge of the military work 
of the department and handled all matters of personnel. 

The work done under Bureau of Yards and Docks contracts was all done 
under a lump sum, with the exception of that let early in the war. In 1917 
there were 14 contracts awarded at a total cost of $5,561,000. In 1918, 60 were 
awarded, amounting to $11,370,000. Contracts awarded in 1919, but under 
which a large part of the work had been done during the war, were four, total- 
ing $104,000. The total of all contracts performed during the war was thus, 
approximately, $17,000,000. 

Contract work progressed rapidly, and at the time of the armistice there 
were only two or .three contracts which could be modified by the omission of 
work. Final liquidation was delayed in numerous cases through refusal of 
contractors to accept settlement, but within three months after the armistice 
there was only one contract awarded during the war which had not been entirely 
completed so far as all construction work was concerned. 

In 1918 the work was as rapid as in 1917. The most important contracts were 
as follows: Contract No. 2835 with Paschen Bros., for $1,374,000, for the con- 
struction of the aviation mechanics' school ; contract No. 2859 with Paschen Bros., 
for $2,134,000, for the outgoing detention camp ; contract No. 3247 wath English 
Bros., amounting to $2,259,000, for three regimental units (Camp Lawrence) ; 
contx-act No. 3303 with Paschen Bros., for $849,000, for the Naval Auxiliary Re- 
serve school ; contract No. 3304-A with C. E. Carson Co., amounting to $875,000, 
for additions to Camp Paul Jones ; contract No. 3459 wdth Paschen Bros., amount- 
ing to $364,000, for three drill halls and power houses. 

The contract division at its height comprised 176 enlisted men experienced on 
structures, plans, and construction work and accounting. 

Practically all plans for construction at the station were prepared in the proj- 
ects division of the public works department. The chief exceptions were a few 
buildings at the hospital and the outgoing detention camp. This division made 
some notable records, among wiiich might be cited the preparation of the plans 
and specifications for Camp Lawrence, a project which cost over $2,000,000. As 
soon as the Secretary had authorized the work the public works officer, who was 
in Washington at the time, telegraphed orders to begin the preparation of plans; 
and 11 days after the work was authorized the public works officer started for 
Washington again with the plans and specifications, which comprised over 100 
drawings and more than 200 typewritten pages of specifications. In preparing 
these plans men worked in relays, and the specification writers in the last few 
nights worked continuously except for two or three hours of sleep. 

The work of the station labor division consisted chiefly of the maintaining of 
the station. There was assigned to each regiment a detachment from the public 
works department, who looked after all maintenance work of that regiment, in- 
cluding the operation of the powder plant, the repairs to buildings, aU services, 
and the minor altei-ations constantly going on. It was found necessary, on 
account of the great area covered by the station, to build public works barracks 
in Camps Perry and Decatur ; one battalion of the public works regiment, con- 
sisting of 800 men, occupied the former barracks, and 450 men were located in 
the latter. The main part of the public works regiment lived in Camp Paul 
Jones, but there were other barracks and parts of barracks throughout the whole 
station occupied by public works men. This system of carrying on the regimen- 
tal maintenance by trained men from public works was found far superior to 
the method of having the regiments look after their own maintenance, since they 


did not possess the trained force, tlie qualified supervision, nor the incentive. 
The metliod followed tended toward uniformity of the work in each regiment. 

As a natural consequence of the large force in the public works department, a 
great deal of construction was done by enlisted men. Several jobs of considerable 
magnitude were undertaken and carried through successfully, but the greater 
part of their work comprised a very large number of small jobs, in the nature of 
additions and alterations to the regimental buildings and the general buildings 
on the main station. 

The transportation section, which included the operation of motor vehicles, 
was one of the busiest branches of the department. Vehicles were not detailed, 
but were all operated from the central organization. A large shop was built 
and was constantly kept busy with the repair and rebuilding of these motor 
vehicles. One very interesting incidental performance of the transportation 
section was the driving to places in the East of trucks bought by the Navy De- 
partment in the vicinity of Chicago. Some 30 to 40 trucks were taken east in 
this manner, the first making the trip to New York, a distance of more than 
800 miles, in five days. The saving to the Government in time of delivery 
when railroad transportation was so badly congested amounted to many weeks. 

Another very interesting work was the expedition sent to the St. Claire 
River Flats Canal to repair the barracks for the patrol force at that place. 
This expedition took its own equipment, camped on the site, and built bar- 
racks most expeditiously. Much work was done also at the municipal pier in 
the city of Chicago for the school and camp of three or four thousand men 
maintained at that place. The organization of the regiment for rescue work 
at the time of the Mississippi valley floods, in the spring of 1918, was thorough, 
and the expedition was ready to start on an hour's notice. Fortunately, con- 
ditions did not develop so grave as to require its services. 

Certain types of construction are believed to be peculiar to the Great Lakes 
station, if not to have originated there. Chief among these is the H -shaped type 
of barracks, the washing and toilet rooms of which are located in the cross 
of the H . This made possible the locating of four companies of men on each 
floor of the building, each having its own toilet and latrine facilities. The final 
development of this type was a two-story building providing eight barracks 
rooms, each with a capacity of 36 men on the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery 
standard, but capable in the summer season of holding 60 men without crowd- 
ing or menace to laealth. 

The drill halls, with McKeown arches, i-eached a high state of development 
at this station. The standard type had a span of 100 feet and a length of 500 
or 600 feet, but one hall built to accommodate two regiments with a capacity 
of 6,000 men, was 800 feet long with a span of 120 feet. Some of these build- 
ings were partitioned off for instruction purposes and for shops. 

The type of detention building differed somewhat from that used at other 
stations. It comprised simply two rooms for the one-story type and four 
rooms for the two-story type, with a capacity of 12 men per room. The food 
was brought to the men in thermos cans from the central galley of each 

The mess halls of the training camps were divided into company rooms for 
the purpose of better control of men during meal hours, and also with some 
thought of isolation in case of epidemic. There were 12 to 16 mess rooms in 
each building, all .served from a central galley by a long corridor extending 
lengthwise of the building. The first mess halls were not of the self-service 
type, but later this feature was introduced and steam tables were installed in 
each mess room. 


The finest camp built on the station was Camp Lawrence, the last completed. 
Here the niiml)er of buildings was reduced to a minimum, there being three 
regimental units, each containing six barracks buildings, housing 300 men 
each, and two H -shaped buildings of the same size as the barracks, which 
contained the regimental offices, the instruction rooms, the storerooms, the 
dispensary, the isolation wards, and barracks for the maintenance force and 
band. One mess hall served each regiment, one power house and one drill hall 
served two regiments, and one laundry and one garage served the whole camp. 
The power houses and mess halls backed against the railroad spur, so that 
the operating cost of the camp was reduced to a minimum. 

The athletic building, together with the grand stand, the baseball and 
football fields, and the running tracks, comprised an athletic unit hardly to be 
equaled in the country. The grand stand had a capacity of 15,000. One of 
the few 440-yard straightaway tracks in the country was built. The athletic 
building itself, aside from the offices of that department, provided lockers for 
the various teams, dormitories for visiting athletes, handball courts, and a 
swimming pool. 

Mention should be made of the water filtration and sewage disposal features 
at this station. They were increased several fold during the war, embodied 
tlie latest features of sanitary engineering, and were at all times adequate 
for the station population, which at its maximum was 48,300 men. 


The work undertaken b}^ the Bureau of Yards and Docks for the 
Marine Corps included several large and important undertakings 
and a large number of minor projects, such as quarters for marine 
guards at various points. One of the most noteworthy constructions 
was the extension to the quartermaster storehouse in the city of 
Philadelphia, for which contracts were awarded in September, 1917. 
A new barracks building to accommodate 400 men was designed and 
constructed in the Philadelphia nav}^ yard, the contract being 
awarded November 26, 191T. An advance-base storehouse in the 
same yard was contracted for in June, 1917, and completed in De- 

Xew barracks were designed for the American legation guard in 
Peking, China, and for the naval station at Key West, and a quarter- 
master storehouse and post exchange Avas built at the naval station. 
Pearl Harbor, 

The largest project for the Marine Corps which the bureau has 
undertaken is the construction of an expeditionary base on a site 
selected by the Commission on Navy Yards and Naval Stations, at 
San Diego, Calif. It is intended that this base shall be a model of 
its kind, and it is estimated that the entire project, when completed, 
will cost approximately $5,000,000. The site which was selected 
was low land, some of it submerged at high tide, and a considerable 
amount of filling was required before the construction of buildings 
could be commenced. In addition to barracks to accommodate about 
1,700 marines, there will be an administration building, gymnasium, 
quartermaster storehouse, expeditionary storehouse, power plant, 
with laundry and bakery attached, dispensary, guardhouse, officers' 
quarters, Avater supply and sewerage systems, electric lighting, heat- 
ing, and refrigerating systems, a sea wall, a shipping pier, and all 
the other accessories necessary to make the base complete in every 

In compliance with directions of the Secretary of the Navy, the 
Bureau of Yards and Docks on March 26, 1918. submitted tentative 
plans for a barracks to accommodate 500 marine guards for the navy 
yard, Portsmouth, N. H. The resulting contract, awarded on July 
8, 1918, and completed November 23, 1918, provided a two-storj- 
building of a permanent type including under one roof complete fa- 
cilities for housing and messing 545 members of the marine guard, 

and in addition, barracks for 40 cooks and messmen. 



At the declaration of war, along with the rest of the Navy, the 
personnel of the Marine Corps increased rapidly, and it became nec- 
essary to provide rendezvous for its recruits where the necessary 
training and instruction might be conducted on a large scale. After 
the Marine Corps had arranged the preliminaries, the Bureau of 
Yards and Docks on June 4, 1917, awarded a contract, which origi- 
nally contemplated the construction at Quantico of 272 buildings: 
but various additions increased this total to 320 temporary buildings, 
together with the utilities necessary to house, mess, and train 6,900 
men. The contract included shops, artillery sheds, dispensaries, of- 
fices, officers' quarters, and a hospital for 100 beds, with accommoda- 
tions for a hospital personnel numbering 51 persons. This contract 
was completed in the early part of March, 1918, and still further ex- 
jDansion of the station was realized by construction work, which 
began on June 24, and was completed November 30, 1918, furnish- 
ing additional facilities for 2,200 men in the infantry, 400 in the 
artillery, and 200 in officer schools, besides providing a hospital ex- 
tension for 200 beds. 

The original source of water at Quantico was artesian wells, but 
the flow proved insufficient, and a supply was developed by the con- 
struction of a dam in Chappawamsic Creek, with a pumping station 
and filtration plant some 4 miles from camp. 

Parris Island was selected as a site for a Marine training camp, 
and the immediate need for housing there was realized at the outset 
of the war. To this end the Bureau of Yards and Docks on April 
21, 1917, awarded a contract to cover the construction of approxi- 
mately 233 temporary buildings, together with all appurtenances. 
The work, completed by March, 1918, provided facilities for 3,000 
men and auxiliary buildings for an additional tent camp of 2,000. 
A later extension of this camp under a bureau contract was started 
on July 24, 1918, and when completed (December, 1918), this af- 
forded additional quarters for 4,100 men, together with the necessary 
auxiliary buildings, alterations of existing structures, extension of 
the hospital, and construction of piers, officers' quarters, etc., in all 
about 288 buildings. 

The Avater supply of Parris Island was taken from wells, a test 
of which showed a considerable quantity of salt. The only source 
of fresh water being trans])()rtation by barge from the mainland, the 
salt water was distributed for bathing, washing, flushing, and fire 
protection, while fresh water was distributed by a small-pipe system 
to the hospital and main station, and by tank wagons to the camps, 
for drinking and cooking purposes. Even with strict supervision 
the increase in population soon overtaxed the existing system, and 
it was not until a submerged pipe line to Port Royal was completed 
that the island was provided with an adequate supply of fresh water. 








E QJ1 J DOCie- 


i. ''_:_-| =^-^==Jil= 



Generi] layout at UurlDC Corps Baso, San DIcgo, Calif. 






General. — In 1916, subsequent to the beginning of the World War 
but previous to the entrance of the United States in the conflict, the 
Bureau of Yards and Docks, after consultation with the Bureau of 
Medicine and Surgery, prepared drawings for two hospital bases to 
accommodate 5,000 patients each. The plans were drawn, assuming 
that one hospital base would be established on the east coast and the 
other on the west coast. The buildings were carefully designed and 
checked with information obtained by a representative of the Bureau 
of Medicine and Surger}^ while he was on a trip of inspection in Ger- 
many during the early part of the war. 

When the United States entered the war, the idea of the tw^o large 
naval hospital bases was abandoned. Plans for increasing the capac- 
ities of the then established hospital centers were substituted for the 
plans of the two large hospital bases. A sudden call for naval hos- 
pital accommodations necessitated the development of a type of hos- 
pital for ({uick construction and easy expansion. It was found that 
material for and the construction of buildings of the same approxi- 
mate dimensions as those being used by the Army could be more 
readily obtained for hospital purposes than those shown by other 
designs. Consequently, the first hospital construction was based on 
the Army barracks unit. When, hoAvever, the Bureau of Medicine 
and Surgery had been provided Avith facilities to keep abreast of the 
demands of the service, plans were prepared for hospital layouts to 
be subsequently erected Avhich were larger, more efficient, and more 
satisfactory for the needs of the hospital service. The width of the 
Army unit was too small for advantageous use for general hospital 

Where new hospitals were to be erected at a distance from an ex- 
isting hospital station, a complete self-sustaining group was designed, 
providing its own heating plant, laundry, disinfecting apparatus, 
storehouse, and buildings needed to meet the usual requirements for 
administration, subsistence, and operating purposes. These unit 
groups were designed for capacities of 100, 150, and 200 men per 
group, consideration, being given to possible expansion, such as oc- 
curred in several units. 




The first units were of Avood construction, one story high, Avith 
drop-siding exterior, ready-to-hiy roofing, and Avith interiors sheathed 
A\'ith AAOod ceiling or prepared ceiling board as the case might be. 
CoA^ered Avalk Avays Avere i)rovidcd for coniinunication betAveen Avard, 


s HI ^ 

r> []^ 4& gfes «'» EPn '8''9' [f*o ""3^ 

■^ Ir ^s' '^* ^jgp 

gsy ^a* Ki =3 [43 0^'^;*~]5S[i~"«& [M] « 

" tLW Jk' ' -GENERAL LAYOUT OF JA WlIAial BASE- ___ifW*»v^ 



■-■■ / 


/C</ \ 



Prewar design for hospital bases, east aud west coasts. 

administration, subsistence, and operating buildings. At the close of 
the Avar there Avere in operation in the United States and Hawaii 27 
hospital centers, as shoAvn beloAv. The normal bed capacities pro- 
vided by the emergencA' construction are also indicated. 

Hospital center. 

Portsmouth, N. H, Mass 

Newport, R.I 

New London, Conn 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

AVards "Island, N. Y 

PcUiam Bay, N. Y 

Grays Ferry Road^ Philadelphia, Pa.. 

League Island, Philadelphia, Pa 

Cape May, N.J 

AVashington, D. C 

Quantieo, Va 

Annapolis, Md 

Norfolk, Va 

Bed ca- 


Bed ca- 

Hospital center. ^^^J' 

^ gency 


j tion. 

Hampton Roads, Va : 750 

Charleston, S. C i 715 

Parris Island, S. C i 185 

Pensaeola, Fla 200 

Kev West, Fla 150 

Gulfport, Miss 150 

New Orleans, La 200 

Great Lakes, 111 j 1, 500 

Fort L von, Colo I 

Mare Island, Calif 550 

San Diego, Calif 500 

Pugct Sound, Wash 100 

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii , 


Seaplane view of Naval Hospital, Chelsea, Mass., showing emergency units. 

Seaplane view of Naval Hospital. Wards Island, N. Y. 


As mentioned hereinafter, there had been established l-'i overseas 

The figures noted above are actual normal bed capacities, and do 
not take into account the use of porches or solaria for bed patients ; 
nor do the figures include the Medical Corps and associated personnel, 
for whom suitable provision was also made. 

At the naval hospital, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and at the naval 
hospital, Fort Lyon, Colo., only limited emergency hospital con 
struction was undertaken, as there was ample provision for all prob- 
able war needs. At San Diego, Calif., temporary buildings previ- 
ously used for the San Diego exposition and several portable build- 
ings, accommodating in all about 500 patients, were used, with the 
intention of keeping these structures in commission until the com- 
pletion of the permanent naval hospital in Balboa Park, San Diego, 
about February, 1922. 

The first groups of emergency hospital buildings to be erected were 
started at Philadelphia (League Island), Pa., Charleston, S. C, 
Pensacola, Fla., and New Orleans, La. The buildings for these bases 
were all one story in height and formed complete units. The first 
groups at Pensacola, New Orleans, and Charleston provided 200 beds 
each, and the one at League Island 275 beds. These hospitals were 
quickly followed by other units. ' 

The emergency hospital construction at Portsmouth, Chelsea, New- 
port, Brooklyn, Grays Ferry Road (Philadelphia), Washington, 
Annapolis, Norfolk, Parris Island, Great Lakes, Mare Island, and 
Puget Sound was grouped around existing permanent hospital con- 
struction. The hospital groups at New London, Key West, and Gulf- 
port Avere built up around existing construction not of Government 
oAvnership. That at New London comprised a memorial hospital of 
wood frame construction, a brig, a contagious-disease hospital, and 
a just completed but unoccupied almshouse. 

At Key West, buildings belonging to a church school were utilized 
to provide hospital facilities. The property was finally purchased by 
the department, and has become a permanent hosjDital reservation. 

At Gulfport, the recruit training station made use in great part of 
the exposition buildings in process of construction at the time of the 
war. The hospital buildings constructed to provide space for the 
sick of the camp were one story in height, wood frame, similar to the 
buildings at New Orleans and Charleston, but the layout was in- 
creased by the use of i)()rtablc buildings. 

The emergency work at Wards Island, Pelham Bay, League Island 
(Philadelphia). Cape May. Quantico. lIani])toii Koads. Charleston, 
Pensacola, and New Orleans was completed as a unit at each of the 



Wards and subsistence building. Naval Hospital, League Island, Philadelphia. Pa. 



•(cale (rod). Sofeti- 

itTMlwT or -pit K»yY 
.III) or titji] (J P<x.tY 

Plot plaA of Naval Hospital, League Island, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Ward iniildiii,i;s, .\a\al Hospital, Charleston, S. ^ .. >lio\viug comiectiug covered walk. 

•CHARlLiTOU- 5-C- 

P(P*lTMtllT- Of TML HAW 
■'""■"■111'- „ 

Plot plan. Naval IlospUal, Charleston, S. C. 



About 500 major hospital buildings exclusive of dispensaries were 
constructed in the United States, providing for a patient and attend- 
ant personnel of 17,000. The work included not onlj- the buildings, 
but also heating, lighting, and plumbing facilities, and roads and 

On account of the fact that plans and specifications for several 
hosi^itals had to be prepared simultaneously, and on account of the 
limited number of draftsmen available at the bureau, it became 
necessary to obtain the services of several architects to prepare draw- 
ings and specifications under the direction of the bureau. Appre- 
ciation is expressed for the efforts of Messrs. Ewing & Allen for 
their work at Pelham Bay, N. Y., Grab's Ferry Eoad, and the navy 
yard, Philadelphia, Pa. ; for the work of Mr. C. Grant La Farge at 
Brooklyn, N. Y. ; and for the work of Mr. J. H. de Sibour at An- 
napolis, Md. 

Approi^nations. — Appropriations totaling $21,045,000 were made 
by Congress for the hospital construction, and $550,000 for medical 
supply depots. The appropriations are itemized below : 




Purpose specified. 


Deficiencv act, June 15, 1917. 
Deficiency act, Oct. 6. 1917.. 
Deficiencv act. Mar. 28, 191S. 

Naval act, July 1, 1918 

Deficiency act, Nov. 4, 1918. 

Temporary hospital construction 

Temporarv hospital construction and repairs, etc. 

do.. .: 

Hospital construction 

Temporary hospital construction 

Total appropriated for hospital construction. 
Turned back to Treasury Jan. 29, 1919 

Total for hospital construction. 

SI, 000, 000 
2, 000, 000 
2, 750, 000 

10, 295, COO 

21, 045, 000 
1, 008, 742 

20, 036, 25& 


Deficiency act, June 15, 1917 < Naval medical supply depots, Brooklyn, N . Y., and Mare 

Island, CaUf. 
Deficiency act, Nov. 4, 1918 do 

Total for medical supply depots. 

$350, 000 

550, 000 

Costs. — The cost per bed at the different emergency hospitals 
varies greatly, owing to local conditions and reciuirements — notably 
as to amounts of road work, grading, and service lines necessary. 
The emergency hospital at Charleston, S. C, typical of the greater 
part of the program, cost approximately $650 per patient, including 
laundry and kitchen equipment. This figure, of course, includes the 
cost of all buildings necessary for housing the doctors, nurses, hos- 
pital corpsmen, and other attendants. The cost on a straight per 
capita basis for the entire personnel would fall somewhat below $500. 




Psj'chiatric wards, Naval Hospital, Portsmouth, N. H. 




Kmo Of buiioihca 







191 1 

pyAi^o M- 


/ 9fZ 

z -d 







of£a-477/t^<s *w Jvayiar£/Kc£ 





COATAotat/A t^^AS 



TOOL HOtJAC (l..*..*4) 





An/i,3£^ 0£i4»retJ 




juBst5r£.rtc£ BiO&. 






t9t 7 







t»i r 










ASMTiou ro uauts quaitlu 







BCrWGiJEA.-nNO DOOM {y».rA Uh^) 


3cA^At^ ^ Vaaps /^MO i?OCA3 

riot plan of Naval Hospital, Portsmouth, N. H. 


Ward building, Naval Hospital, Chelsea, Mass. 

Solarium end of ward buildings, Naval Hospital, Chelsea, Mass. 


Contagious wardp. Naval Hospital, Newport, R. I. 


Plot plan, Naval Hospital. Newport, R. I. 



Administration building, Naval Hospital, New Orleans, La. 








-^5 £5" 













SHOWING tmiGiNcy HosriTAL tLtfes 


Plot plan, Naval Hospital, New Orleans, La. 


Wind liiiildiii. 

I trliiiiis, T/ii. 

^ )0 

■^ itlUi 

• - •iiiiiiiiiiisiiii«;. 

^^1*- -«i«-' ' -mm 

I ,HM I ;^ II. \ liiiililln," . \iiMil li(. .|ilh,l. Noi-lnll.. \ ii. 


WAK ACTIVITIES "V ----.-- - VAEr«S AXT' r.,*, v^ u 

The TTork at Ward? Islana '^us : the mc- e 

AT eonstruotion. owing to the d. m obtA. _ .e 

: e, and added cost for transportatkHi of materi&k. The expease of 

- ■. service lines was t: " _' '^ -ri 

is, the cost of the W . - ~ _ >- 

:al was about S:?.<X*0 per bed: or per caipiiau iiK'ltidiiig ail personneL 

-^ut $1,600. Items entering into the cost of :~ - s- 

- :y at other plants wei^ an exjvnsive p.>T\-c: .. , ..j. 

use modifications at the Manhattan Slate HospitaLl for the Insane, 

--;iry to t " : for serving the hospital. As noted 

- .ere, the _ ;y at this point was to have been 1300 

beds, or a total personnel of about 1,800, Had the addicicoial wards 

been constructed, the cost pe: " ' e been e- 

ii:oed on account of the fact t. ~ ve, serv ,^. 

i other general buildings woald havie provided ample facilities 

without inciea^ae in siie- 

-Ve !r Orleans, Lu. — The naval hospital at Xew Orkans was one of 
the first of the emergency groups to be constnioted, and is typical of 
the earliest hospital work. T jh 

the war and was not modifie. -, :._ --. -... _.....-_ . ..le 

buildings was such that the service of the hospital would bring a 
:ient to ' - _ ;^ 

;ting p& ... ........ . - -^; -.y 

.s laid from the administration _ to the operating pavilion 

and thence to the ^ _ ward, so ih»i s _ .^tients X 

have to be carrievi ;... ..i... the open, l^n^ .... .^s separ.... . .in 

the othei^ by a drive, making it possible for obsservation cases to be 
rried to the isolated ward withov : - _ _ y other build- 

^ or corridor spaoe. This san:ie <..... _ . ^.palate loileis. 

that the main wardrocwi might be pa: ; for use in oonta- 

_ nis case^ Kach ward building provided laciiitieiS for 40 patients. 

The general mess was divided to secure separate messing space for 

j>atients, hctspital oor^^s. doctors, nurses, stewards and pharmacists. 

'^-.i civilian employees. Only one kitchen or galley was found 

, .>essary, s^-» that the laK>r v»f preparing and serving the &N>d was 

reduced to a minimum. Inclineii walks fix>m the kitchen provided 

'-cans for easy transportation of food carts to the various wards. 

The laundry was placed in the rear of the group near the heating 

.mt, and as far as possible from the wards^ All service for the 

XX ser\-ation. except for entrance of patients and doctors, was confine<l 

to the rear of the hospital. 

There were 19 buildings in the group, as follows: A 
~ k officers' quarters, nurses' quarters, operating pa. 


tory, laundry, five Wcards, mess hall, galley, hospital corps barracks, 
shop building, heating plant, laundr}^, storehouse, and mortuary. 

Norfolk^ Va. — Of the Atlantic coast emergency hospital develop- 
ment Norfolk Avas the largest, with New York a close second, 
though at New York there were a great many patients who were 
cared for in civilian hospitals. Immediatelj^ upon the declaration 
of war by the United States, provision was made at Norfolk for 
hospital accommodations in excess of those afforded by the perma- 
nent buildings. The first construction was of an exceedingly tem- 
porary character, consisting of platforms on which were built wood 
frames to take wood wainscoting about 4 feet high, above which were 
canvas curtains. The roofs were covered with a temporary impreg- 
nated paper. The buildings were heated, and served their purpose 
until a more durable construction could be provided. 

The next step in this development was the construction of eight 
one-story ward buildings and two subsistence buildings placed di- 
rectly back of the main hospital building. The wards were placed 
radially to follow the semicircular drive in the rear of the hospital. 
Each ward provided about 50 beds, with the necessary quiet rooms, 
toilet rooms, and diet kitchens. This group was used continually 
until the armistice, but was vacated as soon as practicable there- 
after on account of the proximity of the buildings to the main hos- 
pital group and the resulting fire hazard. In connection with the 
eight wards and two subsistence buildings there were provided four 
hospital corps barracks, each one story in height, of the same 
construction as the wards, namely, exterior drop siding, ready-to- 
lay roofing, composition board interior cover for studs, and wood 

In accordance with a request from the Bureau of Medicine and 
Surgery, plans were developed for the construction of a hospital 
to provide 1,500 beds in addition to the two groups of hospital 
buildings just mentioned. The total capacity for the Norfolk hos- 
pital under normal conditions Avould then be 3,000 beds. 

The 1,500-bed hospital was divided into two proposed groups — one 
for the ordinary or " clean " cases, and the other for contagious dis- 
eases, to provide 900 beds. Only the latter group was placed under 
contract, on account of lack of funds to complete the entire layout. 
There was included in this contract one of the ward buildings re- 
quired for the future " clean " case group, which was partitioned 
for nurses' quarters. Before the construction of this last group 
was started, it was necessary to remove the emergency group first 

The 900-bed project, partially occupied at the time of the armistice, 
was of terra-cotta wall construction, with wood framing for floors 


Main hospital and emergency group, Norfolk, Va 

Plot plan of Naval Hospital, Norfolk, Va. 

37022—21 8 


Surgical ward, Naval Hospital, Pelham Baj-, N. Y. 





iJ...,i^^ <,..l« ...U.i 



?s!±'' l-lu.. 

UU^eV N'U'*1 

T.l.~ I..™.U,»J1.- 


B«- 54«.^. 









^'•1 , 







Plot plan. Naval Hospital, Pclhani Bay, N. Y. 


and roofs. The roofs were covered with asphalt-impregnated paper 
having a crushed shite finish. The buildings were two stories in 
height, and were arranged to provide ward space for either gen- 
eral medical or contagious cases. Surgical cases were cared for in 
the main or permanent hospital buildings. 

PelJuwi Bmj^ N . Y . — The site for the emergency hospital build- 
ings at Pelham Bay Avas one of the most attractive of the hospital 
locations. Two groups were built. The first, a hospital for 250 
beds, Avas incorporated in the main training camp, and was built 
concurrently. The capacity soon became too limited for the needs 
of the rapidly increasing personnel, and a second hospital to pro- 
vide T50 beds was built near the isolation camp. The buildings of 
this group overlooked Pelham Bay. When they were placed in com- 
mission the first group was transferred to the use of the main camj) 
for general requirements. 

The second hospital consisted of about -48 buildings, and housed 
a i^ersonnel of about 1,100. The plans incorporated all the improve- 
ments that had been developed up to that time during the war. 
Buildings Avere arranged for contagious-disease observation cases 
and neuropsj^chiatric treatment in addition to the general Avards for 
surgical and medical cases. Lighting, heating, and poAA^er Avere pro- 
vided from the training station plant. The hospital had complete 
laundiy facilities, and Avas one of the few groups to have an especial 
building for recreation purposes built by the Government. In many 
cases, as hereinafter stated, the American Eed Cross donated recrea- 
tion buildings, and in other cases certain portions of available build- 
ings were set aside for these purposes. 

Washhu/ton. D. C. — The most rapid of the hospital building opera- 
tions Avas at the naval hospital, Washington, D. C, to increase the 
capacity of that establishment. 

Instructions Avere received on September 27, 1918, to prepare draAv- 
ings and outline specifications for emergency hospital buildings 
to provide facilities for about 300 patients. The contract Avas signed 
on October 4, 1918, and Avas delivered to the contractors on October 5. 
Work started the same day on the construction of six buildings. The 
time given for the completion of the Avork Avas 60 calendar days. 
The buildings Avere finished within the contract time, and in fact 
not only completed, but entirely furnished and equipped to the 
smallest detail, including windoAV curtains. The structures com- 
])rised Iavo observation Avard buildings. tAvo general Avard buildings, 
a subsistence building, and a power house, including stack. 

The observation ward buildings w^ere designed Avith deep screened 
])orches to admit of the treatment of pneumonia cases in the outside 


air. The stories of the observation buildings were divided into 
small Avards with easily accessible toilets, sterilizing rooms, etc. 

The general ward buildings provided wards for about 30 patients 
each, with all the necessary service rooms. 

The wards and subsistence building were of wood frame construc- 
tion, covered with metal lath and cement-mortar stucco. The ward 
buildings were two stories in height and the subsistence building 
and [)ower house were one stor3^ The latter was of brick construc- 
tion and, owing to soil conditions, it was necessary to form a mono- 
lithic concrete foundation for the chimney. The roofs were covered 
Avith reach'-to-lay roofing finished with crushed slate. 

The buildings cost approximately $415,000 and the equipment 
about $50,000. 

Bi-ool-h/n. N. Y. — The hospital buildings at Brooklyn were the 
only ones of fireproof construction in the emergency i^rogram, 
although the "Wards Island Iniildings and parts of the Norfolk, 
Grays Ferry Ivoad (Philadelphia), and Chelsea groups were of the 
slow-burning or fire-retarding type. The permanent construction at 
Brooklyn was approved by the Secretary, both on account of the 
extreme fire hazard to which the buildings at the existing hospital 
would otherwise be subject, and also on account of the fact that the 
use of the l)uildings as ultimate j^arts of the pei'inaiicnt liospital 
was unquestioned. 

The buildings were two and three stories in height, with rein- 
forced concrete frame, floors, and roofs, and with stuccoed terra- 
cotta walls. Stucco was of a tint to match the original hospital 
buildings constructed of a light sandstone. For Avar service large 
Avards Avere designed to care for 40 patients instead of 30 (the NaA^y 
standard number). ()ther Avards. and also quiet rooms, were pro- 
A'ided for 24 or 18 beds. All materials for the Brooklyn hospital 
were specified to l)e the best of their res])e<'tive kinds. 

The nurses' quarters built at Brooklyn ])rovided facilities for 130, 
Avith a separate room for each nurse. It is fireproof in construction, 
and is the best and most complete of all the nurses' (juarters. It 
consists of tAvo stories and basement, and provides a commodious 
living room and a large dining hall that can be used for lecture 

Wards Island, \. Y. — A site near Xcav ^'ork Avas ixMjuired for the 
construction of an emergency hospital supplementary to the Brook- 
lyn facilities and in addition to the several hospitals that had been 
commandeered for Xavy use. Many buildings and private institu- 
tions Avere inspected Avith a view to utilization by the Navy before 
it Avas decided to build, but no .suitable ])uildings Avere found. 

The Wards Island property Avas brought to the attention of the 
Secretarv of the Navv and the Surgeon General, and finallv a lease 


Emergency buildings, Naval Hospital. Washington, D. C. (eastern group). 

KiiiirL'.ij. V i.iiii.iin-^. Naval Hospital, Washington, D. C. (western group). 


Emergency buildings, Naval Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

jaimi Of wwtis 

I ll<.it.il4.><.'A' 

> iM..] -r. 

4 i„u.., -t- 

i l.iU... -i: 

I I.,1J.., -i: 

I Q...I.,- 1.1. 

I Q...1... 1.1. 
» Q...t.-i I. ». 
B I. 4. 
» ■.•... Q...t.,i 
u <..|...... L.t I. 

H lip 

II In.,,] h. 


JcU.'IkicI)- to f<c(. 

[ltP4llTM£.NT Of THt UMY- 

Plot plan of Naval Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Buildiug " F ", Naval Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Nurses' quarters at emergency hospital, Wards Island, N. Y. 




OTflCt^i OF THE PM. 


UUfciEi aUAtTtlUi 
E-tCtlVlUC, bL/lLPIM(j « bACi iTOtt HOUiE. 


5ICK.0FFlCtlt.i QUAdTER-b 
T9; 5T0R.E H0U5E5 fe CIVILIAN b QUAiml!.i\ 

»u;Uin^< m^rU<l Tore lh;>,< InJuJeJ in ll« 

2«i(Sw ipec.r,calion>.) 

Plot plan of emergoncy hospital, Wards Island, N. Y. 


was signed whereby the State of Xew York was authorized " to enter 
into an agreement with the Navy Department covering the use of ap- 
proximately 28 acres of the grounds of the Manhattan State Hos- 
pital at Wards Island, New York City, as a military measure, for 
a period not to exceed two years beyond the termination of the pres- 
ent war." It is probable that, had the war continued, the group 
erected under this agreement would have been used for contagious 
cases, although at the time of the armistice it was being used as a 
general hospital. The buildings, together with a considerable amount 
of kitchen equipment, were turned over to the State of New York 
after the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery ceased to utilize them. 

The Wards Island emergenc}^ hospital was designed to care for 
about 1,200 patients and an attendant personnel of about 600. Before 
the contract was awarded, however, the required number of patients 
was cut to 800, so that the total personnel would be approximately 
1.200. The figure 800 was the normal capacity, and could have been 
increased by 25 per cent by the use of porches, closer bed spacing, etc. 

The group included 21 buildings, comprising an administration 
building, sick officers' quarters, nurses' quarters. Hospital Corps bar- 
racks, civilian emplo^'ees' barracks, receiving building, laboratory', 
mess halls, galley, 14 ward buildings, operating building, garage, 
laundry, and storage. Heat and power were supplied hj the Man- 
hattan State Hospital power plant. (See paragraph " Costs.") 
The buildings were of terra-cotta tile, stuccoed on the exterior and 
plastered on the interior. Partitions, floors, and roof construction 
were of wood frame. Asphalt-impregnated paper with crushed-slate 
finish was used for roof covering. 

It was necessary to construct a wharf for the use of the hospital 
so that traffic would not in any way hamper or affect the routine of 
the Manhattan State Hospital, which occupies the island. With its 
own landing facilities provided by the wharf, the reservation was 
completely independent of the rest of the island. 

Canceled projects. — Drawings and specifications were prepared for 
hospitals at Halifax, Nova Scotia, Hingham, Mass., and Yorlrtown, 
Va., but for various reasons the execution of the projects was aban- 

The Halifax hospital was proposed for 200 beds, making a total 
personnel of 300. The cost of the work was to be borne by the 
American ReS. Cross, and the estimate for the construction work was 
$150,000. The bureau was asked by the Red Cross to prepare the 
drawings and specifications, let the contracts, and provide inspect- 
ing and constructing forces. The site had been chosen, the plans 
and specifications were ready, a civil engineer and a paymaster had 
been assigned to dutv for tlie work, and the contractor selected, when 


the society decided to modify the construction and advertise the 
buildings locally at Halifax. The project was finalh' abandoned 
altogether, owing to a change in the war plans of the British and 
the United States Governments. The hospital had been intended 
for the use of returning troops. 

For the naval magazine reservation at Hingham, Mass., there 
Avas projected a dispensary hospital providing 100 beds — 20 for con- 
tagious diseases and 80 for the usual medical and surgical cases — 
besides dormitory and living space for attendant personnel. It was 
at first intended to care onl}- for emergency cases at Hingham, but 
the distance to Chelsea, the naval hospital of the first district, is so 
great and the trip so perilous during the winter months that it was 
thought necessary to make the Hingham establishment more or 
less complete. 

The contract for the work was awarded on October 10, 1918. 
for $257,885. After the construction work had been started, how- 
ever, the armistice Avas signed and the Secretaiy gave instructions to 
suspend the work. The bureau ordered the suspension of the work 
on November 23, 1918, and the contract was finalW settled under a 
supplemental agreement allowing $64,431.92 to cover the materials 
purchased and the work done. 

On September 9, 1918, proposals were to have been opened for a 
training camp at Yorktown, Va., to provide accommodations for 14,- 
000 men. A complete hospital layout provided facilities for 800 
patients, and a personnel of 400 doctors, nurses. Hospital Corps men. 
and civilian employees were provided for in the drawings. The 
decision of the department, however, to establish a second camp at 
Hampton Roads instead of a new layout at Yorktown, as noted else- 
where in this volume, eliminated all features of this project. The 
hospital group at Yorktown constituted 30 buildings, as planned. 
The structures were to be of wood construction, colonial in type, and 
one story high, except that the administration building and Hospital 
Corps men's barracks were to have been two stories high. 

Lobb oratories. — During the war laboratory work assumed an im- 
portance and volume that outstripped all facilities that had been 
provided. At some of the larger hospitals, as, for instance, those at 
Great Lakes, Chelsea, Pelham Bay, and Norfolk, several buildings 
were constructed on plans developed to meet the needs of the service. 

Recreation huildlngs. — Kecreation facilities were provided at all of 
the hospitals. In several cases the American Red Cross constructed 
buildings and transferred them to the Navy for its use. Where 
buildings were not erected especially for recreation purposes, space 
was allotted for the use of the personnel for games, reading, writing, 
smoking, etc. 


Ward buildings, Naval Hospital. Hamptou Roads, Va. 






RaCMBl« iMu-^ 




Kfl».i''j,THt m. 

— m 

X — 





DtPAiTntiT Of ■mtukvr- 

i«pl t.lllf- 

Plot plan of Naval Hospital, Hampton Roads, Va. 


Ward interior, Naval Hospital, Hampton Roads, Va. 

Emergency hospital buildings, IMarini' I'.arracks, Parris Island, S. C, showing wards 

and solarium. 


Waiil niiildings. Naval Hospital, Grays Ferry Road, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Plot plan of Naval Hospital, Grays Ferry Road, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Is<ilatiiin ward. ( mprj;cncy hospital. Cape IMay, N. J. 



J^ol.: \\„<U- k,M- 

BOHAU- 01 ■r»tiij-8' [XJCRi 

I'lot plan of cniirgfc'Dcy hospital, Cape May, N. J. 



Dlspensanj huildings. — In addition to the regular hospital service, 
dispensaries were established for all training camps and for all activi- 
ties where there were groups of men. Approximately, the facilities 
provided were for 2 per cent of the personnel of the station. The 
dispensary buildings contained ward space, the usual rooms for dis- 
pensing medicines and filing prescriptions, accident rooms, examin- 
ing rooms, diet kitchens, nurses' rooms, and cubicles. The cubicles 
consisted of isolation rooms with toilet facilities and an attendant's 
room. The isolation rooms were used for suspicious or undetermined 

I'lot plan of hospital reservation. Naval Training Station, Great Lalies, 111. 

cases, if the case developed into a contagious disease, it was sent 
immediately to the hospital. Otherwise, if the case were not serious, 
the patient was transferred to the dispensary ward. 

Overseas constmction. — Facilities for the care of Navy patients 
overseas were provided in two ways, first, by the use of portable 
buildings shipped from the United States, and second, by the use of 
existing buildings acquired through lease or purchase and not under 
any cognizance of the Bureau of Yards and Docks. 

Approximately 200 portable buildings were shipped abroad. These 
were 20 by 32 feet, one story in height, and cost, on an average, 


$506.43 each. They were of stock design, with walls wood sheathed 
inside and outside to provide air spaces. The roofs were protected 
b}^ a ready-to-lay covering. Two windows were in each side of a 
building and one in an end. A door was placed in the other end. 
After November, 1918, some of the portable buildings were salvaged 
and reused in the United States. These, 54 in number, were sent to 
the naval hospital at Norfolk, Va., and reerected. After the need for 
the buildings at Norfolk had passed, some of these were sent to Haiti 
and to the Dominican Republic for use as field hospitals for the 
Marine Corps. Others were sent to various hospital reservations. 
Fifty-one of the 54 were shipped from Norfolk and utilized else- 

The Bureau of Medicine and Surgery started hospitals at 13 over- 
seas stations. For all of these equipment was furnished, and com- 
plete laundry machinery and apparatus, including disinfectors, were 
sent by the Bureau of Yards and Docks to Hospital Bases No. 2 and 
No. 3. At the time of the signing of the armistice little work had 
been done under the cognizance of the Bureau of Yards and Docks 
at some of the hospitals, and at others no work had been completed, 
but work had been planned for most of the locations. The overseas 
hospitals were located as follows : 

United States naval base hospitals: 
No. 1. Brest, France. 
No. 2. Strathpeffer. Scotland. 
No. 3. Leith, Scotland. 
No. 4. Queenstown, Ireland. 
No. 5. Brest, France. 
United States naval hospitals: 
L'Orient, France. 
Pauillac. France. 
London, England. 
Cardiff. Wales. 
Ply]nouth, England. 
Genoa, Itah\ 
Corfu, Greece. 
Naval base hospital No. 4. established at Queenstown, Ireland 
(naval base No. 6), was one of the most complete of those abroad. 
It was placed in commission November 15, 1918, and provided beds 
for 200 patients, with provisions for an ultimate capacity of 500. 
There Avere quarters for 30 nurses, in addition to barracks for the 
Hospital Corps men. The reservation contained 11 acres, and was an 
attractive old estate slightly rolling in its slope to the harbor. The 
grounds were Avell planted Avith trees and shrubs. Fifty portable 

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37022 — 21. (To face page 126.) No. 4 




buildings 20 by 32 feet, shipped from the United States, and a few 
of the structures on the grounds, were converted into the hospital 
group, which consisted of an administration building, operating 
pavilion, six main wards, three contagious wards, and officers' ward, 
general mess. Hospital Corps nurses' quarters, storehouse, chapel, 
morgue, and service buildings. Complete sewer, water, steam heat- 
ing, fire-protection, electric-lighting, and telephone systems were in- 
stalled. The hospital, after demobilization of the United States 
forces, was turned over to the British Admiralty, complete, with all 
its furnishings and equipment. 

The hospital building in London was started by the American Red 
Cross, and later taken over for hospital purposes for the United 
States Navy. 

A dispensary building with a bed capacity for 38 patients, and 
with a complete operating and sterilizing suite, was designed for 
use at Gibraltar. The building was carefully planned and laid out 
to scale, so that the material for the entire construction, including 
material for heating and plumbing systems, wiring, and even nails 
and tools, could be shipped to the site. All materials were cut 
and fitted previous to crating for shipment. Before these were 
ready, however, a building was found in Gibraltar that would an- 
swer the dispensary needs. Instructions were received from the 
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery to ship the dispensary to the 
Azores, but the armistice was signed after the material had been 
stacked on the pier in Brooklyn for overseas shipment. The build- 
ing was finally erected on the naval hospital reservation at Norfolk. 

The construction of the hospitals at Queenstown, Ireland, and 
Leith, Scotland, was the only work of this character prosecuted under 
the local supervision of an officer of the Corps of Civil Engineers. 
This officer, Lieut. Raymond V. Miller (C. E. C), U. S. N., with two 
assistants, Messrs. James E. Gibson and Egbert G. Purdy, enrolled 
in the Naval Reserve Force as machinists, left New York in April, 
1918. The work in connection with these two hospitals had been com- 
pleted, and arrangements were being made for building a hospital at 
Corfu, Greece, under the direction of the same officers, when the 
armistice ended the need for further hospital construction. All of 
the overseas hospital facilities were rapidly placed out of commission 
on the return of the American forces. 

37022—21 9 



Development hoard. — The naval situation as it took shape in the 
year 1916, with the six-year building program being formulated, the 
" preparedness " issue paramount, and the possibility of actual war 
becoming plainer, foreshadowed an early and unprecedented ex- 
pansion of navy yards and naval stations, to be superimposed on 
their normal rate of growth. The year marked an epoch in the history 
of shore stations as well as of the Navy as a whole. Recognizing 
the necessity of a comprehensive plan for the development of each 
of the primary navy yards, so that construction recommended and 
authorized from time to time might fit in with the general scheme 
for the finished navy yard, the Secretary of the Navy, on May 2, 
1916, appointed a board, known as the Board for the Development 
of Navy Yard Plans, to draw up for consideration by the bureaus 
and for his approval a plan for each navy yard. The personnel of 
this board, with rank as of that date, consisted of Capt. Josiah S. 
McKean, assistant for material, senior member; Col. John A. 
Lejeune, representing the Marine Corps; Commander Charles B. 
McVay, representing Ordnance; Surg. Richmond C. Holcomb, rep- 
resenting Medicine and Surgery; Paymaster Christian J. Peoples, 
representing Supplies and Accounts; Lieut. Commander George L. 
Smith, representing Navigation; Lieut. Commander Henry C. 
Dinger, representing Steam Engineering; Civil Engineer Archibald 
L. Parsons, representing Yards and Docks, and Naval Constructor 
Sidney M, Henry, representing Construction and Repair. 

The instructions to the board were as follows : 

The boax-d shall prepare for each of the stations listed in the base plan a 
comprehensive plan of development embodying the requirements of the base 
plan and the essential features of an ideal layout so far as same may be 
practicable for the station under consideration. In preparing such plans due 
consideration shall he given to existing facilities and present arrangements, 
so that the completed project may be attained with a minimum expenditure. 

In order to avoid numerous meetings of the whole board, the as- 
sistant for material and the representatives of Yards and Docks, 
Steam Engineering, and Construction and Repair were appointed a 
sub-board to develop sketches, plans, etc., for presentation to the 




whole board. The Bureau of Yards and Docks assigned two drafts- 
men to this board for the preparation of sketches, plans, estimates, 
and the like. 

Type flan. — The first work which the board undertook was the 
development of a "type plan " for a navy yard. This plan embodied 
all the essential features of the shipbuilding and repair yard, con- 
sisting of shipbuilding slips, dry docks, a structural shop, a ma- 
chine shop, foundries, a woodworking shop, storehouses, an ad- 
ministration building, and all of the auxiliary buildings necessary 
for a well-balanced yard. Considerable study was given to this 
development with the idea of establishing an ideal or type plan, 
which was to be used in the development of water-front, docking, 
shipbuilding, and repair facilities for those navy yards which were 
selected for expansion for war emergency work, and for the upkeep 
of the fleet as laid down in the 1916 building program. 

After many sketches had been prepared and submitted a prelimi- 
nary plan of development was selected having , the shipbuilding 
activities at one end of the water front and the dry docks at the 
other end, with the industrial buildings lying between on a main 
water-front street. Piers, 1,200 feet long, spaced 300 feet clear, 
projected perpendicularly from this street and were served by rail- 
road tracks connecting each with all buildings and dry docks. Back 
of the main water-front street section, all of the auxiliary buildings 
were indicated. With this so-called ideal plan of development 
before it (see cut) the board proceeded to the consideration of the 
requirements of the various yards. 

Norfolk plan.—T\iQ first yard plan to be undertaken was that for 
Norfolk, it being necessary to determine the location of the struc- 
tural shop, appropriation for which was contained in the naval bill 
of August 29, 1916. After several plans of development had been 
drawn up by the sub-board, giving full consideration to a plan of 
water-front development recommended by the Assistant Secretary 
of the Navy, a plan was finally submitted to the whole board on Jan- 
uary 16, 1917. This plan was approved by the whole board and sub- 
mitted to the Secretary of the Navy, who approved the plan as a 
basis for future development on February 5, 1917. 

Philadelphia plan. — The Philadelphia yard was next taken up, and 
as many as 20 plans were developed before a final scheme was arrived 
at. This final scheme was submitted to the whole board in tentative 
form, and after a few slight modifications was approved and sub- 
mitted to the Secretary of the Navy for final approval, which was 
given on May 1, 1917. 

Puget Sound plan. — Civil Engineer Gregory, then public works of- 
ficer of the Puget Sound navy yard, was ordered to Washington for 
consultation in reference to the development of that yard. He had 


prepared for the Commission on Navy Yards and Naval Stations a 
plan of development which was given consideration by the sub-board, 
bearing in mind the previously prepared development plans for Nor- 
folk and Philadelphia. After several additions to and relocations of 
water-front structures had been made, a plan was adopted and sub- 
mitted to the whole board, which approved the sub-board's plan and 
submitted same to the Secretary of the Navy, the plan being approved 
on May 25, 1917. Two additions to this plan have been made and 
approved, one showing the development of the northeast corner for 
the storage of structural steel, on November 30, 1918 ; and the second, 
designating the area directl}^ north of dry dock No. 2 for a foundry 
and the area south of the officers' quarters for a forge shop, on Febru- 
ary 11, 1919. 

Naval Of crating hase^ Ham/pton Roads. — After the Puget Sound 
yard plan had been approved, the members' attention was given to the 
proposed naval operating base, Hampton Roads, Va. This property, 
comprising the old Jamestown Exposition site and the Pine Beach 
Hotel property, was offered as a site. The board, after studying the 
requirements of a naval operating base, tentatively fixed the areas to 
be set aside for each activity, namely, aviation, recruit training sta- 
tion, submarine base, and fleet supply base. The tentative assignment 
of space for these activities received the Secretary's approval in the 
early part of June, 1917, and plans Avere begun for the development 
of the training station, active construction of which started on July 
4, 1917. 

Pacific stations. — After the approval of the naval operating base 
plans, the board ceased to function, "owing to war activities, until 
March 7, 1919, when it reconvened and gave consideration to the 
development of stations on the Pacific. Plans for Pearl Harbor, 
Guam, and Cavite are now under consideration. 


The more imj)ortant general development projects undertaken at 
the various yards and stations are covered, by locations, below: 


Necessity. — War having been declared, it was seen that the projected 
base at Hampton Roads would have to be developed as an emergency 
measure rather than by the conventional method of growth, in order 
that fleet operations might be supported at the earliest opportunity 
by the facilities of this magnificent location, with its many natural 
and artificial advantages. 

Site. — Two sites were proposed for this operating base — one on 
the York River in the vicinity of Yorktown, the other on the former 
Jamestown Exposition site at Sewalls Point, fronting on the Eliza- 


West bulkhead before filling, Naval Operating Base, Hampton Roads, Va. 

Filling behind bulichead, Naval (.)ijprann.i,' J'.ns>\ iiampron Roads, Va. 


Bulkheads along Boush Creek, Naval Operating Base, Hampton Roads, Va. 

Bulkheads for aviation pier, Xaval Operating Base, Hampton Roads, Va. 


beth River and Willoughby Bay. After much discussion as to the 
advantages and disadvantages of both sites, Sewalls Point was finally 
selected and the land commandeered by the Secretary of the Navy 
for immediate development, under Presidential proclamation dated 
June 28, 1917. Under this proclamation the President set aside 
the sum of $1,200,000 as payment for said property, and the sum 
of $1,600,000 toward the development of the base, including piers, 
storehouses, fuel-oil storage, a training station, and recreation 
grounds for the fleet personnel. 

The land taken over comprised approximately 474 acres, 367 of 
which were occupied by the old Jamestown Exposition grounds, 
100.8 acres by the Pine Beach estate, and 6 acres by Maryland Ave- 
nue, a thoroughfare dividing the two sections of the property. Of 
the grand total, 397.6 acres were high ground and 70.1 acres ground 
outside of the well-defined high-water line. 

The property, when taken over, was very densely covered with 
underbrush, and the improvements constructed during the James- 
town Exposition were in a very poor state of repair. The section to 
the west of Maryland Avenue, the Pine Beach area, was occupied 
by a negro settlement known as White City. The buildings com- 
prising this settlement were of the typical southern negro shanty 
type, there being a few buildings of a more pretentious nature in the 
way of hotels used during the exposition time, and a few small stores. 
All of the temporary buildings of the Jamestown Exposition had 
been removed, and there remained on the site only the central group, 
comprising the auditorium building, the Hall of Histor3% and a num- 
ber of the State buildings. 

At the extreme east of the exposition site, in the district east of 
Commonwealth Avenue, quite a number of houses had been erected 
by private owners. This district had been subdivided by real estate 
operators and the lots sold off to numerous private individuals. The 
houses which were constructed were of a simple character and had 
very little relation to the general development of the subdivision. 

A board appointed to fix the value of the property within the 
site selected for the naval operating base, in accordance with the pro- 
vision of the act of June 15, 1917, reported the value of the property 
to be $1,422,935. The assessed value of the property was $362,117.13. 
The amount asked for the property and improvements by the nu- 
merous owners was $3,009,935.56. Of this latter amount $1,909,647.26 
was the asked price for that portion of the property knoAvn as the 
exposition site, and $1,057,988.30 for the portion known as the Pine 
Beach site. 

Initial cmistvuctioii.. — The war was on and the need for trained 
men was urgent. The recruits must have their first training on 


shore, and to give it training camps must be provided. The occu- 
pants of the site were immediately (on June 28, 1917) notified to 
vacate, they being given a period of 30 days to vacate the property. 
Active construction work on the training-camp section, as a facility 
urgently needed and susceptible of immediate development, began 
on July 4, 1917, under the direction of Capt. F. T. Chambers 
(C. E. C), U. S. N., and four civilian assistants from the Bureau 
of Yards and Docks, Messrs. Sinclair, Duba, Burke, and Grimes. 
Within a period of 30 days housing for 7,500 men had been con- 
structed, consisting of barracks buildings, mess halls, lavatory build- 
ings, storehouses, and the necessary auxiliary construction, includ- 
ing water systems, lighting, roads, and walks. This also necessi- 
tated the construction of approximately 3 miles of standard-gauge 
railroad to afford access to the base, the clearing of approximately 
400 acres of ground thickly covered with underbrush, and the de- 
velopment of a system of roads to connect the development with the 
county-road sj'stem of Norfolk. 

The transportation problem at the beginning of the operations was 
A'ery difficult; the only solution, in the early stages, the roads being 
impassable to motor equipment, lay in transporting all construction 
material from the nearest railroad siding, approximatelj^ 1^ miles 
distant, by horse-drawn vehicles carrying only half loads. It was 
necessary to work these teams in two shifts in order to avoid delay 
to the work. Excessive rains during the first two weeks of construc- 
tion also tended to impede the work, but in spite of impassable roads, 
inclement weather, and mud, the work of constructing the training 
camp was very successfully carried out. (See chapter, " Training 

Water-front improvements^ etc. — The next portion of the base to 
receive attention was the water front. It was realized that the avail- 
able land was insufficient for the requirements, and it was therefore 
decided to bulkhead and fill a large portion of the flats lying to the 
west and north of the property by dredging to a sufficent depth to 
allow capital ships to berth at piers to be constructed on the west 
water front, and to a sufficient depth for seaplanes and small craft 
on the north and east fronts. The material thus dredged provided 
sufficient fill to create an area of new land nearly equal to that in the 
original tract, making the new total area approximately 792.93 acres. 
For the west front, the plan contemplated six piers, each 125 feet 
wide and 1,400 feet long, with 300-foot slips, beginning 200 feet from 
the south reservation line. Of these piers, two directly opposite the 
supply base (Nos, 2 and 3), have been constructed. The northerly 
1,200 feet of this water front were assigned to the submarine base, 
which is described more fully elsewhere. The inclosed area behind 


Morchandlse pier, Naval Operating Base, Hampton Roads, Va. Bull^hcad fill not made. 

Pier No. 3, Naval Operating r.a-'S Hampton Road>, V; 


Aviation station, Naval Operating Base, Hampton Roads, Va., showing utilization of 

former exposition lagoon. 

Concrete sheet-pile protection of existing bulkhead walls of lagoon. Naval Operatiuj 
Base, Hampton Roads, Va. 


the north bulkhead, to the east of the center of the reservation, Avas 
assigned for lighter-than-air aviation activities, while the area at the 
extreme east, including the spit of land (also inclosed by bulkheads 
and filled and enlarged) , was assigned for heavier-than-air aviation. 

The total length of bulkhead, constructed to inclose flat lands 
offshore, was 22,150 linear feet. The work of constructing this bulk- 
liead, with the 10 timber piers, inclosing bulkhead, and main pier of 
the submarine base, and merchandise pier No. 2, was divided between 
two contractors — James SteAvare & Co., of New York, constructing 
the merchandise pier, 9,250 feet of the inclosing bulkheads, and the 
main submarine base pier, and H. P. Converse & Co. constructing 
the submarine piers, the inclosing bulkhead of the submarine basin, 
and 12,900 feet of the inclosing bulkheads on that portion to the east 
of the lagoon on the north front. The work on these contracts was 
done during the fall and winter of one of the severest seasons ex- 
perienced in the Hampton Roads region, the Roads being frozen 
from shore to shore for a considerable portion of January and Febru- 
ary of 1918, and it being impossible to operate water equipment 
during a great portion of this time. Severe blows accompanied by 
extreme cold weather were experienced during the greater part of 
the winter. The contracting companies displayed great energy in 
constructing this work, and the job was very successfully completed 
under extremely difficult conditions. The amount of money ex- 
pended on these contracts was $3,104,281.28. 

Approximately 8,000,000 yards of dredging was performed on the 
various fronts — in the submarine basin, alongside the merchandise 
piers, and in front of the bulkheads to the west and east ; there were 
also dredged a channel into Bush Creek for training-station vessels, 
and a large deploying space in front of the aviation section for 
seaplanes. This work was performed by two contractors at a total 
cost of about $2,373,000. The material was moved entirely by suction 
dredges, which pumped through pipe lines to the areas behind the 
bulkheads until the elevation had been raised to 10 feet above low 
Ti'ater. The material pumped varied in nature from a sandy soil that 
drained in a comparatively short time without serious settlement, 
making part of the new land generally available for improvement 
without delay, to mud, clay, and silt. 

The water area inclosed within the old Government pier, built at 
the time of the Jamestown Exposition, was used during the early 
activities at Hampton Roads for aviation. Temporary Avooden han- 
gars, shop buildings, and an office building wefe constructed just in- 
shore from the end of the pier, and two hangars and a launching pier 
on the outboard end. 

There also remained standing, along the water front to the east 
and west of the central exhibition group, a row of the buildings once 


used for State exhibits. These vcGve of a permanent character and 
were converted into officers' quarters. A considerable amount of 
money was expended for this purpose, and also for rehabilitating the 
central group of exposition buildings, the main building being con- 
verted into an auditorium, Avith district and base administration 
offices in either wing. The old History Building was used during the 
construction period as a public Avorks office building, and later used 
as an armory. 

The general layout of the grounds as it existed during the ex- 
position period was maintained as far as possible, the water and 
sewer systems being made use of to their fullest extent and repaired 
where necessary. The streets were maintained, and all building con- 
struction laid out so as to conform as nearly as possible to the former 
layout. On account of the flat nature of the entire area, some diffi- 
culty was experienced with surface drainage, and considerable sums 
were necessarily expended for this purpose. During the early period 
of construction, an important project in itself was the erection of a 
10-foot nonclimbable wire fence along the entire boundary line from 
mean low water on the Elizabeth River to mean low water in Boush 
Creek. This fence was approximately one and one-half miles in 

The transportation difficulties for workmen employed by the con- 
tractors were overcome in the early stages of operation by the base 
authorities' insistence upon the placing of sufficient cars on the Pine 
Beach run to enable the workmen to be transported to and from 
Xorfolk, a distance of approximately 7 miles. After numerous con- 
ferences, the Norfolk traction officials consented to increase the serv- 
ice on this line to accommodate 7,000 workmen who were employed 
during the construction period. 

The railroad connection to the base Avas an item provided under a 
serious handicap. At the time of beginning of work there was a 
stub-end railroad at approximately one-quarter of a mile from the 
boundary line of the naval base, this track being adjacent to the 
roundhouse of the Virginian Railway. There being no Government 
railroad material immediately available, nor labor skilled in this 
class of work, the cooperation of the Virginian Railway in the fur- 
nishing of material and foremen was secured. A spur track was 
then built for a distance of approximately 3 miles into the base. 
The railroad connection was, of course, essential both to the con- 
struction and subsequent operation of the base. Since the initial 
railroad connection was made, over 9 miles of railroad have been 
constructed within the reservation. 

There is attached hereto a plan showing the site of the operating 
V)ase on June 27, 1917, and also one representing conditions existing 
on July 1, 1920, which drawings will quite clearly indicate the magni- 



ivaiT'^L oPER^Tine Base 


37022 — 21. (To face page 140.) No. 1 

(To face page 140.) Ho. 


i ^ ^' if 





■^ eiLevat 









Schmoele tract, Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va., before development. 

Schmoele tract, Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va., after development. 


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its - \ 

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Quay wall construction, Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va. Jetting of concrete sheet piles in 



taiiiiuy wall. Navy Yord, Norfolk, Va. 


tude of the base and the vohime of the work accomplished during 
the three years of Government occupation. The development to date 
includes two traiiiing camps, for 14,000 men each, the aviation base, 
with a flying field and four large seaplane hangars and miscellaneous 
buildings and facilities, the submarine base for 31 boats, and the 
supply base with its nearly 2,000,000 square feet of covered storage 
area. The component parts of this great naval base are covered, 
more in detail, under the various particular headings. 


The principal development work at the Norfolk yard consisted of 
the new 1,000-foot dry dock and the building up of a new shipbuild- 
ing and industrial plant on the low marsh-land adjoining the yard 
and known as the " Schmoele tract." The construction of this large 
dry dock and of the various shops, building ways, and water-front 
improvements of the industrial development are described in their 
appropriate chapters. The power and power distribution develop- 
ment made necessary by this great expansion is also discussed else- 


The development work laid out for the Philadelphia yard was 
of a more general nature and covered almost the entire reservation. 
In addition to the dry dock and the shipbuilding and power plant 
developments, described under those general headings, the yard's 
storage facilities, permanent and temporary, were increased many- 
fold ; Marine Corps, training camp, and hospital reservations have 
been developed to a great extent; and a new naval aircraft factory 
was constructed and placed in operation in record time. All of these 
improvements are covered in greater detail under the respective gen- 
eral headings. As a result of the various improvements, the de- 
veloped area of this yard is now approximate!}^ 280 acres, practi- 
cally double the corresponding area of 1916. 


At the New York yard, because of its restricted space, the develop- 
ment has been almost entirely for shipbuilding and industrial pur- 
poses; the shipbuilding and repair shops, ways, etc., are covered 
under that general heading, and the large 11-story general store- 
house and several temporary storehouses are dealt with under the 
heading; " storag-e facilities." 

To provide the necessary space, as well as to provide properly for 
these activities themselves, it was necessary to eliminate from the 
37022—21 10 




View lorikin- west fiviiii radio tower, Navy Yard, rhiladelphia. Pa. 

Stniftiiral shop and shipbuilding slips, Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. Dry Dock No. 3 

in foreground. 


yard some of its former activities, such as fleet supply, provisions 
and clothing handling, etc., to commandeered property and to the 
new fleet-supply base. South lirooklyn. 


The following discussion of the development of the Puget Sound 
yard is based on the personal account of Capt. L. E. Gregory, the 
civil engineer officer in charge of public works at that point from 
1913 to 1920, inclusive : 

Freliininarij. — The necessity for nioderniziiii? this yard in many important 
particulars was early seen, and a close study of the yard's needs was made by 
the public works officer in conjunction with the heads of other yard divisions 
and departments. Several board reports were submitted at different times, 
but by far the most complete and comprehensive was that submitted in the 
latter part of 1916, under the direction of the commandant of the station, 
Admiral (then Captain) Robert E. Ck)ontz, U. S. N. As the World War had 
been in progress for some time, these studies were naturally made in a very 
thorough manner, and it was with great satisfaction that the officers of the 
yard noted that these plans wore singularly in harmony with the ideal yard- 
development plan prepared by the Development Board. The Conunission on 
Navy Yards and Naval Stations (the "Helm commission") arrived at the yard 
on January 6, 1917, when it was found that the yard officers had been worli- 
ing along lines which coincided to a very marked degree with the commission's 

Only the day before the comnussion's arrival the yard received notice that 
it had l)een selected as one of those to be developed for shipbuilding purposes, 
and that an award had been made to it for the construction of ways for the 
building of an ammunition ship for the fleet. The Helm conunission left the 
yard on February 3, 1917, and it was subsequently learned that it had made 
reconnnendations for the expenditure of large sums of money, with a view to 
extending the yard's facilities to a very marked degree in all phases, it being 
realized that at Puget Sound there should be developed a naval station of the 
first class. 

Important work was undertaken during the war toward increasing the fa- 
cilities for shipbuilding and storage, and also for the encampnient of naval 
recruits. These matters are detuilefl in other chapters. 

Bremerton ivater supply. — The yard was dependent u^on the Bremerton 
nuuiicipal water company for its supply, and early in 1917 it was 
realized that the very misatisfactory condition of this supply was u grave 
menace to the yard. The system had shortly before been taken over by the 
city of Bremerton, and as negotiations had been pending for several years, the 
former owners had refrained from making expenditures for improvements to 
the plant. While this supply had ample quantity at its source, the main from 
source to town was of wood, very old, and subject to frequent breaks, which often 
cut off the town completely from service. The navy yard had secured itself against 
disaster by installing reservoir capacity within the yard proper, aggregating 
about 2,600,000 gallons, which would tide it over several days of isolation from 
outside supply, but in the event of a complete breakdown of the Bremerton 
plant, this resource would have been unavailing. It was realized, therefore, 
that Bremerton .should not only improve its pumping plant and its mains but 


Filliiit,^ iipiTatiDii in progress. Navy Y:ii(l, Piiget Souiid, Wash. 

iig ^isg m ^m s iaii i iSiit ti'^'MiKi^ 

Filling oporation in progress, Navy Yard, Piiget Sound, Wash., showing extension ol" 

shore line. 


Grading aud Oiling operations, Navy Yard, Puget Sound, Wash. General view. 

Grading operation .iirniilctcd, Navy Yard, I'ugot Sound, Was 


should also have a reservoir capacity of approximately 10,000,000 gallons 
closer to the town. Accordingly, on May 22, 1917, a conference was held in the 
office of Admiral Coontz, the commandant, with the mayor of Bremerton, the 
city engineer, and the public works officer, to discuss ways and means. It was 
decided that Bremerton should make improvements along the lines above noted, 
and this work was pushed with intelligence and zeal. Within a few months 
the city had available a water supply which was able to meet a growth which 
could not have been anticipated and which was far in excess of any that had 
occun-ed for many years prior thereto. Increasing activities of the navy yard, 
together with the great increase in housing facilities throughout the city, more 
than doubled the water consumption and justified the large expenditure entailed 
upon the city. The public works officer acted as consulting engineer on this 
work without compensation. 

Government housing. — Bremerton came in for substantial recognition by the 
United States Housing Corporation, and conferences were held, beginning in 
March of 1918, between representatives of the housing corporation and the yard 
authorities. The need for housing in connection with yard activities was 
urgent, and a very successful program was carried out. This is covered more 
fully in the proper chapter. 

General.- — Reference is here made to the visit of the public works officer to 
Washington early in 1917, in connection with the plans being formulated for 
navy yard development. In view of the detailed studies he had made on this 
question during a period of several years preceding, he was able to render the 
bureau considerable assistance in working up the official plan for Puget Sound. 
Such a plan was finally evolved and was approved by the Secretary of the 
Navy in the latter part of May, 1917. It has since been followed with but 
slight modifications. One of the principal features of this development was the 
making available for building purposes of a very considerable tract of high, 
undulating land in the central portion of the yard in front of the quarters, 
which had been usable for many years only as golf links, and during the war 
was made use of for the temporary training camp. The idea was conceived of 
grading down this land to the industrial yard level and utilizing the soil in 
filling along the water front. The building area of the yard was thereby in- 
creased in a twofold manner by making available land areas previously too 
high for use and by utilizing the waste material in filling areas previously 
submerged and bringing this fill up to level. The area of land to be gained in 
this development was approximately 120 acres. The idea of this development 
was suggested by the public works officer, and was embodied in a contract made 
in 1918. This contract, involving the excavation and deposit of about 2,000,000 
cubic yards of earth, comprised the first and largest portion of the grading 
operation, and has now been completed. The plan as a whole contemplates the 
construction of a concrete sea wall along the entire new front, but lack of funds 
has precluded the latter undertaking as yet. The work already done was per- 
formed under contract. 

Further increases of land were made by purchases of three separate areas, one 
along the water front at the easterly end of the yard, aggregating about 7 acres, 
including tide lands and uplands, and extending the length of the water front 
about 800 feet ; another small area of about six-tenths of an acre at the north- 
east corner of the yard, providing storage space for steel, adjacent to the ship- 
fitters' shop ; also an area of 20 acres at the northwest corner of the yard, de- 
signed to be used for military or storehouse purposes. The public works officer 
conducted all of the preliminary negotiations with owners and rendered assist- 
ance to the Board on Condemnation of Land, which had its hearings in Bremer- 
ton in the latter part of 1919. 



The development at Mare Island included shipbuilding and repair 
facilities, storage facilities, a training camp, and hospital and sub- 
marine base projects covered under those respective headings. 

Another project that has been completed, of considerable impor- 
tance to this yard, is the causeway connecting the yard with the 
mainland at the city of Vallejo. Prior to its completion all rail- 
road freight was received at and shipped from Mare Island by means 
of car floats, and on account of the slow service and high freight 
charges resulting from this method of handling, the need of a direct 
railroad, as well as highway, connection had long been recognized. 
With the great increase in volume of freight during the war, this 
situation became acute, and accordingly, in order to eliminate costly 
delays and to save thousands of dollars in freight rates annually, 
the construction of the causeway was authorized and carried out 
under funds allotted from the appropriation '" Emergency expenses." 

During the year 1918 several preliminary studies were made by 
the yard for the connection of the tracks of the causeway and of the 
yard with those of the Southern Pacific system, and estimates were 
submitted to Congress to cover this part of the project. As a result 
there was made available, in the naval act of July 11, 1919, the sum 
of $165,000 to cover the purchase of right of way and the construc- 
tion of the railroad connection between the causeway tracks and the 
South Vallejo railroad yards. Direct rail connection has been made 
to the yard over the causeway by agreement with two electric rail- 
roads — the San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga, and the Sacramento 

The causeway itself is of timber pile trestle construction, and 
provides a single standard-gauge railroad track, an 8-foot side- 
walk, and a roadway 20 feet wide. The over-all width of the cause- 
way is 40 to 44 feet, and its length about 3,000 feet. A steel bascule 
bridge of an 80- foot clear span is provided at the crossing of the 
channel to allow the passage of vessels tlirough the strait. The 
electrification work consisted of the installation of an overhead-wire 
system in accordance with the standards of the operating company^ 
the San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga Railway. 

The causeway was constructed under contract; the wye tracks 
and classification yard by yard labor; and the electrification work 
under contract with the San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga Kail- 


The general development projects at this yard have, comparatively 
speaking, not been extensive. The yard was equipped for building 
submarines and carried that work on actively. 


Causeway connecting Mare Island Navy Yard with mainland. 

Causeway connecting Mare Island Navy ^ iM iili mainland; bascule bridge raised 


Concrete retaining wall for pier, Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla. 


Fler, Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla. Dredging and filling In progress. 



The navy yards at which important development ^York of a gen- 
eral character has been carried out have now been reviewed. A num- 
ber of important general develojjment projects at various naval sta- 
tions are still to be mentioned. 

The principal development of the Pensacola station has been for 
purposes connected with aviation, but in order to provide needed 
berthing facilities for supply vessels and others and to replace the 
old timber wharves destroyed by storm in July, 1916, a pier, 60 by 
o80 feet, and 1,600 linear feet of quay wall were constructed. This 
Mork is of the same permanent type as the fitting-out pier and quay 
Avails at the Norfolk navy yard (described under '' Shipbuilding 
and repair facilities"), namel}^ the relieving-platform type with 
concrete sheet piles and walls, the depth of water in this case being 
30 feet. 


The training camp development at the Great Lakes station is de- 
scribed elsewhere in this volume. 

The naval appropriation act of July 11, 1919, contained an item 
authorizing an extensive shore protection and harbor development 
project for this station. Under this authorization, shore protection 
work, along the northerly part of the water front, has been very 
successfully completed by station forces, and plans and specifica- 
tions have been developed to cover the pier, quay walls, breakwaters, 
and dredging and filling required for the harbor development. 

The shore protection work performed consisted of a series of 18 
rock-filled timber-crib groins, spaced 200 feet on centers, and placed 
at right angles to and extending about 90 to 155 feet out from the 
shore, in order to arrest the scouring of the shore by littoral currents, 
and to facilitate the formation of a protective beach by the deposition 
of the sand carried. In connection with this part of the project, 
steps have also been taken for the protection from erosion of the 
bluffs along the water front, by means of depositing heavy protective 
material at critical points. 

The entire project, when completed, will provide a harbor nearly 
half a mile in length and Avidth, with a 20-foot depth of water, pro- 
tected by over a mile of breakwater. The development inside the 
harbor will ultimately include a pier 50 by about 700 feet, about 2,000 
feet of quay wall, and a 90- ton marine railway. The latter, as noted 
elsewhere, will be erected of material originally purchased for ship- 
ment to Corfu, Greece, but held in this country upon the signing of 
the armistice. 



Pursuant to the recommendations of the final report to the Presi- 
dent of the Commission on Navy Yards and Naval Stations, on the 
proposed additional navy yard on the Pacific coast (dated September.' 
29, 1917), further studies and estimates have been made with a view' 
to determinino- the relative advantages of the three recommended 
sites on San Francisco Bay (Alameda, Hunters Point, and Car- 
quinez Strait). The work of completing additional subsurface ex- 
ploration of these sites, in order definitely to ascertain conditions and 
difficulties that might be expected in the course of the construction 
of the foundations of the various dry docks, waterfront structures, 
and buildings at each of the three sites, has been expedited in order 
that final recommendations as to site may be placed before Congress. 


On account of the great increase in the number of ships of all 
classes during the war, it has been necessary to increase the mooring 
facilities at the various stations. Because of the formation of the 
large Pacific Fleet, the demand for such facilities has been particu- 
larly urgent at stations on the Pacific coast. 

In spite of the very limited funds available for such projects, a 
considerable number of moorings have been provided; these facili- 
ties are of types in accordance with the type of vessels to be moored, 
conditions at sites, and funds available. They range from dolphins 
and small can buoys to the large communication buoys used for flag- 
ship moorings. 



Necessity for improveTnents. — One of the most important provi- 
sions of the Navy Department's preparedness program of 1916 was 
that for increased facilities for the construction of ships, particularly 
capital ships, at the Navy's own yards. Prior to that time adequate 
plant for the construction of large battleships was limited to two 
navy yards and a few privately-owned shipyards. The proposed 
construction of battle cruisers longer by over 200 feet than any 
battleships previously laid down, and of larger and heavier battle- 
ships, necessitated the remodeling and extending of such building 
facilities as were already available. The decision was also reached 
at this time to increase and improve the facilities for the construction 
of smaller vessels — auxiliaries, destroyers, gunboats, and submarines. 

Inception. — Actual progress on the program for the improvement 
of building facilities, and incidentally repair facilities, was started 
by Congress in the naval appropriation act of August 29, 1916, when 
$6,000,000 was made available for the improving and equipping of 
the navy yards at Puget Sound, Philadelphia, Norfolk, New York, 
Boston, Portsmouth, Charleston, and New Orleans for the construc- 
tion of ships, the Norfolk, Philadelphia, Boston, and Puget Sound 
yards being designated for the construction of capital ships. The 
naval act of March 4, 1917, carried an additional $12,000,000 for this 
purpose, to be used in the event of the Secretary of the Navy being 
unable to secure from private shipbuilders contracts for the expedi- 
tious and economical construction of the ships authorized. The de- 
ficiency act of March 28, 1918, and the naval act of July 1, 1918. 
carried further appropriations of $1,570,000 and $10,000,000, respec- 
tively, for these improvements. 

During the progress of the work a number of additional appro- 
priations were made by Congress, both to cover unprecedented in- 
creases in cost of construction work over costs prevailing when 
preliminary estimates were made, and to cover specific projects relat- 
ing to the shipbuilding improvements. A tabulation of the principal 




appropriations covering shipbuilding and repair facilities (exclusive 
of dry docks) follows: 

Principal appropriations for shipbuilding and repair fariUiics {exclusive of 

dry docks ) . 

Date of ap- 
proval of act. 

Aug. 29,1916 

Mar. 4, 1917 

Mar. 28,1918 

Julv 1,1918 

Oct. 6, 1917 





4, 1920 
4, 1917 
4, 1917 


Mar. 4, 1917 
Julv 1, 1918 
July 11,1919 


29, 1916 

Mar. 4,1917 




11, 1919 

1, 1918 

June 4, 1920 
July 11,1919 

June 4, 1920 

Julv 1, 1918 

July 11,1919 

Aug. 29,1916 

Mar. 4, 1917 

July 1, 1918 

Nov. 4, 1918 

Julv 11,1919 

June 4, 1920 

July 1,1918 
June 4, 1920 










Improving and equipping i 
of navy yards for the 
construction of ships. 




S6, 000,000 

294 1 Handling appliances 

296 Marine railways 

21.5 Navy Yard, Portsmouth. 

21.5 do 

21.-) do 

215 do 

216 1 Navv Yard, Boston 

216 do 



218 Navy Yard, New York. . 




219 Navv Yard, Philadelphia. 

219 do 


219 I do 

219 do 

219 i do 

221 I Navy Yard, Norfolk 

221 do 

221 do 

221 do 

221 ; do 

221 do 

221 do 

221 do 

221 do 

221 do 

221 do 

221 do 

221 do 

221 do 

221 do 

221 do 

222 Navy Yard, Charleston.. 

222 do 

226 Navy Yard, Mare Island 

226 do 

226 do 


2.32 ! 



Navy Yard, Puget Sound 

Naval Station, Pearl Har- 



Naval Fuel Depot, San 











Crane track extension 

Addition to machine shop 

Addition to foundry 

Welding shop 

Extension, chain shop 

Machine shop and foundry 

2.5-ton floating derricks 

RemodeUng building 132 for pattern 

Machine shop extension 

Water-front improvements 

Steel storage, crane runway, and 

Two cranes for buUding slips 

.50-ton locomotive crane 

Tracks, streets, and sewers 

Paving, tracks, sewers, etc 

Mattress and Ufe-preservcr factory. . . 

Pattern shop and storage 

Two cranes for building slips 

1.50-ton floating crane 

Structural shop 


Water- front improvements 




Streets, tracks, and sewers 


Galvanizing shop 

Steel storage 


Auxiliary fitting-out cranes 

GradingSchmoele tract 

Pattern shop and storage 

Crane for building slip 

Water-front improvements 

Oxy-acetylene plant 

Floating crane 


Structural shop and auxiliary im- 


20-ton floating crane 

Machine shop 

Oxy-acetylene building. 

Marine railway 


Relocation and increased capacity, 
marine railway, and adcDtional 
shore facilities at repair base. 



10, 000, 000 












265, 000 


.50, 000 



450, 000 

1, 000, 000 




Total ' ' 43,549,000 

In addition to these appropriations, allotments, totaling several 
millions of dollars, to cover projects allied to or forming part of 
the shipbuilding program were made from appropriations " Naval 


emergency fund," " Emergency expenses," " Repairs and preserva- 
tion," and " Contingent," and from general and specific appropria- 
tions for the improvement of power plants and distributing systems. 

General program. — The schedule for the apportionment of the first 
two appropriations for shipbuilding facilities was worked up in 
correspondence and conferences between the department and the 
various bureaus and yards concerned. The schedule approved by 
the department provided for improvement at the Portsmouth yard 
for the construction of additional submarines, minor improvements 
at the Boston yard for the continued construction of auxiliaries, 
the equipment of the New York j-ard for the construction of an addi- 
tional battleship, of the Philadelphia yard for the construction of 
one battle cruiser and one battleship (later modified to two battle 
cruisers and to include two minesweepers), of the Norfolk yard for 
one battleship, of the Charleston yard for three additional destroyers, 
of the Puget Sound yard for the construction of two auxiliaries or 
one capital ship (later modified to include two minesweepers), and 
the expansion of existing ways at the Mare Island yard to accommo- 
date the construction of one large battleship. 

Development of ylaTis. — Prior to and concurrently with the work- 
ing up of this schedule, type plans were prepared in consultation 
•with the bureaus concerned and under the general supervision of 
the Board on Development of Navy Yard Plans (referred to on 
p. 129, ante), to show the ideal general layout of a plant and also 
to show the general features required for each of various utilities 
such as the diiferent shops, building ways, fitting-out berths, etc. 
Such requirements as maximum clearances and crane capacities re- 
quired to handle various parts of ships assembled in shops ; the maxi- 
mum clearances required for ships, with staging, shores, etc., at 
ways, and weights necessary to be handled on ways ; the weights to be 
handled in fitting out of ships ; and arrangement of facilities in the 
manner most favorable to continuous routing of materials to and 
through shops and between shops and ways and fitting out pier 
were determined at this stage. 

The criterion for the determination of the dimensions, clearances, 
and weights which was used in the preparation of the type plans 
was a hypothetical ship whose dimensions were fixed by the maxi- 
mum capacity of the locks of the Panama Canal and of the world's 
largest dry docks. This ship would have a length of 1,000 feet, 
beam of 109 feet, and draft of nearly 45 feet ; and inasmuch as the 
new facilities for capital-ship construction have been made adequate 
for the construction of such a ship, or capable of being readily ex- 
tended therefor, it is anticipated that these facilities will serve, 
without radical change, for many years to come. 


The thoroughness with which the preliminary interbureau work 
leading to the development and completion of these plans was done 
is evidenced by the fact that it has been necessary to make but few 
changes of any importance in the original plans. 

In planning the improvements to be undertaken at the various 
yards the type plans thus prepared were used as far as was practi- 
cable, taking into consideration local conditions as to existing facili- 
ties, additional needs, space available, foundations, materials of con- 
struction, etc., and the limitations of funds. By thus following a 
uniform plan, considerable time was saved in the preparation of 
designs and details and in the fabrication and erection of a number 
of structures. 

Upon approval of the schedule of improvements at the various 
yards, referred to above, it was necessary to prepare plans and specifi- 
cations for the numerous projects and parts of projects in the shortest 
possible time. To design the individual structures and prepare* 
these plans and specifications in greater or less detail, as required 
in each particular case, it was necessary to secure from each yard a 
large amount of data, such as test borings, test piles, elevations, con- 
tours, soundings, surveys of surface and subsurface structures, etc. 

The technical force available for the shipbuilding facilities and 
development work had, for the most part, been only recently assem- 
bled and was by no means as large as the magnitude and urgency of 
the work would have warranted. Because of these conditions and the 
need of providing facilities for the actual construction of vessels at 
the earliest practicable date, it was necessary to make an especially 
careful study of the relative order in which the various projects would 
be needed, of the time required for the construction of each, and of 
probable interferences with construction, in order to place each proj- 
ect, or its component parts, under contract in the most logical order. 

Difficulties. — The unprecedented magnitude of most of the projects 
contemplated and the many intricate engineering problems involved 
naturally added to the difficulty of preparing and completing plans 
and specifications for advertisement and of handling details after 
award of contract. The difficulties in construction, militating against 
early completion, were also formidable. On every liand the bureau 
was faced with the growing stringency in the material and labor 
markets, mounting costs, conflicting priorities of other Government 
work, and interferences with other contracts ; in fact, every abnormal 
condition resulting from the declaration of war made itself felt in 
some degree and unavoidably resulted in more or less delay. 

Results. — Although the improvements, in the main, were not com- 
pleted until after the signing of the armistice, and although work on 
some individual projects is still under way (for example, the recon- 


struction of battleship ways No. 1 at the navy yard, New York, and 
of the battleship ways at Mare Island, which projects could not be 
undertaken until after the launching of the Tennessee and the Cali- 
fornia, respectively, and several projects authorized by Congress to 
be undertaken in 1920 and 1921), the building capacity of the Navy's 
own yards has now been increased many fold, as well as placed on a 
most modern basis as regards plant for rapid and economical con- 
struction of vessels. 

The following table is included in order to show the increase in 
capacity and the scope of the improvements effected: (Turn over.) 
37022—21 11 





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Storage development. — The expansion of shipbuilding facilities 
necessitated, of course, a corresponding increase in facilities for the 
storing of industrial materials, supplies, etc. These facilities are 
described in some detail elsewhere in this volume. 



General. — As has been noted before, the various industrial build- 
ings were designed on the basis of the type layout worked up in con- 
sidtation with the bureau concerned ; dimensions and clearances were 
determined upon after consideration of operating and routine re- 
quirements, equipment to be installed, sizes of pieces to be han- 
dled, etc. 

Crane capacities and lifts were determined upon after considera- 
tion of the dimensions and weights of material to be handled, and 
in so doing it was endeavored to provide equipment for handling, 
economically, the ordinary run of weights as well as the maximum 
Aveights expected. To allow of the greatest practicable degree of 
freedom in the assembling of parts in shops, and consequent economy 
in ship construction, the maximum crane capacities have been fixed 
en a liberal basis. In many instances the maximum capacity is ob- 
tained by the use of two cranes acting together; which method has 
the obvious advantage of providing the maximum capacity required 
(comparatively seldom needed) without the purchase of cranes too 
cumbersome to take care of the routine handling. 

Other considerations invariably borne in mind in shop design were 
adequate natural lighting and ventilation, heating and electric light- 
ing, and safety of workmen. The large proportion of sash in side 
''.vails and roofs will be noted from the illustrations. In general, the 
roofs of the large shop buildings were constructed with transverse 
or longitudinal monitors. Heating and ventilating and lighting svs- 
tems were designed in accordance with the best modern practice, and 
plans for buildings and services were examined and checked from 
the standpoint of safety. 

The materials generally used in the construction of shop buildings 
were: Framework, structural steel except for galvanizing and oxy- 
acetjdene plants, pattern shops, and other smaller shops ; side Avails, 
base course, 8-inch reinforced concrete or brick, remainder, steel sash 
and plastered 4-inch hollow terra-cotta tile ; roofs, gypsum composi- 
tion (or in some cases concrete or Avood sheathing) coA-ered Avith 
standard pitch (or asphalt), felt and slag, or asphalt and asbestos 
roofing ; floors, Avood plank, Avood block, concrete, asphalt, or dirt, as 
required to suit the particular service for AA'hich areas are to be 


Structural steel was dictated as the proper material to be used for 
tiie framework of most of the shop buildings by the long open aisles 
and long sj)ans required, which conditions would make any other 
class of construction bulky, heavy, and uneconomical, if not entirely 
inadequate from a structural standpoint. In the multiple-story build- 
ings with short spans, reinforced concrete was used as being the most 

Gypsum composition w^as quite generally used for roof slabs on 
account of its lightness and consequent economy in design of steel- 
■v\ ork, and its excellent insulating qualities. 

Hollow tile side walls were used for similar reasons. Steel sash 
was used for obtaining maximum daylighting, and because of its 
almost equally obvious advantages of economy, fire resistance, and 
rapidity of erection. 

Structural shojjs. — The first of the modern structural shops to be 
constructed was that at the navy yard, Norfolk, Va., authorized in 
the nnval appropriation act of August 29, 1916. This building is 
300 feet in width and 700 feet in length, and is divided into three 
longitudinal aisles of 100 feet width each, serving as shape, plate, 
and smith and boiler shops, respectively. The shape and plate aisles 
have clear heights of 46 feet, and are each equipped with two over- 
head traveling bridge cranes o£ 15 tons capacity and 38 feet lift, 
and also with two tiers of traveling wall cranes of 3 to 5 tons ca- 
pacity on each side. The smithery aisle has a clear height of 67 
feet, and has 15-ton bridge cranes, and also wall-crane service similar 
to that of the other aisles. In addition, this aisle is provided with 
an 80-ton bridge crane, of 55 feet lift, above the 15-ton cranes. Al- 
though only one 80-ton crane has been provided thus far, the run- 
way is designed for the use of two such cranes acting together to 
provide an ultimate lifting capacity of 160 tons. 

This capacity is based on the weight of the largest forgings, such 
as main turbine motors, turbine casings, sternpost castings, boil- 
ers, etc. 

An interesting feature of the bridge cranes of the smith shops is 
that they are arranged for complete electrical control from stations 
on the floor of the shop, from which level their operations can be 
more perfectly coordinated with those of the forging hammers and 
presses than is possible from the usual operator's cage located far 
above the level of the blocks. 

Above the shape aisle is the mold loft, 100 feet by 700 feet, on the 
floor of which the lines of ships are laid out, and templates made for 
the work of the structural shop. 

The type plan for a structural shop allows for lateral extension 
of the group to provide for sheet metal and pipe and plumbing shops, 


and such future extensions liave been l)()rne in mind in the locjitioTi 
and details of buildin<xs of this character actually placed. 

Another important feature of the Norfolk structural shop group 
is the steel-storage shed located at one end of the shops, in whicli the 
plain plates and shapes are stored on especiall}' designed founda- 
tions, bearers, and racks, ready for routing into the fabricating shops. 
A feature of this shed is the crane service, four lines of cranes being 
provided to move the material to cars operating on tracks running 
at right angles to cranes and into the shops. Each crane is equipped 
with two trolle3's for convenience in the handling of long plates and 

At Philadelphia, the next yard at which a structural shop was 
constructed, the building was made to duplicate that at Norfolk, 
except that it was found satisfactory and economical to modify 
the design of the smithery by dividing its 100-foot aisle into a 65- 
foot aisle, with full height and crane facilities, and a 35-foot aisle 
of comparatively low height, and with only a 5-ton bridge crane. 
This saving was due to a decision to place the heating furnaces 
under the 35-foot aisles opening into the 65-foot aisle and to pro- 
vide greater headroom and full crane service only at the operating 
side of the furnaces. The plan for Philadelphia contemplates the 
construction of a steel-storage shed similar to that at Norfolk at 
such time as noninterference with dry-dock construction and avail- 
ability of funds will permit. 

The next shop to be constructed was that at New York, but on ac- 
count of the limited space available, the initial construction was 
limited to shape and plate aisles 100 by 580 feet and a mold loft 120 
by 580 feet. The development plan, however, contemplates ultimate 
expansion to full si/e and to include all structural activities. On ac- 
count of restriction of site, the steel-storage area at New York is 
located parallel and adjacent to the building ways, but material will 
be routed in the same manner as at other yards — raw material from 
steel storage to one end of shop, and through shop; fabricated ma- 
terial from opposite end of shop to erection space and Ijuilding 

The Mare Island shop, which Avas specifically authorized in the 
naval act of July 1, 1018. and is now nearing completion, duplicates 
tlie Pliiladelphia sh()[) in all important respects. 

All of the above l)uildings were constructed under contract: the 
Norfolk building by Geo. E. Wyne, of Washington, D. C; that at 
Philadelphia by v' Y. Gorndey. Washington. D. C. ; at New York 
by Norcross P>ros.. of Worcester. Mass.: and at Mare Island by the 
American Bridge Go., of New York, and the Clinton Construction 
Co.. of Sjui Frnncisco. Calif. Tlic steelwork (amounting to nearly 


Structural shop, Ka\y Yard, Norfolk, Ya. 

Steel-storage shed, Kavy Yard, Norfolk, Va. 


Structural shop, Navy Yard, xsew York, N. Y. 

Structural shop, Kavy Yarci, Nuw iork, iN. Y. I'artial interior view. 


Structural shop. Navy Yard, Philadoipnia, fa. 

Interior of plate shop, Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Mold loft in structural shop, Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Slriirtural shop, Navy Yard, Maro Island, Calif. 


6,000 tons for each of these buildings except at New York) was 
fabricated for the Norfolk shop by the McClintic-Marshall Co., 
of Pittsburgh. Pa., and that for the other shops by the American 
Bridge Co. 

Foundries. — The typical foundry building comprises a high center 
aisle, SO feet wide; two lower side aisles, one of 55 feet width with a 
mezzanine floor, and one of 45 feet width; and a 100-foot material 
and flask yard adjacent to the latter. 

The material yard is served by an overhead traveling crane of 10 
tons capacit}^ and 40 feet lift. The adjacent side aisle, into which 
materials are moved from the open yard, or from bins opening directly 
into the foundry, is of one story for the greater part of its length, 
32 feet high to bottom chords of roof trusses. This aisle contains 
the cupolas and the various converters, furnaces, etc. At the cupolas 
a second floor is provided for charging, with an intermediate floor 
to house the blowers for the cupolas. The single-story portion of 
this side aisle is provided with 2-ton and 5-ton traveling cranes. 

The center (main) aisle, in which the large castings are molded, 
poured, and handled, is 75 feet high to bottom of roof trusses, and is 
provided with three tiers of cranes — an 80-ton bridge crane of 63 
feet lift, two 15-ton cranes of 50 feet lift, and two traveling wall 
cranes of 5 tons capacity on each side of the aisle. The 55-foot side 
aisle, with a gallery floor 22 feet above the main floor, houses mold- 
ing machines, crucibles, cleaning and grinding apparatus, etc., and 
is served generally by monorail cranes of -^-ton capacity and by 2-ton 
traveling bridge cranes. 

A foundry of this type, 408 feet in length, was constructed at the 
navy yard, Norfolk, and one 648 feet in length at the navy j^ard. 
Philadelphia. Both of these buildings are designed and located for 
extension to an ultimate length of 1.000 feet. 

On the recommendation of yard officials a modified design for walls 
and roof was used at Philadelphia, with inclined side walls of steel 
sash and glass for the main bay, and continuous top-hung ventilat- 
ing sash for the upper portion in lieu of the usual design (see 

Both of these buildings were constructed under contract — the one 
at Norfolk by George E. Wyne, of Washington, D. C. and that at 
Philadelphia by Warren, Moore & Co., of Philadelphia. 

At the navy yard, Boston, the foundry and machine-shop group 
(building 42) was remodeled and extended, the former copper, test- 
ing, and pipe shops and building 43 being demolished and replaced 
with modern construction. A further extension to the foundry, con- 
sisting of a lean-to building and a flask yard, is now nearing com- 
pletion. The remodeling and extension work was done under con- 


tract with the Evatt Construction Co., of Boston, and the lean-to and 
flask yard under contract Avith Coleman Bros., of Chelsea, Mass. 

At the Portsmouth (N. H.) yard the existing foundry was ex- 

Pattern shop and storage huildings. — The type pattern shop and 
storage building is of four stories, the lower three stories of rein- 
forced-concrete flat-slab construction, used for storage of patterns, 
and the upper story of steel framework wath adequate daylighting, 
ventilating, heating, etc., and light crane facilities for shop purposes. 

Such a building, 126 feet wide and 211 feet long, designed and 
located for extension to about 550 feet in length, is being constructed 
adjacent to the new foundry at the Norfolk yard, and a similar one, 
105 feet wide, 230 feet long, and three stories in height, designed and 
located for extension to 400 feet in length and increase in height to 
four stories, has been constructed adjacent to the new foundry at the 
Philadelphia yard. A smaller reinforced-concrete building of the 
same general type was constructed at the Charleston (S. C.) yard. 
These buildings are fireproof and modern in every respect, and are 
provided with electric elevators and handling equipment and steel 
racks for the storage of patterns. 

The Philadelphia building was constructed by M. H. McCloskey, 
of Philadelphia, and the Charleston building by the navy yard public 
works force. The Norfolk building is being constructed by the 
Boyle-Robertson Construction Co., of Washington. 

Machine shops. — The type plan for the machine-shop group con- 
templates, for heav}^ and medium machine shops, a mammoth build- 
ing with two main (center) aisles for heavy machine and erection 
work, each 80 feet wide and 88 feet high to bottom chords of roof 
trusses, and each equipped with two 150-ton traveling bridge cranes 
of 70 feet lift and two 15-ton cranes of 68 feet lift; also two side 
aisles for lighter machine work, each 50 feet wide, equipped with 
20-ton traveling bridge cranes of 26-foot lift for the main floor, and 
with a mezzanine floor provided with 5-ton cranes of 18-foot lift. 
The ultimate length contemplated is 1,000 feet. The necessary shop 
offices, tool rooms, toilets, wash rooms, substations, etc., are housed in 
lean-to structures. 

The enormous lifting capacities for the main aisles of 150 tons for 
a single crane and 300 tons for the two together are based on the 
greatest loads expected to be handled, such as a modern turret for 
two 16-inch or three 14-inch guns, completely assembled, with its 
armor and turning mechanism, weighing altogether about 290 tons; 
a 16-inch 50-culiber gun weighing approximately 200 tons; a com- 
pletely assembled boiler; a section of 14-inch side-armor plate of 64 
tons; or a completed basket mast for a battleship. 



Foundry, N.nv.y Yai'rt, I'liilaili Iphia, l*,i. 

Fouiiilr.v. .\:ny 'i'ard. Pliiljidclpliia, I'a. Interior view. 


Fdiiiulry, Navy Yard. Boston, Mass. First extension. 

Foundry, Navy Yard. Boston, Mass. r>econii extension. 


Pattern shop and .>i(ii;i.L;t.' huildini,', Xavy Yard, rbiladeliihia, I'a 

Pattern shop, Navy Yard, Charleston, S. C. 


The type machine-shop group provides also for a multiple-story 
light machine and electrical shop adjoining the structure just de- 

Of the heavj^ machine shops actually constructed, those at Norfolk 
and Philadelphia most closely follow the type design. At Norfolk 
one-half the width of the type building, one 80-foot main aisle and 
one 60-foot side aisle, a 30-foot lean-to, and 600 feet of length have 
been constructed. This building is capable of being extended later- 
ally to the full width of the type. The crane service is as described 
for the type building, except that only one 150-ton crane has been 
provided to date. 

An interesting feature of this building is the end door of the main 
aisle, which was designed to permit the passage of the 150-ton cranes, 
with maximum load, in order to move heavy assemblages from the 
erecting floor direct to barges for immediate transfer to the fitting- 
out crane and installation aboard ship. This door is 88 ieet high 
and 79 feet wide over all, but for structural reasons it is divided into 
three main parts, approximating, roughly, the silhouette of the crane 
with a maximum loading. These largv^r parts are further subdivided, 
and the whole system is arranged for motor operation with conven- 
ient control. 

The Philadelphia machine shop forms a so-called " extension," 325 
feet long, to the old machine shop. Their relative magnitude may 
be judged from the accompanying photograph. The new structure is 
of the same general cross section as the Norfolk shop. It is capable 
of being extended laterally to the full width of the type shop and to 
a length of 675 feet. 

At the New York yard the main part of the old machine shop 
(building 128) was extended a distance of 235 feet. This exten- 
sion was made along the lines of the existing structure, with the addi- 
tion of a mezzanine floor in one of the side aisles. Building 128 
was also extended by roofing over an adjacent courtyard. 

At the New York yard a six-story light machine and electrical 
shop, 94 feet wide by 393 feet long, was also constructed, the materials 
being steel frame and brick. 

At the Boston, Portsmouth, and Mare Island yards important ex- 
tensions were made to existing machine shops. Of these, only the 
extension to machine shop No. 1 at Mare Island closely approximates 
the type construction described ; the design of the other yards named, 
which were not otherwise equipped for the construction of capital 
ships, being such as to meet local conditions and requirements. 

The provision of a large and modern machine shop for the naval 
station. Pearl Harbor, was taken up shortly after the armistice. 

The machine shop buildings mentioned were all constructed under 
contract^the building at Norfolk by George E. Wyne, Washington, 

37022—21 12 


D. C. ; at Philadelphia by the McClintic-Marshall Construction Co., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. ; at New York by Post & ^McCord, New York City ; 
at Boston by the Evatt Construction Co., Boston ; at Portsmouth by 
Levering & Garrigues, New York City; and at ]\Iare Island by George 
Wagner, San Francisco. 

Galvanising plants. — The first of the modern galvanizing plants 
constructed for naval requirements was at the Philadelphia yard. 
This building is of one story, 62 by 122 feet in plan, and 53 feet high 
over all. It is equipped with a 6-ton traveling bridge crane of 25-foot 
lift running lengthwise of the shop, and with a 3-ton jib crane for 
handling material from cars and over one of the vats. 

On account of the corrosive action of gases and acids present in a 
shop of this character, the entire building framework, including roof 
trusses of 62- foot span and excepting only crane runway girders, 
was designed and constructed of reinforced concrete. 

A plant of the same type but somewhat larger — 82 feet wide by 
152 feet long and 62 feet high over all — Avas constructed at the Nor- 
folk yard. As at Philadelphia, the wall framing is of reinforced 
concrete, but on account of the greater span, steel roof trusses coated 
with "gunite" (Portland cement mortar applied by compressed air) 
were used. 

Oxygen-hydrogen-acetylene generating plants. — Because of the 
very extensive use of oxygen, hydrogen, and acetylene in cutting and 
welding in connection with ship construction and repair, it has been 
found desirable and economical for the principal 3^ards to maintain 
their own plants for generating these gases. 

Fireproof buildings of reinforced concrete, brick, and tile were 
constructed to house these activities at the Philadelphia, Norfolk, 
and Mare Island yards, and one is now under construction at the 
Charleston yard. 

The Mare Island building, as a typical instance, is 38 feet wide and 
135 long, one story high. For safety the various activities, such as 
oxygen and hj^drogen generating, oxygen charging, hydrogen charg- 
ing, acetylene generating, and acetylene charging are all separated 
by fire Avails. The gases are stored in steel holders outside of the 

Boat shop. — At the navy yard, Philadelphia, an addition to the 
boat shop, 80 by 400 feet, 46 feet high to underside of roof trusses, 
and equipped with two 15-ton traA^eling bridge cranes, Avas con- 

Miscellaneous huildings. — At the larger yards it AA'as also necessary 
to construct various auxiliary buildings, such as engine and loco- 
motive-crane houses, toilet and locker buildings, etc. 

Power plants. — To take care of the great expansion of industrial 
activities at the yards equipped for s]iip])uilding, extensions to power- 


Machine shoj}, Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va. 

Macliuic -ii.'j , Navy Yard. Norfolk, Va. Interior of main aisl< 


Machine shop (center) and "extension" (loft), Navj' Yard, I'hUadeliihia, I'a. 

Maine aisle ol machine-shop extension, Navy Yaril, I'liiladelpliia, I'a. 


Light machine and electrical shop neai'ing completion, Navy Yard, New York, N. Y. 

itum fi»^ 

^ffP^Sli f 1^ 

-. / ■ ■ .r! — „'*■ '^ . ; 

Interior of extension to heavy machine shop. Navy Yard, New York, N. Y. 


plant buildings, and additions to power-plant eqiii]inient were neces- 
sary in nearly all cases. 

At Philadelphia and at Norfolk, where entirely new industrial 
areas were created and existing power plants were too small and 
too restricted as to location to permit of expansion (as Avell as some- 
what remote from the new center of load), it was considered neces- 
saiT that new power plants be constructed. The buildings housing 
these two plants, which were constructed from the same plans and 
under the same contract, consist of a generator room 77 by 102 feet, 
67 feet high to roof, ]iump room 35 by 114 feet, and a boiler room 
84 by 157 feet, Avith a continuous overhead coal bunker of 2,600 tons 
capacity, 94 feet high from basement to roof. An outside coal storage 
and handling plant Avith couA^eyor system from storage to bunkers 
is provided at each yard. The outside coal storage capacity is 18,000 

Further discussion and description of these plants aa^II be found 
in another chapter. 

The poAver-distributing lines for industrial deA'elopments, carried 
in a system of tunnels and trenches, are also reserved for separate 

The buildings Avere constructed under contract Avith the M. J, 
Roche Construction Co., of Cincinnati, Ohio; the Philadelphia coal- 
handling plant by the Guarantee Construction Co., of New York 
City; and the Norfolk coaling plant by R. H. Beaumont & Co., of 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gun shop^ Ncn^d Gun Factory, Wai^Jiinr/toiK D. C. — This project 
unusually interesting from an engineering standpoint, Avas handled 
in connection with the shop design described in this chapter. The 
building, Avhich has cranes of extraordinary capacity and lift (300 
gross tons; 40 and 100 foot lifts) and a shrinkage pit 100 feet deep, 
is described elsewhere in connection with the bureau's naval-ordnance 


General. — The ucav shipbuilding slips, by Avhich term is desig- 
nated the Avhole Avaterfront structure and forebay devoted to the 
construction and launching of a vessel, AA'ere designed in accordance 
with the re(iuii-ements of the Bureau of Construction and Repair 
and of the shi[)l)uilding yards as to principal dimensions and clear- 
ances, launching Aveights, weights to be handled by cranes, etc., 
and in accordance Avith the specific requirements of the locality 
as to foundation conditions, s)>ace available, range of tides, and the 
like. The assumptions for tlie ultimate cai)acity of the ])lants for 
the constructicm of capital ships have been mentioned heretofore. 
The building slips Avere, of course, designed Avith these assumptions 


Power plant, Navy Yard. Philadelphia, Pa. View showing coal handling plant (left), 
taken from crane runway of shipbuilding slip. 

Genei-ator-room, end of power plant, Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. 


(;ii;il li.-ijhlliiiL; iiistallaliuu at powrr plant, ^"av.v Yard, I'hiluiklijhia, i'; 

Ovci)ira(l coal liunkers in power plant, Navy Yard. Philadcliiliia, I'a. 





liNOi ' AOfEET 

llNCn • ZOfEET 

37022 — 21. <To face page 182.) No. 1 





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37022 — 21. (To face page 182.) No. 2 


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in mind, although the initial construction in each case is for the 
type of ship immediately assigned to the yard; thus slips at yards 
where battleships have been assigned have been constructed for 
vessels of a length of 700 feet, and at yards where battle cruisers 
have been or may be assigned, for ships of a length of 900 feet ; but 
all ways for capital ships are capable of being extended for ships 
up to 1,000 feet in length. The general plans illustrating this 
chapter show typical designs for shipbuilding slips and indicate the 
general arrangement, construction, dimensions, and loads. 

Launching ways. — The typical layout for shipbuilding slips for 
capital ships provides for launching ways (by which is meant the 
floor or platform on which a ship is built up and launched) of the 
usual " declivity " type capable of carrying enormous loads under the 
keel blocks and groundways and served by electrically operated trav- 
eling bridge cranes operating above the ways on high steel structures. 
A lower crane runway structure is provided at the inboard end of 
the slips to serve the area in which bulkheads, frames, etc., are assem- 
bled before being placed in the hull. 

The construction of the launching ways proper varied at the 
difi^erent yards at which slips were constructed on account of founda- 
tion conditions, type of ship to be constructed, desires of the yard, 
and expediency, but crane runways and cranes were constructed 
according to uniform plans. 

Crane rumvays and overhead cranes. — The clearance between the 
towers supporting the crane runways is in each case made 130 feet 
to allow for the construction of a ship of maximum beam, with the 
necessary staging, working platforms, and supports for shores. A 
standard-gauge railroad track serving the slip is located under the 
portals of the outer towers, and two tracks are placed under the 
towers between slips. The legs of these towers toward the slips 
slope outw^arcl, so that the inside width is increased from 130 feet 
at tops of portals to 150 feet at the crane-runway level. This allows 
the cranes to plumb the railroad tracks under the towers as well as 
the entire width of the slip. 

The cranes operate in two tiers — a lower tier of two cranes of 
40 tons capacity, 151-foot span, and about 135-foot lift above mean 
low water ; and an upper tier of four cranes of 10 tons capacity and 
about 155-foot lift. These upper cranes operate on tAvo longitudinal 
runways of about half the Avidth of the slip, the rails at the center 
of the slip being supported on a structure suspended from the trans- 
verse trusses which connect and brace the towers. In order that 
the 10-ton crane service may cover the entire width of the slip with- 
out a gap at and on each side of the center supports, the two cranes 
on one runway are of the " underslung " type ; that is, the crane trolley 
operates on the bottom chord of the crane girders, which extend 


under the supporting structure far enough to allow the trolley travel 
to overlap that of the cranes on the other half of the slip. 

The design of the runways is of unusual engineering interest, be- 
cause of the magnitude of the structures, the multiplicity of forces 
due to cranes and wind, and the statical indeterminacy of stresses in 
the component parts of the structure. The original detail design 
was prei:)ared by the American Bridge Co., of New York, on the 
basis of the bureau's outline drawings and specifications, and was 
checked in detail by the bureau. The single runway for the single 
battleship slip at Norfolk contains 4,045 tons of structural steel ; the 
double structure, with bulkhead handling runways for two battle- 
ships, at New York, 7,4G7 tons ; and the double structure for two 
battle cruisers, at Philadelphia, 9,948 tons. 

Five of these crane runway structures have been constructed from 
the same plans, the two at Philadelphia by the American Bridge Co. 
and the one at Norfolk and two at New York by the McClintic 
Marshall Construction Co. The 40 and 10 ton cranes for all of these 
ways were constructed by the Niles-Bement-Pond Co., of Phila- 

Philadelphia ivays. — The first designs for the two building ways 
at Philadelphia contemplated a reinforced-concrete deck structure 
inboard of the intersection of grade and mean low water, supported 
on timber piles cut off at the permanent ground-water level. The 
permanently wet outboard portion of the ways was to have been of 
timber, as in the design finally adopted. Bids were taken on this 
concrete-deck design, but the cost was found to be excessive in view 
of the work it was necessary to accomplish with the funds available. 
Because of the greater expense and time required for permanent 
concrete construction, and on the assumption that the more or less 
temporary construction above the wet line' could be permanently 
replaced after a number of ships had been launched, the department 
made the decision to install all-timber construction. 

The type of construction varies somewhat witli the load, but con- 
sists in general of close transverse pile bents, well braced in both 
transverse and longitudinal directions, capped with heavy oak and 
yellow-pine timbers, and decked over with heavy yelloAv-pine plank- 
ing. The piles are, of course, densely spaced under keel and ground- 
way supports and much more sparsely spaced in outer areas, where 
only the lighter loads of staging, -working platforms, and shores are 
supported. The ground-way supports from the pivoting point out- 
board are carried on piles spaced 2 feet center to center both ways. 
Passageways for men and materials are provided under the ways to 
save time ordinarily consumed in going around the head of the slip. 
Space has been conserved by installing such necessary facilities as 



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offices, tool rooms, rivet and bolt reclamation, and storage imcler the 
high part of the ways at the inboard end. 

The outboard end of the Avaj^s, consisting of pile bents supporting 
ground ways, were designed for installation either under water (by 
diver) or behind a cofferdam, the contractor electing (as did the 
contractors for the New York and Norfolk ways) the latter method. 

The ways proper at Philadelphia were constructed in the main 
under contract with the Foundation Co., of New York, and the 
passagewaj'^s, offices, tool rooms, etc., under contract with McCloskey 
& Bahls, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Norfolk ways. — At the Norfolk yard, where a slip for 'one battle- 
ship w^as built, timber construction of the same type as at Philadel- 
phia was used, except that the platform was not constructed to the 
full width and length of the slip, and passageways and offices, etc., 
under the ways were not included. 

During the war urgently needed destroyers were constructed (in 
parallel) upon these ways. 

These building ways were constructed under contract with the 
George Leary Construction Co., of New York. 

New York icays. — Two building slips for battleships have been 
constructed at the New Y^ork yard. Slip No. 2 was constructed im- 
mediately^ west of the old battleship slip, beginning late in 1917, 
and the latter. No. 1, was entirelj^ reconstructed, practically as a 
duplicate of No. 2, to permit the building of larger ships. The 
construction of the former was delayed by the difficulty in clearing 
the site of existing yard activities, and reconstruction of the latter 
could not begin until after the launching of the Tennessee on April 
30, 1919. 

The designs for the New Y^ork ways, prepared at the yard and 
checked by the bureau, provided for construction somewhat similar 
to that originally pknned for Philadelphia — a reinforced-concrete 
deck founded on timber piles cut off at water level — except that the 
concrete deck is made onlj^ of sufficient width to carry keel blocking 
and ground ways, and that the deck is constructed in steps conform- 
ing to a slope of one-half inch per foot instead of a continuous slope. 
The ground ways, of timber, are built up on these steps to a uniform 
slope of eleven-sixteenths inch per foot. The construction for the 
inboard 312 feet of the ways comprises a deck of reinforced-concrete 
slab and longitudinal girders, supported on transverse concrete piers 
12 feet on centers resting on timber piles cut off underground. For 
this distance (312 feet) some economy is effected by omitting the 
deck-and-pier construction for 4 feet on each side of the keel sup- 
ports, leaving a keel support 8 feet wide and two ground-way sup- 
ports, each 14 feet wide. The remaining 312 feet of concrete con- 


struction consists of heavy reinforced slabs or mats, 44 feet wide, 
resting directly on the timber piles. The last 131.65-foot length of the 
ground ways, outboard (below mean low water), conforms .to the 
ground-way slope of eleven-sixteenths inch per foot and is entirelj^ 
of timber. The outboard ground ways are supported directly on 
tlie caps of transverse pile bents 2i- feet on centers. This part of the 
structure is supported laterally by bracing, ties between its two parts, 
spur logs extending to the sides of the slip, and by a fill of from 3 
to 8 feet of broken stone. 

The loads to be considered, due to dead-weight of a ship on the 
ways and -the launching pressures due to pivoting, are enormous ; 
the keel supports in the case described being designed for a live load 
of 20 tons per linear foot and the ground-way supports for 20 tons 
each per foot for the inboard end and for 30 tons per foot outboard 
of the pivoting point. 

Timber adjustable staging supports, shores, and working platforms 
are also provided, supported on pile foundations between the ground 
ways and sides of slips. 

The ways for slip No. 2 were constructed under contract with the 
Jarrett Chambers Co., of New York City, and those for slip No. 2 are 
now being completed by the Phoenix Construction Co., of New York 

Puget Sound shiphuildinr/ dry dock. — The most striking departure 
from customary practice to be found in the bureau's entire program 
of shipbuilding facilities was the construction of a shallow dry dock 
at Puget Sound in lieu of the usual building ways. A resume of this 
operation is presented herewith from the personal account of the 
officer ^ at that time in charge of public works at the yard : 

In the latter part of 1916 much time was given to the discussion of the types 
of building ways. Naturally attention was first given to the construction of 
inclined building ways, as this was the type generally used throughout the 
world for ship construction. During this discussion one of the draftsmen* of 
the public works department suggested the building of a shallow dry dock and 
presented a sketch which he had nuule for this purpose. The writer imme- 
diately recognized tlie merit of such a proposition and directed that plans be 
prepared in order to determine what difficulties might be encountered in putting 
the project through, together with approximate estimates as to cost to see if 
such a construction would be warranted. 

There was nothing new in the idea itself. In Colson's Notes on Docks and 
Dock Construction the opening sentence states that " the term ' dock ' was 
formerly applied exclusively to the slips or inclosures made for the purpose of 
building or repairing ships." Germany had built twin docks of a shallow 
design for shipbuihling purposes, and France and England had both built small 
structures of the same type. The writer also recalls that in conversation with 
the late Civil Engineer Cunningham, United States Navy, in years gone by 

iCapt. (then Commander) L. E. Gregory (C. E. C), United States Navy. 
*Mr. Victor E. Ilulteen. 






Shipbuilding dock, Navy Yard, Puget Sound, Wash., showing caisson. 


-— :<'i!^fe!. 


MB ■ •-.. %.^.^ "V 

/ f ■ * 

J[ JE ■ IL 

SLipbuilding dock, Navy Yard, Tugot Sound, Wash. Geucrnl view showing U. S. S. Pyro 

under construction. 


we discussed such a proposition, iiltUougli tlie same had never been attempted 
by our Government. 

Plans were shortly thereafter developed to such an extent that it was found 
highly desirable to place the subject before superior authorities. It was pro- 
posed to build a dock of about 30 feet in depth over all, 130 feet in width, and 
950 feet in length, serving the same with traveling revolving hammer-head 
cranes, and the following advantages' were the principal ones noted : 

(a) Tliat the cost of such a dock at Bremerton, with four traveling cranes, 
would be no n;iore than that of the inclined ways with a sufficient number of 
fixed hammer-head cranes or an overhead crane. 

(6) Accessibility for workmen and materials of construction would be vastly 
superior because of the fact that the center of gravity of work installed would 
be below the yard level. 

(c) Difficulties in launching would be negligible, and the cost of launching 
a large ship would also be negligible. 

(d) Greater llexibiity in time of launching would be secured, as work could 
be prosecuted to the fullest extent permissible with draft conditions. Fullest 
advantage could therefore be taken of facilities for equipment before the ship 
left her original position. This also would permit construction simultaneously 
of as many ships as the dock would hold and launching them at different degrees 
of completion. 

It was also noted that the Bremerton yard was particularly adapted to such 
a construction, for at the depth at which this dock would be founded pile founda- 
tions would be unnecessary, and that piles would be required only for the 
support of the outer crane rail for this dock. 

The entire idea, after having been discussed with yard officials, was placed 
informally before the Conmiission on Navy Yards, and this connnission approved 
of the idea and suggested that it be followed up through official channels. It 
was therefore forwarded for the action of the Bureau of Yards and Docks. It 
is interesting to note that a day or so after the submission of this proposition 
to the bureau a personal note from the Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Yards 
and Docks was received stating that in making studies at the bureau some 
consideration had beeen given to the question of building a shallow dock for 
shipbuilding purposes, but that due to conditions not being well understood 
in Washington the idea had been abandoned. 

In view of the decision to develop the yard for shipbuilding purposes, the 
writer was ordered to report at the bureau in AVashington for duty in connec- 
tion with yard development, and reported there on March 12, 1917. Discus- 
sions were immediately opened up upon this subject and an important con- 
ference was arranged in the office of the chief constructor. Lack of enthusiasm 
for this project was notable, particularly by the officers of the Construction 
Corps, principally for the reason that a shallow dry dock was a " handy tool " 
and was not sufficiently distinctive eitloer as a dry dock or a building ways 
to warrant construction, particularly as it was considered a doubtful experi- 
ment; nor was the Bureau of I'ards and Docks at that time anxious to press 
for the construction of this dock against the wishes of the Bureau of Construc- 
tion and Repair. After discussions of pros and cons, the matter appeared to 
be one which was settled finally upon the cost of launching a capital ship. A 
question was asked as to the cost of launching the U. S. S. Arizona, the 
largest battleship launched to that date, and it is the writer's impression 
that this cost was stated to be approximately $50,000. When it was asked 
what it would cost to launch such a ship from a sliipbuilding dock, it w-as 
stated that it would be merelv nominal. 


Apparently, consideration of the plan received increasing favor, for upon 
the 22d of March, 1917, the Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks decided 
to approve the construction of the shipbuilding dock. Two days later a letter 
was sent to the navy yard allotting to it the sum of $2,000,000 for equipping 
the yard for shipbuilding, the principal features of which were the approval 
of the idea of building this dock and equipping it with four traveling revolving 
hammer-head cranes. Accordingly, \vhile the writer was still at the bureau, 
detailed plans were begun preparatory to placing this dock and its cranes under 
contract. The plans were drawn up mider bureau supervision, and careful 
computations were made for steel reinforcement and stability of the dock 
as well as for the details of the caisson. During the greater part of the prep- 
aration of these plans the writer was present for conferences on all these 

Bids were called for on the work, and were opened at the bureau on June 25, 
1917. The award was made to the Sound Construction & Engineering Co., of 
Seattle, on June 30, 1917, upon a unit-price basis, the estimated total cost based 
on original estimated quantities being $566,000. The caisson was to be built by 
the manufacturing department of the navy yard. The traveling cranes were 
to be furnished by contract, and they were subsequently let to the McMyler 
Interstate Co., and were of a type not hitherto essayed with such a capacity. 

A technical description of the dock construction is not proper at this place, 
but brief mention should be made of the general features of construction. It 
was desired that an ammunition ship ordered to be built at the navy yard 
be prosecuted without delay, inasmuch as war had been declared by the 
United States on Germany on April 6. It was decided, therefore, to press for 
the construction of the floor of the dock, together with a short section of the 
side walls, permitting the installation of the traveling cranes, in order that a 
part of the dock sufiicient in which to begin the construction of the ammunition 
ship should be available at the earliest possible date. It was, of course, neces- 
sary with such a project that the caisson of the dock be built within the coffer- 
dam, in order that it should be in place when the cofferdam was removed, all 
of which required unusual and interesting construction. The work was prose- 
cuted by the contractor along the line indicated, and the caisson was built by 
the yard force immediately above the sill in which it was to be placed, on 
blocking 8 feet above the dock floor. It was lowered by sand jacks for which 
no precedents could be found, the details of the same being worked out by the 
public works department in the navy yard under the writer's direction. The 
civil engineer officer who was in direct charge of this work, Lieut. G. W. Plaisted, 
subsequently wrote an article upon it, which appeared in the Engineering News- 
Record of November 13-20, 1919. 

During the construction of the dock but few hazards of nature were en- 
countered, and these were readily met by careful work. One feature as to 
personnel is of interest in this connection. It was found that the work was 
not proceeding on the dock structure in a satisfactory manner, and it became 
desirable to remove the superintendent and secure another who could produce 
better results. It became necessary also to accelerate the enthusiasm of the 
contractor's men on this job, particularly the foremen in charge of gangs of 
workers. Therefore at the time of changing superintendents in favor of one 
who was personally known to the public works ofTicer as being most efficient, 
and for the purpose of securing hearty cooperation and loyalty to him on the 
part of the various foremen under his direction, a modest banquet was given 
at a small cafe in Bremerton on July 16, 1918, at which llie public works officer 
told the story of the inception of the dock and its importance to the station, for 
the benefit of those present; and it was a matter of great satisfaction to note 


that from that time until the completion of the work the construction of this 
dock never lagged. It was completed January 10, 1919. It is proper to give 
considerable credit to Chief Insjjector H. A. Sylvester, B. E., whose resource- 
fulness during times of emergency was of considerable benefit in pushing the 
work to a successful completion. 

Some time after the Navy Department had authorized the construction of the 
ammunition ship it authorized the construction of a second one from the same 
plans, and the two ships were built in the dock, one forward of the other, and 
launched at the same time. The first one was completed to a degree far in 
advance of that at which ships are usually launched, whereas the second one 
was considerably behind in percentage of completion. 

The two ammunition ships were ready for launching in the latter part of 
1919, and the ceremonies of christening these ships were preceded by the exer- 
cises of dedicating the dry dock itself. This was done by Mrs. Gregory, who 
was the first one to operate the valve admitting water into this dock. The 
sponsors of the two ships launched immediately thereafter were Mrs. Bisset, 
wife of Commander Guy A. Bisset (C. C), United States Navy, and Mrs. Suz- 
zallo, wife of Dr. Henry SuKzallo, president of the University of Washington. 

While it is too early for cost records to indicate a great economy in ship- 
building work effected by reason of building in a dock of this character, it was 
nevertheless most convincing to all those who have had to do with the ship- 
building operation that construction methods are simplified and made more 
economical thereby. It stands to reason that, from the standpoint of handling 
materials alone, with the center of gravity of the ship under construction below 
the yard level, there must be a saving in costs in placing we"ghts on the vessel 
under construction. Furthermore, building on a level keel reduces the neces- 
sity for the use of batters in building bulkheads ; and the greater accessibility 
afforded the yard working force is another feature which greatly affects the 
cost of work. Launching is deprived of its hazards, whereas this operation 
at some yards, where the channel is narrow, is extremely serious and expensive. 
It is the writer's belief that as time passes and further experience is gained 
from observation of construction in this dock the idea will be held in greater 

The shipbuilding dock as designed and constructed is 130 feet wide 
(clear, between copings) and about 928 feet long (clear, between 
coping at head and caisson gate entrance). Its floor is at elevation 
plus 96.5 and copings at elevation plus 127, while mean low water is 
plus 109.4, mean high water at plus 120, and extreme high water at 
plus 124.8. 

The walls of the dock are of reinforced-concrete slab and counter- 
fort construction. The floor is of plain concrete with broken-stone 
cross drains and stone-filled openings through the floor for relief 
of hydrostatic pressure on the bottom of dock. A system of longi- 
tudinal and lateral culverts drains the dock (of seepage water as well 
as in emptying) through a pump well and two 10-inch centrifugal 
pumps. The dock is filled by means of two sluice gates and culverts, 
one located on each side of the entrance, and through valves in the 

The entrance gate is of the floating caisson type generally used for 
dry docks. The hull is constructed entirely of structural steel, with 


\ , , \ .;: i. M.:rc IshlUil, Calif. 

Submarine luiildiu;:: slips, Nav\- Yard, IVvrtsnioutli, N. H. 


creosoted white-oak fenders and wales and white-oak and white-pine 
sills bearing- against the gate seats. The caisson is equipped with two 
10-incli motor-operated pumps for emptying and two motor-operated 

The crane facilities have thus far been provided on the basis of 
auxiliary vessels being constructed; and though they are in excess of 
those at the old New York and Mare Island ways, they do not pro- 
vide the lifting capacity needed for the most efficient and expeditious 
construction of capital ships. These facilities consist, as above noted, 
of four traveling, revolving-jib (hammer-head) cranes of 20-ton 
capacity at 60 feet radius and 15 tons at 85 feet, with a 105-foot lift 
above the bottom, two operating on each side of the dock. 

Of the two ammunition ships launched in December, 1919 (see 
above), it is of interest to note that the keel of one (the Pyro) was 
laid in August, 1918, well ahead of the armistice. Construction on the 
other (the Nitro) began in March, 1919. 

Mare Island icays. — At the navy yard. Mare Island, Calif., exten- 
sive reconstruction of battleship ways No. 1, begun after the launch- 
ing of the California in November, 1919, is still under way. There 
alterations consist principally of widening the slip on one side, 
lengthening ways at both ends, and strengthening foundatiom 
for heavier loading. No increases in weight-handling equipment 
have been made. The approved development plan for Mare Island 
provided for entirely new building slips of the type constructed at 
eastern yards, to be located near the new structural shop, and de- 
cision as to more extensive remodeling of wa3^s No. 1 would depend 
upon the policy as to construction of the new^ slips. 

Portsmouth, N. H., suhmarine loays. — At the navy yard, Ports- 
mouth, N. H., two additional covered building ways were provided 
for the simultaneous construction of four additional submarines. 
The old ways in the Franklin ship house are now being extended, 
and crane facilities are being provided so that larger submarines can 
be constructed (the latter work undertaken since the armistice). 

Destroyer ways, Charleston and Mare Island. — For destroyers, 
three building ways, located adjacent to the older ways, with addi- 
tional hammer-head crane equipment, were provided at the Charles- 
ton, S. C, yard, and a double building slip for destroyers was pro- 
vided at the Mare Island yard. 

Minesiveeper ways, Philadelphia and Puget Sound. — For mine- 
sweepers, double ways, with locomotive-crane service, were installed 
at the Philadelphia and Puget Sound yards. 


General. — The type fitting-out pier is 100 feet wide, 1,000 feet long, 
and is designed for a depth of water of 40 feet. For convenience in 


transporting, handling, and storing material under all conditions, 
four standard-gauge tracks are provided. The weight-handling 
facilities consist of a hammer-head crane of 350 gross tons capacity, 
located 400 feet from the outer end of the pier, and of two traveling 
hammer-head cranes of 5 to 10 tons capacity operating over the full 
length of the pier and located one on either side of the large crane. 

Two of these piers were constructed — one each at the Philadelphia 
and Norfolk yards. Plans were prepared for the lengthening and 
remodeling of Pier C at the New York yard along similar lines, but, 
on account of interference with existing yard buildings and facilities, 
this project has been kept in abeyance pending the extension of the 

The Philadelphia and Norfolk piers, while identical as to principal 
dimensions, vary greatly as to type of construction, because of differ- 
ing local conditions; the ravages of marine borers at Norfolk being 
one factor that had to be taken into account. Permanency was, of 
course, an essential requirement in either case, but the problem at 
Philadelphia was much the simpler on account of the absence of 
teredo, a fact which permitted the use of unprotected timber piling. 

Philadelphia fitting-out pier. — The Philadelphia pier was con- 
structed in from 25 to 35 feet of water, and is of the open type. 
The deck consists of a reinforced concrete slab and longitudinal 
beams supported on reinforced concrete cross walls spaced 10 feet 
center to center. The latter are, in turn, supported on plain timber 
pile bents framed at the top with timber clamps. The piles are 
driven into the hard gravel stratum underlying the river bottom, 
and are cut off a foot above mean low water. 

The pier, including foundations for the large crane, was con- 
structed under contract with the Snare & Triest Co., of New York 

Norfolk fitting-out pier. — The Norfolk pier is of the closed, re- 
lieving-platform type (a timber platform, located just above mean 
loAv water, supported on timber pile and cap bents, surmounted by 
an 8-foot earth fill and with the earth below the platform retained 
by reinforced-concrete sheet piling at faces of pier, and above the 
platform by concrete retaining walls). This type was the natural 
choice in view of the conditions obtaining. 

The pier was built on ground lying, in general, just above high 
water, so that the entire construction could be performed " in the 
dry" and without excessive excavation. After the successful con- 
clusion of structural operations, the placing of railroad and crane 
tracks, cranes, trolley, conduits, etc., capstans and various fittings, 
and dredging of slips completed the pier for operation. 

Both timber and concrete sheet piles are driven well into the 
marly clay underlying the site. The concrete sheet piles are of the 





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tongue-and-groove type, 24 inches thick, 18 inches wide on the face, 
and 60 feet long, with bottoms beveled to facilitate driving of piles 
in close contact, so as to form practicall}^ a solid wall of concrete 24 
inches thick around the entire structure. 

The retaining walls are of hollow construction, an interior tunnel 
being provided for carrying pipes, ducts, etc., for the various services, 
such as air, water, electricity, and telephone required for pier and 

This pier, including foundations for the fitting-out cranes and also 
considerable adjacent bulkhead and quay-wall work of the same type, 
was constructed under contract with H. P. Converse & Co.. of Boston, 

350-ton -fitting-out crane. — Only one of the proposed large fitting- 
out cranes has been constructed thus far, namely, the one at the 
Philadelphia yard, which has been completed since 1919. This crane 
has a single-load capacity of 350 gross tons. 

General conditions. — The crane is located on the recently constructed 1,000- 
foot fitting-out pier at the yard, and its completion represents a definite step in 
engineering progress. 

An idea of its size may be had from the fact that a 10-story building could 
be placed under the jib of the crane, and that its over-all height is over 245 
feet, or about that of a 17 or 18 story building. 

The cost of the entire crane structure above the foundations was approxi- 
mately $875,000 and of the foundations .$120,000, and it will serve the purpose 
of placing the heavier parts, such as the turrets, ordnance, armor plate, boilers, 
machinery, etc., on the capital ships to be constructed at the yard, as well as 
that of removing and placing heavy parts in connection with repairs to ships. 

Tests of the new crane, in the course of which it was loaded to 125 per cent 
of rated capacity and operated in all cycles of duty, were successfully carried 
out. The largest single load in these tests was 980,000 pounds. 

In the most spectacular of the tests the giant crane lifted a total load of 
1,010,0(X) pounds — a locomotive weighing 100.000 pounds on the auxiliary (50- 
ton) hoist, a load of steel billets weighing 416.000 pounds on each of the main 
(17.5-gross ton) hoists, and a locomotive weighing 78,000 pounds on the ma- 
chinery-house crane. 

The maximum capacities, 50 gross tons for the auxiliary hoist and 350 gross 
tons for the main hoist, were determined in conjunction with the Bureaus of 
Construction and Repair and Steam Engineering as ones that would permit 
turrets, guns, etc., to be completely assembled (except for armor plating) in 
shops and transferred to tlie crane on barges or cars and placed aboard the 
ship intact, eliminating the operations of dismantling and subsequent re- 
assembling on board ship usually necessary, with a consequent marked increase 
in economy of time and money in the construction of capital ships. The large 
weight-handling capacity will also make the crane of inestimable value in the 
performance of major repairs to vessels. 

The location of the crane at the waists of the ships berthed on either side of 
the pier will permit the placing of most of the heavy weights without moving 
or turning the ships. The placing of minor parts, which will form the greater 
proportion of the work of fitting out a ship, will be rapidly and economically 
done by two auxiliary small-capacity (5 to 10 tons) quick-acting traveling 


cranes installed to operate along the pier on each side of the main crane. 
In some cases it is contemplated that these cranes may also be supplemented 
by floating derricks where it is desirable to expedite the construction by placing 
oiediurn weights beyond the reach of the pier cranes without moving the ship. 

General description of crane. — The crane, as designed and constructed, con- 
sists of a fixed portal 56 feet square, supporting, on deep girders, an octagonal 
tower about 56 feet wide at the bottom and tapering to a bearing pintle 5 feet 
in diameter at a height of appi'oximately 201 feet above the deck of the pier. 
Supported vertically on this bearing pintle and revolving thereon is a horizontal 
cantilever jib or boom 300 feet long over all. to which is rigidly attached a 
*' petticoat " which envelopes the fixed tower from the bottom of the jib down 
to a height just above the portal. The entire vertical load from the jib is 
transmitted to the tower at the pintle, mentioned above, but lateral thrusts 
are taken into the base of the octagonal tower by the circular girder which 
forms the rim of the ' petticoat," as well as at the pintle. The forward cantilever 
of the jib contains the three runways for the trolleys that carry the loads. The 
rear cantilever of the jib carries the counterweight and the house containing the 
machinery and drums for hoisting and lowering loads and racking the trolleys 
in and out on the forward cantilever. The machinery for revolving the jib is 
located at the level of the top of the portal girder, and the rotating impulse is 
transmitted through the rim of the " petticoat." This enveloping " petticoat " 
provided a greater factor of safety against failure by overturning of the jib, in 
the event of excessive accidental overload of crane, than would be given by the 
other and more usual design under consideration by the bureau, in which the 
jib is simply supported by the tower on a circular bearing similar to that of a 
swing bridge or a turntable. The entire framework of the crane is of structural 
steel of bridge grade, and the entire operation is by means of electricity. 

Access to the jib, machinery house, etc., is provided by means of a steel 
stairway in the tower and an electi-ical elevator mounted on the outside of the 
"petticoat" and the jib. 

Details. — The forged steel hooks by which the loads are raised have, in the 
case of the 175-ton hook, a shank inches in diameter, and in the case of the 
350-ton hook, a shank 13 inches in diameter. The 50-ton block and load are 
carried by eight l|-inch wire ropes; the 175-ton block and load by 16 l|-inch 
wire ropes running on .50-inch pulleys, and the 350-ton hook and load by 32 
If-inch wire ropes. The 350-ton hook is carried from the two 175-ton blocks 
by a steel equalizing beam 4 feet 101 inches deep. 

The clear lift of the main hook is 141 feet above and 29 feet below the deck 
of the pier ; and of the auxiliary hoist, 151 feet above and 29 feet below. The 
three trolleys carrying loads in and out on the forward cantilever of the jib 
operate on separate runways — the one 50-ton trolley to a distance of 190 feet 
from the center of the tower, and the two 175-ton trolleys to a distance of 
115 feet from the center. The two latter are arranged so that they can be 
coupled together in order to lift, by means of the additional hook and equal- 
izing beam above mentioned, the capacity load of the main hoist, 350 gross tons 
or 392 short tons. 

The forward cantilever is 200 feet long, 40 feet wide from the tower to the 
limit of travel of the main hoists, and 13 feet 4 inches beyond that. Its trusses 
have a depth of 40 feet at the tower. 

The rear trusses, carrying the machinery house and the counterweight, are 
100 feet long and 20 feet deep, and form a cantilever 40 feet wide. 

The machinery house it.self is a large building— 80 feet long, 43 feet wide, 
and 32 feet high — and contains the machinery for hoisting and lowering the 
hooks and for racking the trolleys. The two main hoisting motors and the one 




OflScial test of 350-ton fitting-out crane, Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. 


auxiliary hoisting engine are of 87 horsepower each ; the two main racking 
motors and the one auxiliary racking motor are of 27^ horsepower each. The 
drums on which the ropes for the main hoist are wound are 10 feet in diameter 
and 14 feet long, and revolve on a shaft 10^ inches in diameter. 

The machinery house also carries an overhead traveling crane of the bridge 
type of 35 tons capacity (determined by the weight of the main drum and 
drum shaft) for the handling of machinery. The runway on which this crane 
operates extends through the rear wall of the machinery house a distance of 
17 feet. By lowering the rear wall of the house, which is especially designed 
for the purpose, the crane is permitted to travel out beyond the end of the 
building in order to transfer parts to and from the pier, about 215 feet below. 

The counterweight is of concrete, and weighs 628,000 pounds. 

The pintle supporting the rotating part of the structure (jib and " petticoat ") 
is of cast steel, 60* inches in diameter, and when the crane is loaded to 
rated capacity, carries a vertical load of 5,834,000 pounds, and takes a lateral 
thrust due to maximum conditions of wind, loading, and eccentricity, of 607,000 
pounds. The vertical load is taken by means of 220 roller bearings, 3 inches 
in diameter, and the horizontal thrust by 62 rollers, 2 inches in diameter. The 
metal of the bearing rollers is a high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel with the ex- 
ceptional ultimate bearing strength of 290,(X)0 pounds per square inch after hard- 
ening treatment — raised from 96,000 pounds per square inch before treatment. 

The eccentricity mentioned is due to the fact that the jib is designed so that 
the overturning moment, or the tendency of the jib to overturn, is equal and 
opposite in direction under each of the two conditions of no loading and maxi- 
mum rated load ; in case of no load on crane, the center of gravity of the 
rotating mass is 12.45 feet behind that of the tower, and in the case of 
maxinumi load, 10.65 feet in front. This tendency toward overturning is re- 
sisted by the horizontal bearing of the bottom rim of the " petticoat " on the 
circular girder encircling the tower legs, as well as by the horizontal bearing 
at the pintle. The horizontal thrust at the bottom rim of the " petticoat " 
is taken up by means of 64 26-inch wheels mounted on two chains and bear- 
ing on a circular girder 55 inches deep and 64 feet in diameter. 

The sluing or revolving mechanism, located at the top of the portal, con- 
sists of an 87-horsepower motor with gearing, driving 4 pinions working into a 
rack 64 feet in diameter, having 768 teeth of 3.1 416-inch pitch and 12-inch face. 

The operating speeds of the crane are as follows : 
Hoisting: minute. 

Main hoist 2i 

Auxiliary hoist 15 

Racking : 

Main trolley 15 

Auxiliary trolley 80 

Revolving : One complete revolution in 12 minutes. 

All of the operations of the crane are controlled from an operator's cab located 
under the jib, adjacent to the tower and in full view of all of the handling 
operations of the crane. The machinery is controlled from the cab by means 
of master controllers operating solenoid switches located in the machinery 
house. Clutches for throwing the hoists into high or low gear and for coupling 
together the main hoists when using the equalizer beam are located in the 
machinery house and are mechanically operated by levers in the operator's cab. 

The structure is designed so that when it becomes necessary to renew pintle 
bearings or make repairs the entire rotating structure (jib and "petticoat") 
can be jacked up from the portal by means of four 30-inch jacks of 560 tons 
capacity each. 


The portal lias four legs, spaced 50 feet center to center, each of a sectional 
area of 385 square inches of structural steel, supporting the massive girders 9 
feet deep which carry the octagonal tower. The maximum load on one of 
these legs was computed at 3,000,000 pounds under maximum conditions of 
wind pressure, and for this load the legs and the foundations were designed. 
The portal has a clear height of 25 feet 7 inches, which provides ample clearance 
for locomotive cranes or other equipment on the two tracks passing through it. 
A power substation which furnishes the electrical current for the operation of 
the crane is also located beneath the portal. 

The entire dead-weight of the crane structure is calculated at 4,000 tons. 
An uplift of 59,000 pounds being possil)le in any One leg, due to maximum wind 
loads on the structure, four bolts 3 inches in diameter are used to anchor each 
leg to the foundations. 

Foundations. — The four tower legs are supported on grillages 10 feet 4 inches 
square, each made up of two layers of rolled steel girders embedded in massive 
reinforced concrete caps 35 feet 4 inches square and 9 feet 6 inches deep, tied 
securely together longitudinally and transversely by the deep reinforced con- 
crete girders of the pier deck. Each of these caps rests on 156 timber piles 
driven to the hard cemented gravel river bottom and cut off at water level. 
The piles are supported laterally by an earth fill inclosed and retained by 
reinforced concrete sheet piles jetted and driven into the hard river bottom. 
Most of these sheet piles are 18 by 24 inches in section and 52 feet long, weigh 
about 12 tons, and are tongued and grooved to interlock one with another to 
form a reinforced concrete wall around the entire foundation, 24 inches thick 
and spanning from caps and lateral connecting girders to the river bottom. 

The crane structure was designed by the McMyler-Interstate Co., of Bedford, 
Ohio, under the general supervision and in accordance with the specifications 
of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, and was erected by that company under 
the supervision of the public works oflicer at the navy yard. The contract for 
the crane was awarded to the McMyler-Interstate Co. in .January, 1918, and 
the erection was completed in December, 1919. 

The foundations wei'e designed by the Bureau of Yards and Docks and con- 
sti'ucted by the Snare & Triest Co., of New York City, as a part of the fitting-out 
pier. This construction was also under the general supervision of the public 
works officer. 

Auxiliary fitting-out cranes. — The auxiliary cranes are of the same 
general type as those installed at the Puget Sound shipbuilding dock, 
but with greater lifts, reaches, and operating speeds and smaller 
lifting capacity. 

The maximum lift is 130 feet — about 90 feet above the level of the 
pier and 40 feet below ; the reaches and capacities are 5 tons at a 
radius of 140 feet and 10 tons at 80 feet. The maximum operating 
speeds are as follows : 

Feet per minute. 

Hoisting, 5-ton loadj. 100 

Hoisting, 10-ton load 50 

Racking, 5-ton load 300 

Racking, 10-ton load 250 

Crane travel, 10-ton load 200 

Rotating, 10-ton load, at maximum radius 300 

Three of these cranes, two for the Norfolk pier and one for Phila- 
delphia, have been constructed by the McMyler-Interstate Co. 



Fitting-out cranes, Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. Left to right : 350-ton crane ; auxil- 
iary traveling crane. 





Auxiliary fitting-out cranes ncaring completion. Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va. 




General. — The various main projects under the above head have 
been touched upon previously, but no mention has been made of the 
various auxiliary improvements necessary to the efficient operation 
of plants. Yard railroad systems, streets, and sewers naturally had 
to be extended on a large scale. 

Tracks, streets, and sewers. — At each of the yards — Philadelphia 
and Norfolk (and at the other yards in proportion to the major 
improvements) — several miles of new standard-gauge track were 
laid to serve the new shipbuilding industrial areas and to provide 
classification tracks for the proj)er handling of the greatly increased 
volume of traffic. Of equal magnitude and importance are the 
extensions to yard streets and to storm and sanitary sewers. 

All of this railroad and municipal work has been performed in 
accordance with the best current practice, modified to suit local 
conditions. The new streets at the various yards are practically 
all of permanent construction — vitrified brick, wood block, or con- 
crete, according to the nature of service expected and conformably 
with preferred yard practice. Concrete pavements are being more 
and more widely used, because of their suitability and economy in 
relation to the increasing proportion of rubber-tired traffic. 

This work has been performed under a great number of contracts 
and also, to a large extent, by yard forces. 

Water-front imfroveinents. — Because of the costly nature of this 
work, the time required for its execution, and the lack of sufficient 
funds, water-front improvements and berthing facilities have not 
been provided to keep pace with general development, nor have such 
improvements been at all commensurate with the increase in the Navy 
afloat. Extensive accommodations of this nature are necessary at 
most of the shipbuilding yards, particularly New York, Philadelphia, 
Norfolk, Charleston, Puget Sound, and Mare Island. 

The most extensive improvements undertaken in connection with 
shipbuilding and repair development (aside from the fitting-out 
piers described above) are at the Norfolk yard, where about 1,300 
feet of quay wall of the relieving-platform type, with concrete sheet 
piles, have been or are now being constructed adjacent to the fitting- 
out slips. Nearly 1,500,000 cubic yards of dredging has been per- 
formed in connection with this improvement. 

The quay-wall work and dredging is being executed under con- 
tracts with H. P. Converse & Co., who were also the contractors for 
the fitting-out pier. 
37022—21 14 




General. — The typical navy-yard development plan contemplates 
the provision of floating derricks and cranes of capacities varying 
from 15 and 20 tons to 150 tons to assist shore cranes in the fitting 
out of vessels and for use in connection with repairs to ships. A 
few of the smaller cranes and two of large capacity were provided 
shortly prior to and during the war. 

One hundred and ftfty-ton cranes^ Norfolk and Mare Island. — Of 
these floating cranes, the most interesting are the two large revolv- 
ing cranes constructed for the navy yards, Norfolk and Mare Island. 
They are of the jib type, with capacities, reaches, and lifts as follows : 


At maximum radius 
(jib in lowest po- 

At minimum radius 
(jib in liighest po- 


Lift above 


Lift above 



1 105 




'62.5 feet over side and end fenders. 
Lift below water 25 feet . 

The steel pontoons of these cranes are 85 feet wide by 140 feet long, 
with a draft of about 8 feet. Both cranes were designed, to the bu- 
reau's specifications, and constructed, by the Wellman-Seaver-Mor- 
gan Co., of Cleveland, Ohio. In the case of the Norfolk crane, the 
contract included the construction of the pontoon ; that for the Mare 
Island crane was built by navy-yard forces. The Norfolk crane was 
completed in 1917, and the one at Mare Island in 1918. 


Dry-dock cranes. — Principally for use in connection with the new 
dry docks (described elsewhere), 50-ton locomotive jib cranes have 
been constructed for yards as follows : New York, 1 ; Philadelphia, 
2; Norfolk, 1; and naval station, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 1. Except- 
ing the one for New York, which is steam-operated, all of these 
cranes are electrically powered. The revolving .structure of these 
cranes is mounted on a portal tower, permitting of the passage of 
standard-gauge rolling stock on tracks underneath. The working 
capacities, except for New York, are : Main hoist, 50 gross tons at a 




Floatiug crauc (150-ton), Kavy Yard, Mare Island, Calif. 


Floiitiuin ciano (loO-ton), Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va. 

*•■" -'<"»^ ■"-''* ■' 

ton) for liiy l>.Hk Xc :;. Navy Vaid, riiiladrlphia, I'a. 


reach of approximately 91 feet, and lift of 65 feet above ground and 
50 feet below ; auxiliary hoist, 15 gross tons at a reach of approxi- 
mately 130 feet, and lift of 90 feet above ground and 50 feet below. 
The reaches for the New York crane are somewhat less because 
the dry docks at that yard are smaller than those more recently con- 
structed. It is to be noted that a capacity of 50 tons is generally 
ample for cranes serving dr}' docks, where overhauls of a relatively 
minor nature are executed. The capacities of floating and fitting-out 
cranes are, as has been seen, much larger in important cases. 


General. — In order that the numerous smaller vessels of the Navy 
(such as patrol boats, submarines, minesw^eepers, destroyers, gun- 
boats, barges, tugs, etc.) may be conveniently and economically taken 
out of the water for repairs or overhauling, a marine railway of suit- 
able capacity is an essential part of the equipment of any station 
whose mission includes the care of such vessels. At a yard where 
only the larger dry docks are available, a suitable marine railway is 
desirable because of its economy of operation and the probability of 
more urgent need of the docks for major vessels; and at a station 
where docks are not available, the marine railway becomes an indis- 
pensable requisite. The shortage of equipment of this nature, both 
at naval and commercial plants, was recognized prior to the war; 
and, needless to state, the increases in the Navy of recent years have 
greatly emphasized this necessity. 

Appropnations. — The act of October 6, 1917, contained an appro- 
priation of $350,000 for " Marine railways at navy yards and sta- 
tions." The naval appropriation acts of March 4, 1913, and July 1, 
1918, made specific appropriations for marine railways at the naval 
station, Pearl Harbor. Hawaii, and the Naval Fuel Depot, San Diego, 
Calif., respectively. (The naval appropriation act of June -1, 1920, 
made additional specific appropriations for the completion and in- 
crease in capacity of the Pearl Harbor and San Diego marine rail- 

Marine railways consi/ructed. — Under the appropriation first 
named, marine railways for ships up to 2,000 tons displacement were 
constructed at the navy yards, Boston, Mass., and Charleston, S. C. 

Under the appropriations of March 4, 1913, and July 1, 1918, con- 
struction of 2,000-ton marine railways was started at Pearl Harbor 
and San Diego. In completing these structures, however, the ca- 
pacity of each is being increased to 2,500 tons, and the latter will be 
removed from the site at the fuel depot to a much more advantageous 


Marine railway, Navy Yard, Charleston, S. C. Cradle submerged. 

Marino railway, Navy Yard, Charleston, 8. C. Cradk' ashore. 


location at the recently acquired naval repair station at San Diego. 
A marine railway of 250-tons capacity was constructed at the Cape 
May, N. J., section base, and two of 90 tons each were constructed for 
the section base at Corfu, Greece. These latter were fabricated in 
the United States, but had not been shipped abroad at the time the 
armistice was signed. One has subsequently been installed at the 
naval training station, Newport, R. I., and the other stored at the 
naval training station, Great Lakes, 111., where it will be installed as 
an important auxiliary of the harbor development project authorized 
for that station. 

The Charleston and Boston railways were constructed by the 
Crandall Engineering Co., of Boston, and Mr. James L. Crandall was 
of assistance to the bureau in the preparation of the designs of the 
four large railways mentioned. The San Diego railway is under con- 
struction by the Eoss Construction Co., of Sacramento, Calif. The 
Pearl Harbor ways and machinery house were constructed by the 
Hawaiian Contracting Co., and the cradle and hauling machinery 
are being furnished under contract with the same concern. The Cape 
May railway was constructed by Cramp & Co. of Philadelphia. The 
90-ton railways were fabricated by the Vanderstucken-Ewing Con- 
struction Co., of Bethlehem, Pa. 

Characteristics. — The 2,000 and 2,500-ton railways mentioned are 
all of the same type and, except for length of ways, of the same di- 
mensions. A general description of the design follows : 

Ways: The ways consist of built-up wood stringers (set on a slope of about 
seven-eighths inch per foot), supported by piles; at Charleston, San Diego, and 
Pearl Harbor there are two inclined runways 16 feet center to center, and at 
Boston three runways 15 feet center to center. The inshore end of the ways at 
Pearl Harbor is of concrete construction supported on rock. 

Cradle : The cradle consists of a structural steel framework at Charleston. 
San Diego, and Pearl Harbor, and of timber framework at Boston. All are 
provided with wood decks and walk ways, and with all necessary fittings, such 
as keel blocks, bilge blocks, winches, cleats, etc. The cradle travels on two 
(three at Boston) ranks of rollers, one rank being supported on each runway 
of the ways. The cradle is constructed in two sections bolted together, making 
it self-docking for repairs and painting purposes. 

Hauling mechanism : The cradle is hauled both in and out of t-lie water by 
an electrically operated chain hoist housed at the head of the ways. There are 
four main hauling chains, attached to a drawhead near the center of the cradle. 
The hauling and l)ack-hauling chains are endless, and are provided with suitable 
equalizing sheaves to take up unequal strains. 



The principal characteristics and dimensions of these railways — as 
well as of others, new and old, in the naval service — are shown in the 
following table : 

Marine railicays at United States navy yards and naval stations. 

Yard or station. 

Pearl Harbor. 
San Diego... . 



Key West 

Cape May 

Guantanamo. , 
Washington. . 


(ireat Lakes... 





































cradle i^^'^f '^ 
be *" 



iween i Q^,gj. ^^ 




Feet. Feet. 

















of keel 
to mean 


1 Data lacking. 



Necessity. — Early in 1917 the Navy found itself face to face with 
the problem of expediting construction on its war fleet, of which 
torpedo boats, submarines, and smaller craft in general formed the 
large mass. This represented actual emergency building, super- 
imposed on the six-year program inaugurated the year before. The 
process which was to place the United States second in the list of 
naval powers began at the outset to tax to the utmost the facilities 
of the commercial shipbuilders, and even to exceed their capabilities 
of early expansion. 

Character of assistance. — It was seen that aid, direct or indirect, 
w^ould have to be extended to many of these concerns by the Navy 
itself, and the engineering resources of the department and requisite 
moneys were made available. The magnitude and character of the 
requisite plant extensions were determined by the Secretary of the 
Navy in consultation with and on the recommendation of the chiefs 
of the bureaus interested. The respective bureaus made the neces- 
sary contracts for the construction involved, and were responsible 
for the proper expenditure of and accounting for funds allotted, 
except that for all extensions in connection with contracts for ships 
the Compensation Board w^as the agency designated by the depart- 
ment to perform some of the functions of this character, as described 
in the respective ship contracts. 

The necessary technical supervision and inspection of work in- 
cluded in these plant-extension projects, especially as to general 
efficiency of layout and arrangement of detail and inspection of con- 
struction work, were assigned to the Bureau of Yards and Docks 
by the Secretary of the Navy in August, 191T. This authorization 
applied, in general, to the public- works features to be provided, 
which covered the rnajor portion of the total cost. Rear Admiral 
H. H. Rousseau (C. E. C), U. S. N., was designated project manager 
for the whole undertaking. Mr. Henry B. Seaman, a consulting 
engineer of New York City, was called to the bureau to assist in the 
execution of the projects involved, and resident engineers with neces- 
sary assistants were appointed, 



This activity of the bureau is not to be confused with its regular 
work of nav}^ yard improvement, the war-time phases of which have 
been discussed at some length in the chapter " Shipbuilding and 
repair facilities." 

Cost. — Some 45 projects of this character, involving a gross outlay 
in excess of $71,000,000, were carried through to successful comple- 
tion under various contracts. As will be understood from a study 
of the " rental " agreements explained hereinafter, the above total 
exceeds bj^ a large amount the net expense of these improvements to 
the Government, since liquidations will refund a total of more than 
$30,000,000 in payments and appraised usable equipment. Placing 
the net outlay (conservatively) at $41,000,000, one is struck with the 
relative smallness of the sum as compared with the $812,000,000 worth 
of naval vessels whose construction was either made possible or mate- 
rially expedited through its expenditure. On this basis less than 
6 per cent of the cost of the additional fleet units has actually to be 
charged to the account of the plant extensions. 

Rental agreements. — The extensions financed by the Government 
to provide for the construction of hulls and machinery can be classed 
in three general groups, as follows : 

(1) Special rentals "A" : These facilities are and remain the prop- 
erty of the contractor. Their cost was divided between the ship- 
building contractor and the Navy Department, tentatively, at the 
time of approving the special rental, and is being finally fixed by 
appraisal upon the termination of the contract. The Government's 
share of the cost of these items is allowed as a special rental or depre- 
ciation, and is charged to the cost of the ships, but no profit thereon is 
allowed the shipbuilder. 

(2) Plant extensions (under the naval act of October G, 1917) : 
These belong to the Government, their whole cost being defrayed by 
the latter. Upon the completion of the work some or all of the 
items may be taken over by the contractor, as determined by him, at 
their value as appraised at that time — the others being removed by 
the Government or abandoned, as the Government may decide. No 
part of the cost of these items is charged to the cost of the ships. 

(3) Special rentals "B": These resemble "plant extensions," in 
that the Government defrays their entire cost, and that they are 
and remain the property of the Government. They are subject to 
the Government's disposal at the conclusion of the contract. They 
resoin])le special rentals "A" only in that their cost is charged to the 
cost of the vessels concerned. 

Other extensions were financed by the Government on lines similar 
to the above. 



Projects. — The plants whose facilities were increased through naval 
assistance are tabulated below, together with the construction calling 
for added facilities, and the expense involved in each extension : 


Construction making exten- 
sion necessary. 

cost of exten- 

Alabama Dry Dock & Shipbuilding Co., Mobile, Ala 

Baltimore Dry Dock & Shipbuilding Co., Baltimore, Md. 

Bath Iron Works (Ltd.), Bath, Me 

Chester Shipbuilding Co., Chester, Pa 

Wm. Cramp & Sons" Ship & Engine Building Co., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. (other than at Cramp plant). 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., Akron, Ohio 

De La Vergne Co., East Chicago, Ind 

Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn 

Ford Motor Co., Detroit, Mich , 

Ford Motor Co., Kearney, N. J , 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding' Corp., Fore River, Mass , 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Quincy, Mass 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Squantum, Mass 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., BulTalo, N . Y 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Providence, R.I 

Worthington Pump & Machinery Co., East Cambridge, 

Falk Co., Milwaukee, Wis 

Sturtevant Co., Hj-de Park, Mass 

Edward Valve Co., East Chicago, Ind 

Chapman Valve Co., Indian Orchard, Mass 

Consolidated Mfg. Co., Bridgeport, Conn 

Gas Engine & Power Co., Morris Heights, N. Y 

Griscom Russell Co., Massillon, Oliio 

Lake Torpedo Boat Co., Bridgeport, Conn 

New Jersey Dry Dock & Transportation Co., Elizabeth- 
port, N. J. 

Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., Newport 
News, Va. 

New York Shipbuildmg Corporation, Camden, N. J 

Pennsylvania Shipbuilding Co., Gloucester, N.J 

Pusey & Jones Co., Wilmington, Del 

Staten Island Shipbuilding Co., Staten Island, N. Y 

Sun Shipbuilding Co., Chester, Pa 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp, (Union), Potrero- Alameda , 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. (Union), Potrero-Alameda 

and Risdou, Cahf. 

Columbia Steel Co., Pittsburg, Cahf 

AUov Steel Forging Co., Carnegie, Pa 

C. &"0. Ry. Co., Newport News, Va 

Inland Ordnance Co., Bedford, Ohio 

Poole Engine & Machine Co., Woodberry, Md 

Walter Scott Co., Plainfleld, N.J 

Tioga Steel & Iron Co., Philadelphia, Pa 

Virginian Ry. Co., SewaUs Point, Va 

Lang Products Co., Whitestone, Long Island 

Erie Forge Co., Erie, Pa 

Alhs-Chalmers Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Pollock Steel Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.. 

3 minesweepers.. 
7 minesweepers., 

11 destroyers 

■1 minesweepers. 
Various vessels. 

Equipment for destroyers 

Various vessels 


100 Eagle boats 


Various vessels 

Transportation improvements, 

35 destroyers , 

35 turbine sets for destroyers. , 
112 Yarrow boUers for destroy- 
150 sets pumps for destroyers.. 

Gears for destroyers 

Turbine sets for destroyers. . 



Safety valves 

5 minesweepers 

Equipment for destroyers . . . 

12 submarines 

3 minesweepers 

Various vessels. 


2 minesweepers 


8 minesweepers, 6 seagoing 

3 minesweepers 

Various vessels 



4-inch gun forgings 

Coal storage 

Gun forgings 

500 4-Lnch guns 

250 antiaircraft-gun mounts. . . 

Gun forgmgs 

Coal storage 

Airplane propellers 

4-inch giui forgings and de- 
stroyer shafting. 

Rotor drums and destroyer 

Gun forgings 

$60, 434. 53 

417, 768. 28 

105, 662. 65 


1, 246, 

3, 500, 
2, 796, 


13, 787, 



748. 54 
552. 00 
000. 00 
820. 32 


800, OOa 00 
190, 000. 00 
20, 000. 00 
6S, 000. 00 
156, 253. 92 
325, 000. 00 
423, 305. 52 
72, 188. 80 

9, 323, 773. 00 


14, 971. 82 

7, 583. 75 


8, 230. 60 

2, 668, 800. 00 

135, 000. 00 
375, 111. 51 
324, 800. 00 
210, 771. 00 
535, 360. 00 
159, 810. 39 

1, 800, 000. 00 
382, 254. 00 
229, 385. 65 

7, 700, 998. 00 

557, 106. 00 
732, 600. 00 

Thirty-four of the foregoing plants were engaged in the construc- 
tion of torpedo-boat destroyers, scout cruisers, submarines, mine- 
sweepers, and accessories for these vessels, and of the Eagle boats 
(built by the Ford Motor Co.), two have provided for the storage 
of coal ; one for the production of airplane propellers, and eight for 
the production of shafting and ordnance material. Many of the 
above plants were substantially completed and used in the calendar 
year 1917, and practically all of them were in successful operation 
before the expiration of the fiscal year 1917-18. The three largest 


plants were the toi'i^edo-boat- destroyer plant of the Bethlehem Ship- 
building Corporation (Ltd.) at Squantum, near Quincy, Mass., cost- 
ing nearly $14,000,000; the extension to the plant of the Newport 
News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., costing over $9,000,000 ; and the 
Erie Forge Co. plant, at Erie, Pa., costing nearly $8,000,000. 


Squantum flant. — The plant proper occupies about 97 acres of 
land at the north end of a tract of 700 acres, commandeered by the 
Navy Department, located about 5 miles north of Quincy, at the 
mouth of the Neponset River. It consists of a fabricating and as- 
sembling shoj^, with 10 building slips under roof, and 6 wet berths, 
also under roof, and the necessary auxiliary shops, storehouses, 
Avharf, wet basin, launching ways, railroad tracks, streets, street rail- 
way connections, etc. The plant is adapted to the rapid construction 
of light-draft hulls and the installation of the machinery and fittings 
for such vessels. It is entirely Navy owned. This plant was authorized 
October 6, 1917 ; construction work began immediately and progressed 
during a winter of extreme severity. The fabrication of the shipwork 
by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation (Ltd.) began at the plant 
in January, 1918; five keels were laid in April, the first boat was 
launched in July, and delivered to the Navy on November 30, 1918. 
The plant was substantially completed in May, 1918, seven months 
after it was authorized. Up to May 1, 1920, 35 destroyers had been 
built and launched at this yard by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp- 
oration (Ltd.), of which 33 were entirely completed. This plant has 
been turned over to the jurisdiction of the commandant, navy yard, 
Boston, for ultimate use as a repair base for destroyers and sub- 
marines. It is designated as the " United States destroyer and sub- 
marine base, Squantum, Mass." In connection with destroyers con- 
structed at this plant the department constructed a boiler shop at 
Providence, R. I., and a turbine shop at Buffalo, N. Y., both of which 
were also operated by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation (Ltd.) 
in conjunction with the Squantum plant. Tlie turbine shop furnished 
35 sets of turbines for the destroyers built at Squantum, and the boiler 
shop furnished the boilers and the condensers. The structural part of 
the turbine shop, constructed at Buffalo, N. Y., has been sold, and the 
tools have been transferred to navy yards. The boiler shop at 
Providence has been transferred to the city for the fiscal year 
1920-21 for use as a receiving, storage, and transit station in con- 
nection with the operation of a proposed steamship line between 
Providence and other points, reimbursement to the Navy Department 
to be in the sum of $10,000. The building will ultimately be re- 
moved to South Boston to the naval dry -dock property. 


Squantuni tlestioyer plant. General view during construction. 

3MMUM' JU&fk. 

■•?*t^"' "^ ^^Mi-^ 

Shore end of building slips at Squantum destroyer plant. 


Wet slips and building slips at Squantum destroyer plant. 

Intriiui- view of wet slip, Sguaiitiim destroyer plant. 


Newport Neivs Shiphuildiyig & Dry Dock Co. — This plant occupies 
approximately 120 acres, and the yard consists of 13 shipways, 3 
of which are being used for battleships and large commercial vessels ; 
2 ways, not yet completed, will be used for battle cruisers; and 8 
ways are used for destroyers. There are three dry docks — No. 1 is 
600 feet long and 90 feet wide ; No. 2 is 800 feet long and 95 feet wide ; 
No. 3 is 525 feet long and 100 feet wide. The plant also includes the 
necessary buildings, yards, and equipment for light and extra heavy 
shipbuilding work. Before the additions were made to the yard 
through the use of Navy funds, there were seven ways, and these were 
large enough to build any vessel up to and including the largest bat- 
tleships of the type of the Mississippi. There were no ways available 
for battle cruisers, nor for laying down the large number of de- 
stroyers which the yard had been ordered to build. 

The Navy contract calling for the emergency plant extension was 
for the construction of an additional number of destroyers, making 
a total of 31 in all. The total estimated cost of the ]Savy contracts 
for the 31 destroyers, 2 battle cruisers, 2 battleships, 8 tankers, and 2 
troopships is nearly $150,000,000. The total cost of special rentals 
and plant extension authorized on account of these items amounts to 
approximately $10,000,000. The United States Shipping Board 
Emergency Fleet Corporation had in addition contracted with the 
Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. for some tankers and 
troopships, and had authorized new plant extensions to the extent 
of $800,000. 

The Navy plant extension consists of a large addition to the north 
end of the old yard, upon which a large amount of dredging had to 
be done, a sea wall built, and four shipways with connecting rail- 
waj^s and handling facilities constructed. These four shipways are 
known as Nos. 10 and 11, each unit having two shipways under its 
respective number. There were also various smaller items of equip- 
ment and tools. These ways added to the facilities of the yard so 
that more destroyers could be worked upon. Shipways Nos. 8 and 9 
are large ways 900 feet long, with submerged outer ends protected 
by caissons and served by very high towers supporting runways car- 
rying heavy electric cranes, and also by a complete layout of angle 
and plate yards, with the working shops for these materials and 
handling facilities for the ways.' These two latter ways and the ex- 
tension to Pier No. 1 will not be completed before the middle of the 
calendar year 1921. Construction of this plant extension work began 
in 1917 and is all in use with the above exceptions. Title to the plant 
extension is to be transferred to the shipbuilding company upon 
completion of the destroyers, in accordance with an agreement 
already executed. There will remain outstanding at this plant as 
the property of the contractor a large number of " special rental " 


Ship fabricating; shed, Xavy extension to plant of Newport News Shipbuilding and 
Dry Dock Co., Newport News, Va. 

General view of Navy extension to plant of Erie Forge Co., Erie, I'a. 




/^a,n Oifict. Qidg Sm^c^s/oo 



^h.pS^ctf M»t 

for-je ^tof* £xU/^s'on 


P,pe. 5»iv» 


Mu:l fitpeir- Sfio^ 


fiaci'.en Sh,p^mji f*» Z 


frecf,^^ S^eo 


3Aop *<»'- PlaArs 4 9^cp*A 


Cfeine ^u/rnf^^ 


Sub 5/errv<I/» 


putc ^t**y>S'e>n 

C.A 0. Y>M?D 




37022—21. (To face page 222.) 





/lC\-/POET /-1E\«'S 
5rtlPBUILDI/<Q £. Dcy DOCK CQ 



items allowed in connection with contracts for battleships and battle 

Erie Forge Co. — This plant, located at Erie, Pa., was designed for 
the manufacture of 4-inch gun forgings, rotor drums, and destroyer 
shafting, and contracts with the Navy Department called for the 
production by the Erie Forge Co. of 7,500,000 pounds of forgings and 
7,500,000 pounds of drums and destroyer shafting. The plant cost 
approximately $7,700,000. Work was started early in November, 
1917. The extension consists of four main buildings, as follows : 


Opeu-hearth building 171 by 280 

Forge shop 201 by 364 

Machine shop 195 by 360 

Heat-treatment building 67 by 336 

There are also a number of miscellaneous buildings, including a 
substation, boiler house, administration building, chemical labora- 
tory, physical laboratory, office building, etc. The open-hearth de- 
partment includes in its equipment two 50-ton furnaces with all 
accessories. Rapid progress was made on this plant extension, and 
it was substantially completed and in operation by the Erie Forge 
Co. before the expiration of the jEiscal year 1917-18, or less than 
eight months after it was authorized. 

Ford Motor Co.., Detroit plant. — The shipbuilding plant was an 
entirely new proposition for the Ford Motor Co., and was con- 
structed on the north end of a plat of ground primarily intended for 
blast-furnace operations, upon the south end of which the blast 
furnaces have now been erected. The plat of land is about 1^ miles 
long by three-fourths mile wide, and fronts at the lower end on the 
River Rouge and Roulo Creek. The latter waterway was' dredged 
out and extended to form a launching slip and fitting-out berths. 

No building ways were used in connection with the construction of 
the Eagle boats. A conveyor system of trucks was used to move 
the hulls from one operation to another, there being in all seven 
stations on each of three lines of track. Standard-gauge car-wheel 
trucks, with heavy timber platforms mounted thereon, were used 
for conveying. The hulls, when completed, were hauled upon a 
transfer table at the lower end of building " B " (marked " K " on 
plan) , and then transferred to the hydraulic launching device (" L "), 
which lowered the hull into the water. 

Building "A" is a steel and brick building with wood trusses, used 
for the fabricating shop, the material thence being moved to building 
"B," also built of structural steel and brick. The buildings " C," 
"D," and " E," of standard "Truscon" construction, are used as 
storehouses and fitting-out shops ; building " C " is essentially a 
storehouse, while " D " and " E " were used for both storehouses and 

37022—21 15 


fitting-out -work. The shaded surfaces shown on the print indicate 
the portion of the pLant devoted to Navy -work. 

The contract for the construction of patrol boats originally called 
for 100 boats, each of about 500 tons displacement, 200 feet long, 
turbine driven, with Poole reduction gear, fuel-oil burning, equipped 
with boilers of the Bureau of Engineering " Express " type, mount- 
ing one 4-inch and two 3-inch guns, and carrying depth-charge 
launching gear and " Y " gun. This contract was later increased to 
112 boats, the additional 12 being on account of the Italian Govern- 
ment, the United States Navy Department paying all bills and super- 
vising the construction of the boats and being reimbursed by the 
Italian Government. 

After the signing of the armistice this contract was reduced to 60 
boats, that figure having been determined upon by the Bureaus of 
Construction and Eepair and Engineering as being the most economi- 
cal point at which construction could be cut off. The boats were 
built under a cost-plus fixed-profit contract, at an estimated cost of 
$275,000 each, providing for a bonus to the contractor for any sav- 
ings on this amount. It was later estimated, however, by the tech- 
nical bureaus that these boats would cost about $500,000 each, making 
a total contract of $30,000,000 for the 60 boats. 

The actual cost to the Government of this plant extension is 
estimated to be $5,500,000. Inasmuch as the plant was entirely con- 
structed for the purpose of building ships for the Navy, no other 
work was done for other departments of the Government. At the 
motor-car plant at Highland Park the turbines, boilers, condensers, 
and evaporators have been either assembled or constructed, but no 
addition to plant, such as would come under the cognizance of the 
Bureau of Yards and Docks, has been made at that plant. The 
greater part of the River Eouge plant extension was sold to the 
Ford Motor Co. Small portions of the installation were transferred 
to navy yards or sold to other parties. 

Neio York SMphuilding Corporation. — This plant is located at 
Camden, N. J.; the total area covered is 182.8 acres, with 10 single 
find 11 double shipways. The Navy plant extension covers an area of 
15.5 acres, containing four uncovered and six covered ways with ap- 
])urtenant plate-and-angle shop, etc. The entire j^ard covers a water 
front of 3,917.8 feet. The Navy contracts for the first 10 destroy- 
ers and for 20 additional ones, together with the contract for 2 
battleships and 1 battle cruiser, amount to approximately $90,- 

The Navy plant extension, which Avas constructed for the building 
of destroyers Nos. 231 to 250, inclusive, is located at the south end 
of the original yard, and is bounded on the south by Newton Creek 
and on the west by the Delaware River. At the beginning of the 


L_ e: <=. E= r^ D 


Fasricaxinb Shop 






n-r-oux Shop 


Fit-out Sked 


Fire: Pump House 




BoiuEF? Mou3e: 


Septic Tank 


Receiving Room 


Transfer Tabi_e 


Launching Slip 


Watef? PRESsuRt Tank 


Gen. Offices: Naw; Ford Co. Christman Ca 


Sheds: American Bwd&e: Ca; Cement .SLimEj 


NAvr&Ei-ECTRiCAi- Stock Room. [Sheds 

Oii_ Smed 


Material Shed 







Watchman's House 


Christman Tooi-SHeD 

Note Buii-DiNe3 "ero^lS andF*G AreTemrorav Bco'q's. 


Fop Naval Work 


Eagle Boat Ri^vNT 


300" O 300' 60O' 90O' 

1 INCH -300 FEET 

37022 — 21. (To face page 224.) 



Eagle Boat R^ant 




Building " B," Navy extension to works of Ford Motor Co., River Rouge, Mich. 

Machine shop, Xavy cxlcnsion lo works of Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., Akron, Ohio. 



work practically all of this area, being marshland, had to be re- 
claimed. This was done by throwing up a mud bank and filling 
behind it with dredged fill taken from the mouth of Newton Creek. 
Along the Delaware are constructed the shipways, which consist of 
four uncovered ways each 43 feet wude by 325 feet long, with a 25- 
foot wharf between, and having a frontage of approximately 300 
feet. Directly to the south and adjoining are six covered ways hav- 
ing a frontage of 308 feet. Each of the covered ways is fed by an 
overhead electric traveling crane, while the uncovered ways are 
supplied by means of tower " whirlers," which travel along the 
wharves between shipwa3^s. Directly inboard of the shipways, but 
with a 135-foot storage space intervening, is located the steel-frame 
plate-and-angle shop, covering an area of 101,139 square feet. The 
original building w^as destroyed by fire on the night of the 15th of 
September, 1918, and has since been rebuilt. The remainder of the 
Navy extension consists of a galvanizing plant, shelter, tool and 
office building, substation, paint store, storehouse, 101-foot extension 
to general warehouse, 135-foot extension to machine shop, extension 
to inpe shop, wharf at Newton Creek, fitting-out wharf, and exten- 
sion to main power house, together with necessary roadways, rail- 
road tracks, fire-alarm system, and miscellaneous yard equipment 
such as locomotive cranes, saddle-tank locomotive, etc. There have 
also been authorized several special rentals of miscellaneous nature. 
The total estimated cost of the Navy plant extension is approxi- 
mately $4,000,000. The United States Shipping Board Emergency 
Fleet Corporation has also assisted this shipyard with emergency 
plant extensions and additions to old plant to the extent of $14,- 
827,150, the purpose being to rush to completion the construction 
of troopships under contract with this company. The plant exten- 
sions and special rentals of the New York Shipbuilding Corpora- 
tion are awaiting completion of contracts for ships before being 
disposed of. 

BefJdeJumi Shiphuilding C orporation, TJmon Plant ^ San Fran- 
cisco. — This plant is composed of two parts, the first being the Potrero 
yard of the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., the second the Risdon 
yard. United States Navy. In connection with these plants, a separate 
yard across the bay, known as the Alameda plant, is operated by the 
same corporation. The Risdon yard adjoins the Potrero works on 
the south. The area of the Risdon yard is about 30 acres, with a 
water front of about 1,700 feet. There are, in this yard, seven build- 
ing slips, six of which were used for destroyers, from each of which 
a vessel could be launched every three months. There is also a fit- 
ting-out wharf consisting of two parallel piers and a wharf, thus 
leaving two slips, over which are fitted traveling gantry cranes. 
Eleven destroyers can be berthed at these piers at one time, eight of 


which are capable of bein^ served by the cranes. Two other small 
berths are provided for handling material, etc. The principal shops 
consist of the following: Plate shop, sheet-metal shop, ])lacksmith 
shop, condenser shop, boiler shop, pattern shop, and galvanizing 
l)lant. Prior to the use of this plant in. connection with Navy work 
it was used by its owners, the United States Steel Products Co., for 
warehousing structural steel and other steel manufactures. 

Adjoining the Risdon yard on the north and west are the Potrero 
works of the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corj). (Ltd.). This yard is 
the original Union Iron Works yard, and covers about 24 acres along 
a water front of some 1,200 feet. It is equipped with five shipbuild- 
ing slips, each about 430 feet long by 60 feet wide, together with 
four fitting-out wharves having an aggregate available berthing 
length of about 4,200 feet. There are also two floating dry docks 
of 3,000 and 6,000 tons capacity, respectively. This plant is equipped 
with a plate shop, machine shop, blacksmith shop, iron and brass 
foundries, boiler shop, galvanizing plant (supplied by the Navy De- 
partment as a special rental "B"), pattern shop, and other small 
shops and warehouses, including one four-story steel-concrete ware- 
house. Adjoining this plant, but on separate property, a cafeteria 
has been provided for the workmen as an item under the Navy plant 
extensions. There are also three areas of leased land aggregating 
about six acres, which have been fitted up for storage purposes and 
for the assembling of frames, bulkheads, and other destroyer and 
submarine parts. This land also comprises a Navy " plant exten- 

The Alameda plant occupies a site of about 75 acres located on 
the south side of the Oakland estuary, the channel leading from the 
east side of San Francisco Bay between Oakland and Alameda. This 
plant has a water frontage on the estuary of about 4,000 feet. The 
works form a new project of the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., 
having been reconstructed as a shipbuilding plant in 1916 and 1917. 
Prior to the commencement of work on Navy contracts this yard was 
provided with a machine shop, plate shop, electric shop, power house, 
and other minor shops. There were also four slips, each with a ca- 
pacity for cargo vessels up 'to a displacement of 12,000 tons, two 
small marine raihvays, a 250-foot floating dry dock, and two wharves 
for berthing and fitting-out purjioses. The Navy plant extensions 
consisted of the erection of a modern steel-frame brick and concrete 
machine shop building under special rental "A"; equipping the 
above shop with cranes and machine tools under special rental "A " ; 
and furnishing additional machine-tool equipment to this shop 
under plant extensions. It is known as the Alameda turbine shop, 
and was authorized for the purpose of handling the construction of 


turbines for the torpedo-boat destroyers built at the Risdon and Po- 
trero yards. 

The Navy contracts at these plants of the Bethlehem Shipbuild- 
ing Corp. called for 66 destroyers, 12 " S " type submarines, 2 scout 
cruisers, and 6 submarines of the "R" type. The total estimated 
cost under these contracts was $132,900,000. The estimated cost of 
the special rentals and plant extensions was approximately $3,000,000. 
The effect of the furnishing of these Navy facilities was to double 
the productive capacity of the plant for destroyers and submarines, 
and to provide equipment for handling practically every kind of 
work which arises on contracts for these classes of vessels. The 
plant extension at Alameda was necessitated by reason of inadequate 
shop facilities at the Potrero yard for handling the machine work 
for turbines and other large jobs in connection with the destroyer 

In connection with the above yards there is operated also the Union 
Iron Works Dry Dock Co.'s properties at Hunters Point, about 3 
miles south of these yards on San Francisco Bay. At Hunters Point 
there are two dry docks, 750 and 1,000 feet in length, respectively. 
Under a contract dated February 24, 1916, authorized by act of 
Congress of June 30, 1914, the Navy Department has prior use 
of these docks in time of war for six years from the time of com- 
pletion of the larger dock. The Navy Department obtained a rate 
of 6^ cents per ton of displacement per day for vessels docked, but is 
subject to a minimum charge of $50,000 per year from time of ac- 

The United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion financed plant extensions at the Alameda plant to the extent of 
about $1,500,000. This included the cost of two shipbuilding slips, 
a marine fitting-out shop, office building, angle shop, a wharf exten- 
sion, air compressors, machine-tool equipment, pipe lines, etc. The 
purpose of this work was the expansion of facilities for the con- 
struction of cargo vessels. For work in conjunction with this yard, 
the Emergency Fleet Corporation also authorized the so-called 
Liberty plant, located on an area of about 160 acres immediately 
adjacent to the Alameda yard. This plant was to have had eight 
ways, with complete foundries, plate shops, pattern shop, etc., but 
was to use the large machine shop of the Alameda plant, referred 
to above, as its turbine shop jointly with the Alameda plant. The 
signing of the armistice led to the abandonment of the Liberty yard 
after the expenditure of about $3,000,000. 

These plant extensions for the Navy are awaiting completion of 
contracts for ships before being disposed of. 


Bethlehem Shifljuilding G or f oration^ Fore River Plant ^ Quincy^ 
Mass. — The Fore River plant is located at Quincy Point, on the west 
shore of the Weymouth Fore River. It is a fully equipped shipyard 
and plant for the construction of all classes of steel ships and con- 
tains about 117 acres, of which 85 acres are land and 32 acres are 
water inside the established harbor line. About 20 acres of the 117 are 
owned by the CommonAvealth of Massachusetts and leased to the Fore 
River Shipbuilding Corporation at an annual rental of $5,000 for a 
term of 20 years beginning in 1916. 

There are 20 building ways, classified as follows: Four destroyer 
slips, 10 submarine slips, 5 general slips, 1 battle-cruiser slip. The 
submarine slips are, in general, long enough to contain two or three 
submarines per slip and can also be used for destroj^ers or other light 
craft. The general slips are suitable for battleships or for merchant 
ships up to 600 or 700 feet in length. Most of the building slips are 
equipped with overhead traveling cranes running on steel trestles, 
but the destroj^er slips have locomotive cranes on elevated tracks. 
The general slips are partly roofed over, but all others are entirely 
in the open. The battle-cruiser slip and the four destroyer slips are 
located on the land leased from the State, as are also warehouses Nos. 
3, 4, and 5, and gatehouse No. 17. 

The yard is nearly cut in two by Bents Creek, an estuary some 350 
feet wide, and fitting-out wharves have been built on both sides of this 
waterway. A smaller fitting-out slip located near-by is used largely 
for submarines, but is available for craft up to about 400 feet in 
length. The south wharf is served by a heavy jackknife locomotive 
crane, and the north wharf by a revolving- jib tower crane with fixed 

Fabricating and bending of all kinds, brass founding, turbine 
manufacturing, boiler making, and machine work of all kinds are 
done in the various shops, but no heavy forging nor iron founding. 
Shafts, anchors, chains, and most of the drop forgings required are 
obtained from the Bethlehem, Pa., shops or from outside firms. 
Pumps and other special equipment are also bought outside. A 
standard-gauge railroad branch connects the yard-track system with 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad near Braintree, so 
that bulk shipments can be made to any portion of the yard. Before 
the beginning of plant extensions, etc., by the Navy, the plant had for 
several years been building battleships, destroyers, submarines, cruis- 
ers, etc., and a great variety of commercial craft. 

The Navy contracts called for various classes of vessels of which, 
up to April 21, 1919, 32 of the destroyers had been launched and 24 
delivered to the Navy ; 10 of the submarines had been launched and 5 
delivered. The total cost of all contracts is estimated to be $116,- 


Boiler shop of Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation iLid.), at I'rovidence, R. I. 

Turbine shop of Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation (Ltd.). at Buffalo, N. Y. 


The general purpose of the Navy extensions was to enlarge the 
yard's capacity rather than to change its arrangement or the char- 
acter of its output. A building slip for battle cruisers and four slips 
for destroyers were added near the south boundary of the yard, and 
three slips for submarines were added near the north boundary— 
these submarine slips being allotted to the Electric Boat Co. Two 
wooden office buildings, five storehouses, one machine shop, additions 
to the boiler shop, a galvanizing plant, two small gate houses, an 
electric substation, a charge house, a concrete wharf, a first-aid sta- 
tion, and a timber bulkhead were also constructed, certain dredging 
was done, and a large amount of machinery and other equipment was 
provided. In addition to the above work, which was arranged for 
through the Compensation Board, a fuel-oil school was built and 
equipped by the Bureau of Engineering. The cost of this plant ex- 
tension was $151,000; of special rentals "A," $794,607.86; and of 
special rentals " B," $l,l7l,515--a total of $2,117,122.86. There will 
be some salvage on plant extensions and rentals " B," as they are to 
be appraised at the end of the contract, and are to be sold to the best 
advantage of the Navy. Under rentals "A," there may be a salvage 
return or there may be a further charge, depending upon whether the 
actual depreciation is less or greater than the sum advanced by the 

Tlie expenditure of Navy funds has resulted in an increased total 
capacity for the yard and a large increase in the speed of production 
of destroyers and submarines. The construction of the battle-cruiser 
slip has made it possible for the yard to undertake the construction 
of that class of ship. Since the expenditures began, 32 destroyers 
and 10 submarines have been launched, as above noted, in addition 
to several large craft for the Emergency Fleet Corporation. Many 
of the destroyers were in active service during the war. 

The Emergency Fleet Corporation expended about $32,000 in con- 
nection with an electrical substation, about $55,000 in connection 
with a temf)orary bridge at Neponset used by the Bay State Street 
Railway, and about $25,000 in connection with repairs and mainte- 
nance of rolling stock. This was all for the Bay State Railway Co., 
which furnishes transportation for workmen coming from Boston 
and Quincy to the shipyard, and may be considered as assisting the 
operation of the plant. Other than this, extensions have been pro- 
vided entirely by the Navy. The project for widening and double- 
tracking Washington Street, Quincy, at a probable total cost of 
$494,000, may be considered as indirectly a part of this project, as it 
was instituted entirely to provide transit for workmen for the Fore 
River yard. 

W ellman-Seaver-M organ Co.. Akron., Ohio. — This plant is situated 
in the southwest corner of the city of Akron, on a tract owned by 


the company, of about 43 acres. The Navy contract of the Wellman- 
Seaver-Morgan Co. is made up of subcontracts between that cor- 
poration and Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., New- 
port News, Va., the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, 
N. J., and the American Engineering Corporation. Philadelphia, Pa. 
The product under the Na^'y contract embraces condensers, tanks, 
steering engines, and other parts for torpedo-boat destroyers, for 
tank ships, and for the battleships West Virginia and Maryland. 

The emergency plant extension embraces buildings, machine tools, 
and equipment necessary to enable this plant, which had theretofore 
been turning out highly specialized or individualized machines, to 
engage in quantity production of standardized parts of torpedo-boat 
machinery. The cost of the extension was $1,246,718.54. The Navy 
expenditures increased the productive capacity and scope of the 
plant to such an extent that about 95 per cent of the product of the 
Navy contract was turned out by the new shops; and the fact that 
the plant was well and adequately equipped for this work is evi- 
denced by the fact that the Navy product was turned out ahead of 

Navy coal-storage plants^ Virginian Railway^ Sewalls Pointy Va., 
and Chesapeake & Ohio Railvmy, Newport News, Va. — ^The neces- 
sity for these coal-storage plants became evident early in the war, 
owing to the probability of freezing of the coal in cars during the 
winter months, the necessity of an uninterrupted supply of coal for 
Navy vessels and those operated by the Army, and the hazards of 
accidents and strikes at the mines or on the railroad. 

The land on which the plant of the Virginian Eailway is located 
consists of 42.6 acres. The capacity of the storage plant was esti- 
mated as 300.000 long tons of Navy coal, to be stored in flat piles not 
exceeding 15 feet in height and so accessible as to be readily re- 
handled. The plant consists of a wooden trestle about 3,240 feet in 
length, from which the coal is dumped. The area for storage was 
leveled off, and the coal is rehandled on this storage area by one large 
double-cantilever electrically operated crane; this crane being also 
used to rehandle the coal into cars which are to be dumped from the 
railroad's water-front pier into the holds of vessels. The rate of de- 
livery over the railroad's present pier on the water front is 6,000 
long tons per 24-hour day. There was no Navy coal-storage pile on 
the Virginian Railway prior to the installation of this plant, all coal 
being held at the terminal in cars. 

The contract entered into by the Navy Department with the rail- 
road stipulated that the plant as described should be built by the 
railway on its own property, the land being leased at $1 per year to 
the Government. The Virginian Railway Co. agreed to construct 


the plant as per specifications, and in accordance with plans sub- 
mitted by them and approved by the Bureau of Supplies and Ac- 
counts, for a lump-sum price of $382,254. The payment for the 
plant began when the plant was ready for storing the first one-third 
of the designed capacity of coal. Pa3^ments for the plant were made 
in 12 monthly installments. Upon the completion of the last pay- 
ment the title to the plant and all equipment was transferred to the 
Government and the contract was terminated. The railroad is paid 
s. specified price for dumping and for the operation of the storage 
pile, and is also paid a specified price for all coal delivered from 
storage; also other items for handling coal in vessels. The records 
of the cost of the plant were submitted for the information of the 
Bureau of Supplies and Accounts upon termination of the contract. 

After the construction of the coal storage plant was contracted for 
by the Virginian Railway Co. the railway was taken over by the 
United States Railroad Administration, and the officials of the Rail- 
road Administration assumed responsibility under this contract. 

The Virginian Railway carried on the construction of the plant 
with a great deal of forethought and energy, but labor conditions 
around Hampton Roads became so serious that they were unable to 
hasten the completion of the work as much as they would ordinarily 
have been able to do. Completion was also delayed on account of the 
improvements called for by the Railroad Administration, such as 
double-tracking and extensions to their yards. 

The coal storage plant built by the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway 
Co. is located at Newport News, Va. The plant occupies 43.3 acres 
of land situated near the main line of the Chesapeake & Ohio Rail- 
way. The plant, in general, consists of two locomotive cranes of 
101-foot radius, steam-operated, working on tracks running longi- 
tudinally with the unloading trestle. The length of the latter is 
about 1 mile, and it is fitted with aprons for spreading the coal on 
either side, this coal being rehandled by the locomotive cranes into 
flat piles about 15 feet high. In this way about 275,000 tons of coal 
are stored. The cranes also reload coal into cars on tracks parallel 
to the crane tracks. 

The contract w^as with the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Co. for a 
lump-sum price of $324,000. Payments began when one-third of the 
designed area w-as ready to receive and issue coal, and continued 
thereafter in 12 monthly installments. The railway company was 
required to inform the Government, upon the completion of the 
storage, of the actual cost of construction. Payments for the opera- 
tion of the plant in receiving and reloading coal are also fixed in the 
contract on a per-ton basis. The title of the plant remained vested 
in the railway company until it was accepted and the last payment 
made by the Government. The plant is situated on land leased 


from the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Co., and in case the Govern- 
ment wishes to purchase said land, the Government has an option 
on it at $4,000 per acre. The plant is able to receive or issue 6,000 
tons of coal per 24-hour day, and the railway's equipment at the water 
front is able to handle this quantity into vessels alongside the coal 

As in the case of the Virginian Railway, the Railroad Adminis- 
tration and its officials assumed the responsibilities of this Navy 

On account of the extraordinary amount of work that the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio Railway had to do in connection with handling freight 
for and in connection with the port of embarkation, work on this 
contract was more or less affected and final completion delayed. 

Both of these coal storage plants belong to the Navy Department 
at the present time. The land upon which they are built is leased 
from the respective companies, but the Bureau of Supplies and Ac- 
counts has recommended in its estimates that the sum of $100,000 be 
appropriated for the purchase of the two tracts of land. 


For the construction of ships, building Avays of some description are 
the first essential ; for the upkeep and repair of a fleet after launching 
a system of dry docks is equally indispensable. The importance of 
the latter class of facilities is indicated by the name of the Bureau 
of Yards and Docks itself, covering a period of nearly 80 years, and 
coexistent with the life of the present Navy Department. 

In general, a dry dock is a -device for exposing the entire hull of 
a vessel for purposes of cleaning or repair. Two main types of dry 
docks are recognized, namely, floating and graving. A third class 
of apparatus, known as marine railways, or hauling-out ways, is used 
for hauling small ships bodily ashore for work on their hulls. The 
latter group is treated in another chapter of this history. 

Floating docks have been used to only a limited extent by the 
United States for naval purposes. One such dock has had a long 
period of useful service at the naval station at New Orleans, and 
another, the Dewey ^ famous for its eventful voyage to the antipodes 
15 years ago, is still in active commission. 

It is with graving docks that the bureau has had to deal more 
largely throughout its career, and the developments in this class 
during recent years have been noteworthy. A graving dock is essen- 
tially a basin, lined usually with masonry, excavated to accommodate 
hulls of given dimensions, plus adequate working space. This basin 
has access to deep water through a gateway which may be closed by 
some suitable device (generally, in American practice, by a floating 
caisson conforming exactly, along its longitudinal profile, to the 
opening). A ship having been floated into the dock, the caisson is 
put in position and the dock basin is emptied by pumps installed as 
part of the equipment, and the ship gradually settles on the keel and 
bilge blocks, which have been previously placed in conformity with 
her particular lines. In this manner access is gained to the under- 
water portion of the vessel. The docking operation is a frequent 
necessity in the efficient life of any ship, particularly of a naval vessel. 
The construction of a graving dock of modern type and dimensions 
is no small undertaking, and calls for exacting design and close super- 
vision by the bureau. The inception and progress of such projects 



is a matter of much interest both to the department and to the engi- 
iicering profession. The difficulties to be overcome are often prodig- 
ious, in spite of painstaking preliminary plans and investigations. 
The elements of a dry-dock problem may be summarized under the 
following subdivisions : (1) The bod}' of the dock, its excavation and 
lining; (2) the pump well and its equipment; (3) the caisson and its 
seat; (4) the crane and its runwaj^ encircling the dock outside the 
coping; (5) the mooring devices and power-driven capstans for han- 
dling vessels into position ; (6) the docking blocks, of specially selected 
timber, involving many thousands of board feet of material of great 
strength, and great care in workmanship ; all the foregoing constitute 
engineering operations of respectable magnitude. At every stage of 
construction multitudinous details emerge for attention, and at any 
stage difficulties and dangers may arise calling for every resource of 
skill and experience at the disposal of those in charge. Paradoxi- 
cally speaking, it is the unexpected which may be expected at all 
times in the construction of a dry dock. 

The declaration of war by the United States found the Government 
already committed to a policy of expansion in the matter of dry 
docks, and the results accomplished since that time have been achieved 
in the pursuit of that program. When the question of the United 
States becoming a party to the war arose, and careful attention was 
given to American facilities available for both offensive and de- 
fensive warfare, one of the most important defects was found to be 
the lack of proper dry docks, both for capital ships of the Navy and 
for ships that would have to be taken over for transports and for 
the train. Quite as pressing, in peace and war, for the merchant serv- 
ice, was the need of docks of a huge size, made necessary by the con- 
struction of the later vessels in the transatlantic service. 

The naval docking plant in 1916 consisted of 21 dry docks of all 
descriptions, and the Balboa dock of the Panama Canal had just 
been completed — the first example of the 1,000-foot class to be found 
in the Western Hemisphere, considered fully available for naval use 
as needs arise, but remotely located in relation to our coasts as a 
whole. Aside from the latter, the Naval Establishment could boast 
only one dock better than 800 feet in length, and two 740 feet long — 
the remaining 18 ranging below the latter figure down to 324 feet 
in the case of one dock built in 1834. 

Congress recognized the country's deficiency in the matter of 
docking facilities, and by its enactments has made possible the con- 
struction, acquisition, or preferential use by the Navy of a system 
of j&ve modern dry docks of proportions and equipment excelled 
only in one or two instances in the entire world — four of the five 
completed in 1919 or 1920, and one well under way toward comple- 
tion during 1921. Tw^o others, of smaller size, were finished and 



tsa-o- , 



. . ■i'-°' . 



1 ^^ . 



Oeparfm^nt of th« Navy Bureau of Yar^ls 8 Docks 


Drv^Docks No.4 



1 incm'-^Oftet 

J7022 — 21. (TofacepaseiSS.) 








added to the Naval Establishment in 1920, so that the Navy now 
reckons 27 graving docks of a permanent character and 2 floating 
docks as available for its needs, 6 of the former being capable of 
receiving the largest war or merchant vessels existing or contemplated 
at the present time. The activities of the bureau devoted to the secur- 
ing of such facilities during the emergency period will be touched 
upon in the succeeding paragraphs. 

Dry Dock No. 4, Norfolk, Va. — This was the first of the five 
major docks above mentioned to be put in commission. Its construc- 
tion was well begun before the declaration of war, contract having 
been let on November 6, 1916; and substantial completion was at- 
tained on April 1, 1919, 212 days ahead of the maturity of the con- 

Measured from the head of the dock to the side of the caisson, the 
usable length of this dock is 1,011 feet. Its width at the coping is 
144 feet, and its depth over the keel blocks at mean high tide is 40 
feet — the entire height of the walls being over 50 feet. The con- 
crete floor was placed to a minimum thickness of 20 feet, this great 
mass being sufficient to overcome any hydrostatic buoyancy to which 
the structure as a whole might be subjected. The dock has been 
called the most complicated piece of mass concrete construction ever 
built in this country, save for its duplicate at Philadelphia, dis- 
cussed elsewhere in this chapter. 

Around the margin extend three lines of standard-gauge railway 
track, two of which carry the trucks of the 50-ton service crane, the 
middle track being used for yard locomotives and cars, easily cleared 
through the portal of the crane. By this system, any materials 
required may be quickly handled from shop to ship or vice versa. 

The entrance caisson is of steel, and was built at the Philadelphia 
Navy Yard. All other features of the dock were provided under 
public works contracts. 

Flooding is accomplished by means of a tunnel built in the south 
wall having numerous openings throughout the lower part of the 
dock — the destructive effects of a few large masses of water in motion 
being thus minimized. 

The pumping plant consists of three Worthington centrifugal 
pumps, electrically driven, situated at the bottom of deep wells in 
the south wall of the dock, and of two smaller drainage pumps. The 
main centrifugals have a rated capacity of 14,400 cubic feet per 
minute each, and are capable, working together, of unwatering the 
entire dock in two and one-half hours. All pumps draw water from 
a suction chamber situated below the foundation of the main units. 
Heavy rectangular sluice gates or " valves " 8 and 9 feet high, 
hydraulically operated, control the floAV of water in the pumping and 
flooding operations. 
37022— 21-^lG 


A tunnel built in the upper part of the walls accommodates elec- 
tric cables, fresh and salt water lines, and compressed-air pipes, such 
services being provided for the proper functioning of the dock when 
ships are under repair. 

The amount of concrete poured in the execution of the whole proj- 
ect was 184,000 cubic yards, and 625,000 cubic yards of earth were 
moved in the course of the excavations. 

Foundation conditions at the site were favorable, allowing work 
to proceed " in the dry." Two drag-line excavators were used, part of 
the removed material being carried out to sea in scows and the rest 
being used for swamp reclamation in the yard vicinity or for the 
back filling of the dock walls. The sides of the excavation held at 
the moderate slope of 1 on 1, so that no excessive amount of earth 
had to be handled. 

The form work involved in the placing of the concrete was of un- 
precedented magnitude and complexity for such a project and re- 
quired careful planning and supervision. Many individual wall 
courses were poured continuously to a height of 28 feet. One such 
course was 41 feet high, and the maximum section was successfully 
completed when a wall form 51-J- feet high and 60 feet long, contain- 
ing 2,000 cubic feet of concrete, was erected and filled as a true mono- 
lith, no interruption in pouring the aggregate being permitted during 
the seven days required for the operation. The interior of this form 
was a maze of water passages, pipes, stairways, electric ducts, rein- 
forcement, and anchor bolts, with a concrete beam system for the 
railroad tracks to be laid above. No form work of equivalent magni- 
tude and complexity is recalled in connection with any drj^-dock 
project previously undertaken by the bureau. 

It is impressive to note that the keel and bilge blocking required 
for Dry Dock No. 4 amounted to 850,000 board feet of solid oak 
timber mechanically joined to the floor of the structure by the proper 
clamps and slides. All features of this project are now in working 
order, and it is a matter of record that its first ship, the U. S. S. 
Wisconsin, was docked with appropriate ceremonies 26^ months 
after the beginning of the excavation — an achievement unprecedented 
in the history of docks of comparable magnitude. 

The cost of the entire project, whose construction went forward 
under all the difficulties of war conditions, was a little less than 

Dry Docks Nos. 6 and 7, Norfolk, Va. — Two docks of smaller 
size were built adjacent to Dry Dock No. 4 at the Norfolk yard, 
beginning about the middle of 1918. These were built by the Emer- 
gency Fleet Corporation and paid for out of its funds, and were 
developed to meet the requirements of the merchant marine. They 
are each 471 feet long. They were constructed concurrently by 


Dry Dock No. 4, Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va. U. S. S. Wisconsin, the first vessel docked, 


Dry docks at Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va., with vessels docked. Left to right : No. 3. U. S. S. 
Jupiter; No. 6, S. S. Dioj No. 7, S. S. Eastern Victor j No. 4, U. S. S. Mount Vernon. 


Dry Dock No. G, Navy Yard. Norfolk, Va., before first flooding circinoiiial. Looking 

toward head end. 

Dry Dock No. 7, Navy Yard, Norfolk. Va. Looking toward caisson. 


the contractor for Dry Dock No. 4, and the training received by 
his force in the building of the latter was of value in the construc- 
tion of the smaller docks. 

Work on these proceeded rapidly, and they were both completed 
Avithin 18 months from the beginning of excavation. Their initial 
flooding took place in the presence of the King and Queen of the 
Belgians, the Queen acting as sponsor. 

Since excavation for these twin docks began seven months before 
the completion of Dry Dock No. 4, the unique spectacle was afforded 
of work proceeding simultaneously on three docks in one group. 

A featiu"e making for speed in construction and efficiency in the 
operation of this plant is the interconnection existing between all 
three docks and the pumps of No. 4, so that one pumping plant 
serves for the unwatering of all three. 

Arrangements between the Navy and the Emergency Fleet Cor- 
poration provide for the joint use of Dry Docks Nos. 6 and 7 under 
such conditions as will inure to the benefit of both parties. Mer- 
chant vessels have prior claim on these docks or on equivalent dock- 
ing facilities, but military considerations have preponderating 
weight in time of war. The latter proviso justly entitles these docks 
to a place in the list of those fully available for naval purposes, 
especialh' in view of their advantageous location. 

Dnj Dock No. S, Philadelphia.'^ — This structure is a duplicate in 
all essential respects of Dry Dock No. 4 at Norfolk, and its comple- 
tion Avill add a vital link to the strategic chain of naval docks on 
the Atlantic coast. 

The bureau's contract for the work was let about three weeks 
after the declaration of war by the United States, with an original 
time limit of 870 days. 

Conditions at the site indicated that the excavation could be 
accomplished by simple suction dredging, but subsequent develop- 
ments made necessary the division of the whole area into a number 
of sheet-pile cofferdams, some of which were extremely difficult to 
hold, and to revise the design of the dock walls from a cellular 
section to one with a relieving wing base. 

Construction on the project began with the contractor's dredge 
working behind an earth cofferdam built across the proposed dock 
entrance. After carrying the excavation down to about half the 
final depth required, the dredge was unable to make further prog- 
ress, owing to the inflow of material from the sides. Investigation 
at this point developed the fact that a deep stratum of water- 
bearing sand had been reached, and that dredging in this material 

1 Engineering details of the following account have been abstracted from an article by 
Lieut. Commander Charles A. Lee (C. E. C), U- S. N., in Engineering News-Record for 
Apr. 15, 1920, p. 748. 


simply allowed the water to wash more in from the sides, thus causing 
the banks to recede further and further. The inflow was really equiv- 
alent to that of a river 2,000 feet wide. Further dredging under 
these conditions would have resulted in an area of constant depth 
and ever-increasing width. 

The dredge was removed in the early part of 1918, and construc- 
tion Avas discontinued for nearly a year, until revised plans could be 
prepared by the bureau. 

The method subsequently^ employed was to subdivide the area 
into sections by means of heavy steel sheet-piling, so that excavation 
and construction could go forward in these compartments. The 
piling had to withstand severe punisliment in being driven through 
strata of compacted sand or in striking large bowlders, many 
of these heavy steel members having been bent and twisted com- 
pletely out of shape. 

Naturally a great deal of water found its way into the sheeted 
compartments, and pumps were constantly employed in removing 
from 5,000 to 8,000 gallons of water per minute from the excavation. 

In spite of all difficulties, however, the work has progressed satis- 
factorily under the new design. Bottom excavation was handled 
by two 20-ton traveling derricks operating heavy orange-peel buckets, 
by which material was dumped into skips placed on standard flat 
cars. These skips were lifted from the excavation by derricks, and 
the material was either spilled over the cofferdam or used for back- 
fill as the walls were completed. 

Concreting of the floor proceeded by sections 10 to 30 feet long 
and usually' of full width. Foundations for the side walls were con- 
creted as soon as the floor sections had set, and the side walls were 
poured in 50-foot lengths and four "lifts" or courses, varying in 
volume from 350 to 1,300 cubic yards. 

The setbacks encountered in the execution of this project resulted 
in considerable delay and expense, but the dock and all accessories 
are expected to be complete and in operation by the early summer of 
1921. For a description of the dry-dock cranes installed at Phila- 
delphia, Norfolk, and elsewhere the reader is referred to tlie chapter 
on shipbuilding and repair facilities. 

The total cost of Dry Dock No. 3, Philadelphia, will run to ap- 
proximately $6,300,000."^ 

Dry Dock No. 1, Pearl Harhor^ Haioaii. — Perhaps the most in- 
teresting engineering construction carried over from the prewar 
period and continued during the war was the Pearl Harbor Dry 
Dock. The history of the dock up to the time reconstruction was 
started, in 1915, is given very completely in the paper prepared by 
Civil Engineer H. R. Stanford, then Chief of the Bureau of Yards 
and Docks, and puljlished with discussion by other engineers in the 


Dry Dock No. 3, Isavy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa., under construction. View talcen from 

cofferdam at entrance. 

Dry Dock No. 1, Naval Station, IN arl Harbor, Hawaii. Interior view after ihst pumping, 
showing rock ballast before completion of floor. 


Dry Dock No. 1, Naval Station, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. View of completed structure at 

formal opening. 

Dry Dock No. 1, Naval .Station, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. General view of interior from 

head end. 


Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Volume 
LXXX, year 1916. 

The present Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks was as- 
signed to duty as public Avorks officer at Pearl Harbor to take charge 
of the reconstruction. The original contractors, the San Francisco 
Bridge Co., continued the Avork, the actual construction being 
handled by the Hawaiian Dredging Co. 

It having been found impracticable to construct a dry dock at 
this location by any of the usual methods, an entirely new and 
theretofore unsuggested plan was covered by the new agreement. 
Brie%, this consisted of dividing the 1,000-foot dock into 16 sec- 
tions and constructing the shell of each section base on a floating 
dry dock, this shell being 1.52 feet long (corresponding to the width 
out-to-out of the finished dock floor), 60 feet wide (16 sections to 
the 1,000-foot dock), and 16 feet high, with the floor of the shell 
about 8 feet thick and sides of varying thicknesses. There were 7 
steel trusses in each section, approximately 150 feet long and 14 
feet deep. This shell of concrete, together with its embedded steel 
trusses, weighed about 7,000 tons, with a displacement of about 
4,000 tons. The floating dry dock on which each section base was 
constructed had a lifting capacity of about 3,500 tons. As each sec- 
tion shell was concreted, the floating dry dock was submerged, and 
rhere was floated in over the concrete shell a steel ballast tank of out- 
side dimensions corresponding to the length and width of the con- 
crete base ; this steel ballast tank was then bolted to the upper chord 
truss and brace channels along the outer perimeter of the concrete 
shell, canvas and rubber hose being used for packing to secure a 
water-tight joint. When this steel ballast tank was pumped out, 
the concrete base attached to the bottom of the tank was lifted and 
the whole towed to its location in the dock. Then, by adding water 
to interior compartments of the ballast tank, the section was sunk 
on a prepared foundation of piles covered with 1 foot of broken 
stone. This steel ballast tank was so designed that when pumped 
out it formed a steel cofferdam with interior water ballast compart- 
ments, which permitted the remaining concrete in the floor and side 
walls of each section to be deposited in their final location " in 
the dry." Following this, the bolts connecting tank and base were 
backed out, the water was pumped from the ballast compartments 
of the tank, which was raised and floated free. Certain steel doors 
were then removed from the inshore side to clear the tops of the 
concrete section side walls, and the tank was towed back to the 
floating dock to pick up another base section. This method applied 
to all sections except the first or head, where because of the side 
walls being on a curve, the}^ could not be constructed inside the steel 
cofferdam. On the first section and on a part of the second the side 


walls were constructed ashore of monolithic blocks, weighing each 
about 115 tons. The blocks Avere reinforced H-shaped shells. They 
were set in place by means of the station 150-ton floating derrick. 
The first section of floating dry-dock pontoon was launched on June 
22, 1915. The steel ballast tank was launched February 12, 1916. 
Steel erection of section 1 of the dry dock was started in the floating 
dock during the last week of April, and on July 7, 1916, this first sec- 
tion of dock was lifted free from the floating dock and sunk in its 
final location the following day. On September 8, 1916, the second 
section was landed. On January 25, 1917, the fifth section ; on July 
14-17, the tenth section, and on January 3, 1918, the fifteenth section 
was landed. 

After the fifteenth section was placed, the public works officer was 
detached and ordered to the Bureau of Yards and Docks as chief, 
with rank of rear admiral, and the public works officer at Great 
Lakes, Commander Geo. A. McKay (C. E. C.) , U. S. N., was detached 
on January 26, 1918, and ordered to Pearl Harbor to continue the 
work. The construction at that time was about 80 per cent com- 
pleted. When the sixteenth section was sunk and concreted it was 
necessary also to set the outer granite sill for the caisson gate before 
the tank could be released. This interfered in part with some of the 
interior steel bracing, which was cut away by acetylene torch as 
necessary. All of the work was performed " in the dry " inside the 
steel cofi^erdam or ballast tank, at a de^^th of about 40 feet below 

After the sections were set there remained the work of concreting 
joints between the bases and side walls before the dock could be 
unwatered. This was accomplished by means of tremie concrete to 
seal the bottom of joints, tliis tremie concrete being about 6 to 8 feet 
thick. The joints of the side walls between sections and between the 
head blocks at the curve of the dock were then covered with wooden 
cofferdam shutters, rubber hose being used for gaskets, the joints 
pumped doAvn, and concrete deposited " in the dry " to above mean low 
water. The joints in floor were left sealed with about 6 to 8 feet 
of tremie concrete until after the dock was entirely unwatered. 

To keep the stresses in the dock within safe limits and to provide 
a factor against flotation, the earth all around the side walls was back 
filled before unwatering. Piles of rock ballast were also placed in 
the center of each section of an amount sufficient to offset the stresses 
from reduced weight due to the omitted 18 inches of the top of the 
concrete floor. 

The steel cofferdam ballast tank could not be used in the con- 
struction of the pump well, which was 96 feet long by 45 feet wide, 
and designed to rest on piles 5| feet below low water. The pump- 
well floor was 3 feet thick, while the walls varied from 5^ feet thick 



Dry Dock No. 1, Naval Station, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Pump well before launching 

from floating dock. 

Dry Dock No. 1, Naval Station, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, ruinp wvU after launching from 

floating dock. 


Dry Dock No. 1, Naval Station, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Admitting water through caisson 

for testing pumps. 

Dry DocI< No. 1, Naval Station, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. General view during construc- 
tion, showing sections In place. 


at base to 3 feet thick at top. There were five interior compartments 
for pumps. The lower 17 feet of the pump well was constructed on 
the floating dry dock, and on this concrete base was built a wooden 
cofferdam approximately 102 by 51 by 40 feet high, of 6 by 12 inch 
timbers. The floating dry dock was then submerged and the pump 
well concrete base with its wooden cofferdam, drawing about 29 feet, 
was floated off on September 10, 1918, and moored over its final site. It 
was then sunk by building up the concrete walls inside the floating 
cofferdam. It weighed about 8,000 tons when landed. The final settle- 
ment w^as obtained by admitting water and flooding the interior to 
below the concrete-wall level. The walls, which were then about 8 feet 
below Avater, were carried to above the high-water level and the cof- 
ferdam was removed. After final settlement was attained the inte- 
rior was unwatered. There were several leaks and a few small, 
slightly porous areas where seepage occurred. These were all re- 
paired against the water pressure by concentrating the leaks at small 
pipe inserts, which pipes Avere then plugged. 

The caisson was seated on March 25, 1919, and pumping of the 
dock started on March 31. Unwatering was completed on April 10, 
1919. With tlie removal of water load the dock rose as a monolith 
three-sixteenths inch, owing to the elasticity of piles and soil. The 
floor deflected upward one-sixteenth inch. Following this, the inte- 
rior dock floor joints were completed; the upper 18 inches of concrete 
floor with imbedded cast-iron chains was laid; stairs, rails, keel 
blocks, etc., Avere finished ; small leaks were closed ; and the dock was 

It was anticipated that because of the many joints in walls and 
floor there might be considerable leakage, but the dock proved to be 
remarkably tight. The largest leak was in the caisson gasket at one 
point on the bottom. The entire leakage, including this, was less 
than 30 gallons per minute distributed over main points, all of which 
were closed without difficulty. 

The pump-well machinery Avas installed by station labor, the con- 
tractors, the Alberger Pump Co., supplying a general superin- 

Considerable interest Avas attached to the formal opening of the 
dock on August 21, 1919, by the Secretary of the NaA^y. The Gov- 
ernor of Hawaii declared a special holiday, and the opening was 
attended by about 7,000 people. The chief of the bureau accompanied 
Secretary Daniels to the islands. Instead of docking a ship, which 
would have necessitated having the dock full, with a tAvo-hour pump- 
ing period before the bottom Avas exposed, it was decided to haA^e the 
dock empty so that it might be viewed, and to admit water through 
all sluiceways. After appropriate ceremonies Mrs. Daniels pressed 
an electric button, which opened the three large sluice gates, which 


in turn admitted the water to the dock, making a particularly 
spectacular sight. 

The total cost of the Pearl Harbor Dock in all its stages, from 
1909 to the date of completion, has been $5,004,500. 

South Boston Dry Dock. — In a special act dated October 17, 1918, 
Congress authorized the purchase from the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts by the Navy Department of a graving dock, which was 
at that time nearing completion, together with adjacent lands, at 
South Boston. This dock had been undertaiven by the Common- 
wealth as a feature contributory to the modernization of the port, 
and is the largest structure of its kind in the United States, being 
1,1TG feet long, 149 feet wide at coping, and 43 feet in depth from 
mean high water to the top of keel blocks. 

Its acquisition by the Navy has added a most important dock on 
the eastern seaboard. It was completed by the Commonwealth after 
its purchase by the Navy had been agreed upon, and is now in full 
operative condition, save for a dock crane and the completion of 
the rimway for same, which features will be provided for under a 
naval appropriation already made. 

This dock is of concrete construction with granite lining, and is 
of a type comparable in every respect to those of the most recent 
construction for naval 'purposes. 

Di^y Dock at Hunters Point., Calif. — The naval appropriation act 
for the fiscal year 1915 contained a provision authorizing the Sec- 
retary of the Navy to enter into a contract for the use by the Gov- 
ernment of dry docks at Hunters Point, San Francisco Bay, Calif., 
one of which docks was to be capable of receiving the largest vessel 
capable of passing through the locks of the Panama Canal. The con- 
struction of such a dock was to be undertaken immediately upon the 
consummation of the contract as contemplated, and the dock was to 
be completed within 24 months thereafter. The terms of the con- 
tract were to provide for the payment of a minimum rental of 
$50,000 per annum to the owner by the Navy in return for docking 
rights, whicli should become paramount in times of war. Docking 
of vessels retjuiring a charge in excess of $50,000 for any one year 
was to be paid for by the Navy at rates not exceeding those for 
commercial tonnage. The contract to the above effect was to cover 
a period of six years from the date of completion of the dock. 

Such a contract was drawn on February 24, 191G, between the 
Navy Department and the Union Iron Works Dry Dock Co., of San 
Francisco. The construction of the dry dock contemplated in the 
act of Congress was undertaken at once, and has been carried to a 
successful conclusion. Destroyers were docked therein on Octo- 
ber 14, 1918. 


This structure is of the same general type as the other maximum 
naval docks herein described. It is 1,005 feet long, 153 feet wide 
at coping, and 114 feet wide at the bottom. Its site proved especially 
advantageous, consisting of practically solid rock and permitting 
the use of a relatively thin lining of concrete within the excavation. 

Summing up, the Navy has obtained during the war period or 
shortly thereafter, either by construction, purchase, or preferential 
rental, the use of five dry docks of the largest size — three on the 
Atlantic coast and two at points on the Pacific. Furthermore, two 
docks of very useful moderate size have been added to the navy 
yard at Norfolk for merchant use. 

The strategic advantage of such an expansion needs no comment 
here ; but it may be remarked that in the event of a future war this 
Government will hardly be faced with an embarrassment similar 
to that experienced in the recent one, when the ex-German ship 
Leviathan had to be sent across the Atlantic for docking, owing to 
the absence of any dock to acoommodate her within the continental 
limits of the United States. 


The power problem at navy yards throughout the emergency 
period has been intimately connected with the requirements of the 
expanded shipbuilding and industrial program, and many details 
of the present chapter are to be considered in relation to the chapter 
dealing with that program. 

The power-plant section of the Bureau of Yards and Docks was 
charged during the war with the design and erection of new plants, 
the extension of existing ones, and the installation of all their dis- 
tribution systems for light, heat, electric power, compressed air 
(high and low pressure), hydraulic power, and gas (illuminating, 
hydrogen, and acetylene) ; fire-protection systems, elevators, and 
electric cranes of all characters were also under the cognizance of 
this section. Its work was done under a civilian (Mr. L. W. Bates) as 
project manager, with a force of 3 aids, 5 clerical assistants, and 60 
draftsmen. For strictly power-plant projects 140 public-works con- 
tracts were awarded between April 6, 1917, and November 11, 1918. 

The scarcity of electrical and mechanical draftsmen available 
for Government work necessitated the acceptance of assistance 
tendered by private consulting engineers having large drafting 
forces in their offices. The work incident to the design of the elec- 
trical and mechanical features of the first naval training camp at 
Hampton Roads, Va., and later of the naval training camp at Pel- 
ham Bay Park, N, Y., was intrusted to Henry C. Meyer, jr., of New 
York. To Charles L. Reeder, of Baltimore, was given the design 
of additions and alterations to the plant at the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis, and Francis R. Weller, of Washington, rendered assist- 
ance in the design for the central power plants at Norfolk, Phila- 
delphia, and New London. 

Norfolk and Philadelphia. — Undoubtedly the two largest and most 
important projects carried out by the section were the new central 
power plants at the navy yards at Norfolk and Philadelphia. Even 
prior to the entry of the United States into the war it was realized 
that extensive additions to the power-generating facilities at these 
yards would be required in connection with shipbuilding and in- 
dustrial expansions then contemplated and now realized. 

37022—21 ^17 255 


The existing central power plant at Norfolk was situated in the 
older section of the yard, and could hardly be sufficiently enlarged 
to meet the new demands. A complete study, with detailed esti- 
mates, was made in order to determine whether it would not be more 
economical and convenient to construct an entireh^ new plant in that 
section of the yard devoted to new developments, rather than to 
attempt the enlargement of the old plant. The correctness of this 
supposition was ampl)' proved, and recommendations were made 
that a new power plant be constructed, to be designed in accordance 
with modern practice and to contain power-generating apparatus 
of high efficienc}^ witli space for future expansion. These recom- 
mendations were approved, and while the detailed design of the 
building structure was carried out by the shipbuilding and yard 
development section, the power-plant section prepared the plans 
and specifications for the apparatus, which required the award of 
16 contracts. These contracts covered turbo-alternators of 11,250 
kilovolt-amperes total capacity, reciprocating air compressors sup- 
plying 13,000 cubic feet per minute, and turbo-compressors of 16,000 
cubic feet per minute. There were also included water-tube boilers 
of 7,200 horsepoAver rated capacity at an operating pressure of 200 
pounds per square inch with steam at 100° F. superheat ; underfeed 
mechanical stokers capable of operating the boilers to 300 per cent 
of normal rating when necessar}^ ; surface condensers for turbo- 
alternators and for air compressors, with accompanying circulat- 
ing, condensate, and air pumps; aftercoolers for the air com- 
pressors; heaters and pumps for the yard heating sj'stem; forced 
and induced draft fans for the boilers ; pumps for various services ; 
switchboard, wiring, motors, and other electrical equipment ; heaters, 
tanks, draft apparatus, meters, recorders, and other mechanical appa- 
ratus. Piping for all services was provided. A complete system 
for coal handling was designed, which permitted the delivery of coal 
from cars either to outside ground storage or into the power-plant 
bunkers; and the reclaiming of coal from outside storage and its 
delivery into the bunkers. The handling of ashes was minimized by 
making the boiler-room basement of sufficient height to permit 
standard-gauge ash cars to be run through and to receive direct 
dumping from the stoker ash pits. 

For the Norfolk and Philadelphia power houses a design was 
adopted which eliminated objectionable interior columns, although it 
somewhat increased the cost owing to the supporting of the coal 
bunker and roof by the side-wall columns. The buildings were con- 
structed with no columns within the boiler-room area. The propor- 
tion of window area was made considerably greater than is commonly 
employed in other works of similar character, so that the interior 
might be as light as possible. 


General view of power plant at Philadelphia Navy Yard, showing coal and ash ha. 


Ash-romoval system at power plant, Navy Yard. Philadelphia, Pa. 


View of power plaut from south. Navy Yard, Norfolk. Va. 

Battery of boilers in power [ilant at Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va. 


The two power-plant buildings at Xorfolk and Philadelphia are 
exact duplicates, and were built by the same contractor; the Phila- 
delphia building, however, was completed in advance of the one at 
Norfolk, owing to labor difficulties at the latter yard. 

The air-compressor equipment in these plants is considerably dif- 
ferent from that employed heretofore in bureau practice, on account 
of the use of both the old type of massive reciprocating compressors 
and the comparatively recent development of a rotary compressor 
driven by steam turbine. The latter is lighter in w^eight, occupies 
considerably less floor space, can be installed on structural-steel 
foundations, and requires less attention and maintenance than the 
reciprocating compressors. A further advantage is secured from the 
use of the turbo-compressors in that the turbines are of the mixed- 
pressure type. These are capable of being operated on the low- 
pressure exhaust steam of the reciprocating units ; when a deficiency 
in the latter occurs, high-pressure steam is automatically admitted 
to the high-pressure stages to meet the load. The economy thus 
effected is considerable. When the reciprocating unit is not in opera- 
tion, the turbo-compressor operates entirely on high-pressure steam. 

The boiler equipment in each of these plants consists of twelve 600- 
horsepower water-tube boilers equipped with superheaters, mechani- 
cal stokers, forced and induced draft apparatus, soot blowers, bal- 
anced draft regulators, draft gauges, and automatic flue-gas analy- 
zers and meters. The boilers are set in two rows, facing a firing aisle. 
As before stated, the boiler equipment is designed for operation at 
300 per cent of rating when necessary, so that a maximum capacity 
of 21,600 horsepower is possible with the present equipment; and, 
since space is available for the installation of four additional boilers 
of the same capacity, the possible maximum output with all units in 
operation would be 28,800 horsepow^er, a capacity considered adequate 
to meet the power demands for some years to come. Three 3,750- 
kilovolt-ampere turbo-alternators have been installed, with space 
for a future unit, wdiich w^ould give an electrical generating capacity 
of 15,000 kilovolt-amperes. These units generate 3-phase, 60-cycle 
energy at 2,300 volts, which is standard navy-yard practice. Two 
6,500-cubic-foot-per-minute reciprocating air compressors and two 
8,000-cubic-foot-per-minute turbo-compressors have been installed, 
which provide for a total capacity of 29,000 cubic feet of free air per 
minute when compressed to a pressure of 100 pounds per square inch. 
At Norfolk only one turbo-compressor has been installed, on account 
of the somewhat smaller air demand expected. 

Charleston, S. C. — The navy yard at Charleston, S. C, had had no 
additions made to its power plant since the plant's construction, in 
1907, so that the increase in yard activities beginning in 1917 necessi- 
tated considerable new equipment. The building had been so de- 


signed as to provide space for future installations, so that it was 
possible to increase the capacity without the necessity of extending 
the building. 

The original generating equipment consisted of two C25-kilovolt- 
ampere turbo-alternators and the boiler installation included four 
350-horsepoAver boilers. Beginning early in 1917, these generator 
and boiler capacities were increased 100 and 50 per cent, respectively, 
by contracts for the instalhition of the following new units: One 
1,250-kilovolt-ampere turbo-alternator, with 2,T00-square-foot sur- 
face condenser and turbine-driven circulating and condensate pumps, 
with air pump ; one 5,000-cubic-f oot-per-minute rotary air compres- 
sor with 3,800-square-foot surface condenser, turbine-driven circu- 
lating and condensate pumps, an air pump, and an aftercooler; and 
two 350-horsepower water-tube boilers with superheaters, mechani- 
cal stokers, and all accessories. As at Norfolk and Philadelphia, a 
mixed-pressure turbine was employed to drive the new rotary com- 
pressor, and the piping from the two existing reciprocating compres- 
sors and the auxiliaries w^as rearranged accordingly. The increase 
in compressor capacity was over 200 per cent. 

Portsmouth^ N. 11. — The power plant at the navy yard, Ports- 
mouth, N. H., is the only one which contains direct-current generat- 
ing apparatus exclusively, and when extensions were required it was 
found expedient to install new equipment of the same type. In order 
to provide for the increase of power required for shipbuilding pur- 
poses, recommendations were made for tlie installation of an addi- 
tional generating unit and a new air compressor. These recom- 
mendations were approved by the chief of the bureau, and contracts 
were awarded for a 1,000-kilowatt direct-current turbo-generator and 
a 5,000-cubic-foot-per-minute turbo air compressor, together with 
their accompanying auxiliaries of surface condensers, pumps, and 
piping. The old equipment in the plant consisted of generating 
units and air compressors, all of the reciprocating type ; but, in order 
to provide space for new apparatus, it w^as decided to liave the new 
units of the rotary type, which would admit of their installation 
Avithout the necessity of extending the building. 

Alternating-current turbo-generators had been in use for years 
in tlie majority of the na-vy-yard power plants, but the new 1,000- 
kilowatt unit purchased for Portsmouth was the first direct-current 
turbo-generator of any size to be installed at any yard. 

The underground salt-water suction and discharge tunnels for fur- 
nishing condensing water to tlie power-plant units were found to 
be insufficient in size to supply the increased amount of water re- 
quired. New tunnels were therefore constructed of reinforced con- 
crete, and arrangements were incorporated in the design to permit, 
by proper manipulation of large sluice valves at certain points, the 


reversal of flow of water through the conduits. This scheme allows 
warm water from the condensers to flow through the intake tunnel, 
the action of such water being to kill and dislodge the marine growth 
attached to the walls of the conduit which would reduce the flow of 
water if allowed to. accumulate. 

In 1918 an additional 1,000-kilowatt direct-current turbo -generator 
was purchased to provide capacity for the increasing load and to re- 
place an old 500-kilowatt reciprocating-generator set which had been 
completely wrecked. The new unit with its accompanying auxil- 
iaries had not been installed when the armistice was signed. 

Washington^ D. C . — The power plant at the navy yard and naval 
gun factory at Washington, D. C., contained direct-current gener- 
ators driven by vertical and horizontal steam engines. The con- 
templated increase in activities, together with additional areas to be 
served, brought vc^ the question of a change from that system to 
alternating-current generation and distribution. Certain large hy- 
draulic pumps were being purchased by the Bureau of Ordnance at 
that time for installation at the cartridge-case shop, and recommenda- 
tions were made that two 2,300-volt, 3-phase, 60-cycle alternating- 
current motors be purchased to drive these pumps, and that new gen- 
erating equipment placed in the power plant be of the alternating- 
current type to furnish energy to these motors and to all new projects 
in the yard requiring electrical energy. Either type of generating 
equipment would have required a considerable period of time to 
manufacture, but the decision as to the type to be employed appar- 
ently became automatic when it was learned that there were certain 
alternating-current generating units and other power-plant appara- 
tus, under contract by the Treasury Department, which were available 
for almost immediate shipment, admirably meeting the requirements 
of the Washington yard. The chief of the bureau, upon being ad- 
vised of this fact, made a personal call upon the Assistant Secretary 
of the Treasury and requested that a transfer of this equipment be 
made. This request was made in view of the fact that immediate 
war needs of the Navy should take precedence over the requirements 
of a project which merely provided a more economical and satisfac- 
tory method of furnishing service to Government office buildings. 
The Treasury Department agreed to waive its prior claim under con- 
ditions that permitted a later compliance with its own pending con- 

Specifications were then prepared covering the apparatus known to 
be available, and bids were received from two concerns. As only one 
of these bids was based on apparatus which was nearly completed 
in the manufacturer's shops, that proposal was accepted. By this 
method the equipment was obtained months in advance of the date 


which would have had to be set had all apparatus been manufac- 
tured after the award of the contract. 

The material obtained in this manner consisted of two 4,000- 
kilovolt-ampere, 2,300-volt, 3-phase, 60-cycle turbo-alternators; two 
jet condensers for the above-mentioned turbines, complete with air 
pumps and tail pumps ; two 100-kilowatt, 125-volt exciters, one driven 
b}' a noncondensing steam turbine and the other by a 2,300-volt, 
3-phase, 60-cycle induction motor; engine-driven underfeed me- 
chanical stokers, with the necessary forced-draft equipment, for nine 
of the existing 300-horsepower Babcock & AVilcox boilers; switch 
gear consisting of a high-tension alternating-current structure, oil 
switches, alternating-current and direct-current control for existing 
and future generators, tie switch, feeders, and exciters; and all 
wire, cable, conduits, control wiring, instrument transformers, bus 
bars, and interconnecting apparatus necessary for the complete plant. 
Additional boilers were not installed at this time, but the capacity 
of the existing ones was largely increased by the removal of old 
stokers and the installation of the modern type, permitting much 
larger overloads being carried on the boilers. At a later date an 
additional 4,000-kilovolt-ampere turbo-alternator was purchased 
and installed, together with its condenser and other auxiliaries. 
Also an increase in the boiler capacity was determined upon ; but, as 
there Avas no available space in the boiler room, it was necessary to 
extend the building to house two 1,000-horsepower boilers, which 
were up to this time the largest units purchased for any navy yard 

The compressed-air capacity of the plant was increased by the 
purchase and installation of two 5,000-cubic-foot-per-minute mixed- 
pressure turbo-compressors, wdth condensers, pumps, and after- 
coolers. The piping to these units was arranged to take exhaust 
steam from the vertical reciprocating engines of the old generating 
units, or steam at high pressure if no exhaust were available. These 
power-plant improvements required such an increase in river circu- 
lating w^ater for condensing purposes that it became necessary to 
construct a new concrete tunnel from the quay wall to the engine 

On account of the importance of continuity of electrical supply at 
this yard, it was considered desirable to make arrangements for an 
auxiliary electrical connection w^ith the Government power plant 
serving the Capitol, Congressional Library, and Senate and House 
Office Buildings. Permission was obtained from the Superintendent 
of the Capitol for this connection, and an application for permission 
to install an underground conduit line through the city streets be- 
tween the navy yard and the Capitol power plant was approved by 
the Commissioners of the District of Columbia. The characteris- 


tics of the electrical energy generated by the Capitol power plant 
were different from that generated by the navy-yard plant, so that 
it was necessary to purchase frequency-changers to convert the 6,600- 
volt, 3-phase, 25-cycle current from the Capitol plant to 2,300-volt, 
3-phase, 60-cycle current suitable for yard use. These frequency- 
changers were installed in a substation at the yard located some 
distance from the power plant, so that an accident in the plant 
could not affect the substation equipment. Switching arrangements 
were provided so that the outside supply of electrical energy could be 
furnished to the main switchboard in the central power plant at any 
time, in case of accident to any unit, or to take care of temporary 
abnormal power demands. Power can be transferred in either direc- 
tion in case of necessity, so that it is possible for the navy yard plant 
to furnish energy to the Capitol plant. 

Training camps, Newport, R. I. — None of the war projects of the 
Navy required such rapid expansion as the training camps for the 
enlisted personnel. The cost-plus-percentage contracts awarded in 
several cases of the kind permitted construction work to proceed 
while plans were in course of preparation, thus saving considerable 
time. At the naval training station, Coasters Harbor Island, New- 
port, K. I., it was decided to construct an entirely new power plant 
rather than attempt t6 expand the old one, which contained obsolete 
equipment and was located disadvantageously. A cost-plus-per- 
centage contract was therefore awarded not only for a new power 
plant but also, at a later date, for a complete distributing system for 
light, heat, and power from the plant to the new barracks buildings, 
and for the lighting and heating of the various units comprising the 
enlarged training camp. The new power plant contained two 600- 
kilovolt-ampere turbo-alternators, two 125-kilovolt-ampere units 
brought from the old plant, three 500-horsepower water-tube boilers, 
and various auxiliaries, such as condensers, pumps, heaters, fans, 
switchboard, etc. 

At the request of the Bureau of Navigation this plant w^as designed 
to burn fuel oil instead of coal in order that the enlisted personnel 
might be trained in handling oil-burning equipment before being 
assigned to ships in which such equipment was used. Storage ca- 
pacity for 500,000 gallons of fuel oil was provided in the form of an 
underground reinforced-concrete tank located some distance from the 
power plant, with pipe lines to the plant and a filling line to the 

During the progress of the work on this contract, it was decided to 
construct a camp for reserves at Cloyne Field. This site was located 
at such a distance from the power plant that extension of the dis- 
tributing systems would not have been economical. A separate boiler 
plant was therefore included in the camp contract to provide steam, 


and electrical energy was purchased from the local public utility 

In 1918, when it became evident that the Newport training station 
would require a further enlargement to provide facilities to meet 
the rapidly increasing demands for training personnel, it was decided 
to construct another camp at Coddington Point on the mainland 
opposite the Coasters Harbor site. (See chapter " Training 
camps.") On account of the area included in this development and the 
relative positions of the units, three separate boiler houses were con- 
structed with a total installed capacity of 5,000 horsepower, sectional 
cast-iron boilers being used for supplying low-pressure steam for the 
heating of buildings, and horizontal return-tubular brick-set boilers 
being utilized for the smaller amount of high-pressure steam re- 
quired for cooling, laundry, sterilizing, and water-heating purposes. 
The mechanical equipment contract included the three boiler houses, 
boilers, heaters, tanks, f)umps, piping, the complete distributing sys- 
tems from the boiler houses to all barracks, and the heating system 
within the barracks buildings. A complete plant for refrigerating 
and ice-making purposes was -also included in the main contract, and 
a separate contract was awarded for the electrical distribution sys- 
tem for the camj). This project was considerably curtailed after the 
armistice, and the changes necessitated a redesign of the distributing 
system and the omission from each boiler plant of a portion of its 

Pelham Park, N. Y. — Another large training station was con- 
structed at Pelham Bay Park, N. Y., the mechanical equipment of 
which consisted of two boiler plants and the heating system of the 
camp buildings, with necessary interconnecting steam mains. Elec- 
trical energy for this camp was purchased from the public utility 

Hampton Roads, Va. — The original camp at the naval operating 
base, Hampton Roads, Va., required for steam-making purposes a 
complete boiler plant containing six 500-horsepower, water-tube 
boilers with mechanical stokers, forced and induced-draft fan equip- 
ment, pumps, heaters, piping, etc. The bureau purchased the main 
items of equipment as extras on existing contracts for boilers and 
stokers for other yards in order to save the time required for prepa- 
ration of separate specifications and for advertising. All minor 
items, however, and the complete disti-ibuting system were included 
under a cost-plus-percentage contract in order to expedite the work. 
The main steam-supply line from the boiler plant was installed 
underground on account of its size and location; all branth lines, 
however, from this main to the various buildings were carried over- 
head on pole lines, and the condensate from the pipe lines and ra- 
diating surfaces was wasted to the sewers. 


The second training camp at Hampton Roads, known as the East 
Camp, was started in 1918, but not completed until after the armi- 
stice. Complete plans and specifications were prepared by the bureau 
for the electrical and mechanical equipment. The boiler plant con- 
tains ten 400-horsepower horizontal return-tubular boilers with 
chimneys, pumps, heater, and piping. The heating contract, in 
addition to the boiler-house equipment, included the distributing 
system, which consists of steam supply lines carried overhead on 
poles to all buildings, with the return mains installed underground 
to return the condensate from the various buildings to the boiler 
plant. This was said to have been the largest vacuum-heating con- 
tract ever awarded in this country and involved an expenditure of 
about a million dollars. There were about 400 buildings to be sup- 
plied with steam, and an approximate idea of the magnitude of the 
project may be realized when it is stated that there were installed 
113 miles of pipe, 400,000 square feet of radiation, 5,000 valves, and 
6 miles of wood pipe-covering and trenching for the return pipes 
in the ground. 

During 1918 the main camp at the naval operating base had also 
been increased, and as this required during the winter months more 
steam than could be furnished by the original 3,000-horsepower 
boiler plant, the temporary demand was met by the construction of a 
wood-frame boiler house containing boilers which were immediately 
available as excess stock from other projects. This temporary plant 
has a capacity of 2,800 horsepower, and it is expected that its con- 
tinued operation will be unnecessary when the underground intercon- 
necting piping has been installed between the original boiler plant 
and the new permanent one located in the industrial section. 

The permanent boiler plant at the base is located near the center 
of the industrial section and contains modern equipment designed 
for economical operation. The present apparatus consists of four 
600-horsepower water-tube boilers with mechanical stokers, chimney, 
forced-draft fan apparatus, heaters, pumps, and piping. The de- 
sign is such that the normal capacity of 2,400 horsepower may be 
raised to 6,000 horsepower by operating the boilers considerably 
over their rating, and provisions have been made for doubling the 
installed capacity by the addition of four more 600-horsepower 
boilers facing the first row. After the award of the contract for this 
plant, the fifth naval district recommended that the building be 
increased to provide space for electrical generating equiprnent for 
furnishing electrical energy to the entire base. This proposal, how- 
ever, was abandoned on account of the lack of necessary appropria- 

Torpedo station^ Newport^ R. I. — With the rapid expansion of the 
torpedo station at Newport in 1918 it was decided to construct an 


Boiler plaint for industrial soction of Xaval Opcratins Ease. Ilaiiiptou Roads. Va. 

J'Mwr iiliiiii :it S:i\:_i\ 'I'. .I'li. . |. , Si.-iijnii, Newport, R. I. 


entire new power plant rather than to attempt to enlarge the old one, 
which contained obsolete equipment, was located in such a position 
that extension would have been difficult, and was installed in a build- 
mg whose utilization for manufacturing purposes was desirable. 

The project was undertaken at the request of the Bureau of Ord- 
nance, whose insistence upon the urgency of the situation led the 
Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks to obtain the Secretary's 
authority for the award of a cost-plus-percentage contract covering 
the entire work, building, equipment, coal and ash facilities, and com- 
plete distributing systems for light, heat, and power. 

The main equipment of the plant now consists of two 2,500-kilovolt- 
ampere turbo-alternators, four 600-horsepower boilers, underfeed 
stokers, forced and induced draft fan equipment, condensing appa- 
ratus, switchboard, two large rotary converters, and all necessary 
auxiliaries. The old power plant generated direct current, but to 
conform to modern navy-yard practice the design of the new plant 
called for turbo-generators arranged for 2,300-volt, 3-phase, 60-cycle 
current. It was therefore necessary to purchase rotary converters to 
obtain the necessary direct current for the operation of old motors in 
the shops. New motors which have subsequently been purchased are 
of the alternating-current type, so that the electrical energy gen- 
erated may be used without conversion. An extensive distributing 
system has been installed from the new power plant to the various 
buildings and shops. This includes direct and alternating current for 
light and power, steam for industrial purposes, hot water for heat- 
ing, water for industrial use and for fire-fighting purposes, and com- 
pressed air at low pressure (100 pounds), intermediate pressure 
(1,200 pounds), and high pressure (3,500 pounds per square inch), 
the last being used for torpedo charging. 

The new phmt also required a complete coal and ash handling 
system. Coal is handled from barges either to ground storage or 
direct to the bunkers in the power house, and is also reclaimed from 
ground storage to the bunkers. 

Suhinariiie base, New London, Conn. — Plans were made early in 
1917 for the development of the submarine base at New London, and 
these naturally contemplated the provision of a central power plant. 
It was found that there was an existing coal shed, not utilized in the 
new scheme of development, w^hich had a heavy concrete floor on 
pile foundations and was located in an advantageous position for the 
required plant. A new superstructure was therefore designed for 
installation on the old foundation, the latter being of such size that 
it Avas found possible to add a machine-shop building. The power 
plant was provided with three 1,875-kilovolt-ampere turbo-genera- 
tors, furnishing 3-phase, 60-cycle electrical energy at 2,300 volts, and 
also three 823-horsepower water-tube boilers, superheaters, oil-burn- 


ing equipment, air compressors, condensers, pumps, tanks, heaters, 
a switchboard, and other necessar}' auxiliaries. This project also 
included the installation of large reinforced-concrete storage tanks 
for fuel oil required for the operation of the power-plant boilers, as 
well as tanks of similar character for the storage of Diesel oil, heaters, 
and a piping sj'stem for handling these oils between the storage tanks, 
the power plant, and the different piers at which the submarines are 

Special high-pressure air compressors were installed for torpedo 
charging. These machines have a capacity of 50 cubic feet of com- 
pressed air per hour at a pressure of 3,500 pounds per square inch. 
A later contract included complete distributing sj^stems for fresh 
water, salt water, air, fuel oil, Diesel oil, hot water, and electricity 
from the power plant to the various buildings, shops, and piers. 

Part of the distributing system for furnishing heat to certain 
buildings was required well in advance of the design of the per- 
manent S3^stem. Pipe lines for the purpose were therefore installed 
above ground and supported by poles. 

Naval Aircraft Factory^ Philadeljjhia. — The establishment of this 
factory in the Philadelphia Navy Yard and its location in the unde- 
veloped section at a considerable distance from the new central 
poAver plant, together with the comparatively large amount of steam 
required by it for heating and industrial purposes led to the deci- 
sion to construct an independent boiler plant to serve the needs of the 
project. This plant contains six water-tube boilers having a total 
rated capacity of 4,328 boiler horsepower. It was designed for oper- 
ation at a pressure of 200 pounds per square inch with no superheat, 
as no prime movers are installed — the steam generated being used 
only for heating and process work. The boilers are equipped with 
imderfeed stokers, forced-draft fans, and a radial brick stack, all 
of which adjuncts enable the equipment to be operated at 200 per cent 
of its rating when necessary. 

The plant contains the usual auxiliaries, such as heaters, tanks, 
pumps, meters, etc., together with a complete coal and ash handling 
system, comprising overhead coal bunker, track hopper, crusher, 
bucket conveyer, ash cars, and conveyer for ashes discharging into 
an outside reinforced-concrete ash-storage tank. 

Electrical energy for lighting and power requirements in the air- 
craft factory could not be supplied by the old central power plant 
of the yard, and the new power plant under construction would not 
be in a position to furnish such energy in time to meet the demand. 
Arrangements were therefore made for the construction of a 13,000- 
volt transmission line from the nearest high-tension feeder of the 
Philadelphia Electric Co., and a brick building was constructed to 
serve as a substation, the voltage beiuL'" transformed to 2.300 for dis- 


View in engine room of power plant at Submarine Base, New London, Conn., sliowinj 

mechanical equipment. 

Elevated and underground distributing systems, Submarine Base. New London, Conn. 


tribution throughout the various buildinirs of the factory. Intercon- 
nection was also made to the switchboard of the central power plant, 
in order to provide breakdown service in the event of accident to the 
yard's generating apparatus. At a later date, when the new central 
power plant was placed in operation, the amount of energy purchased 
from the public utility company was gradually decreased, until all 
of the current required by the aircraft activities was supplied by 
the yard plant ; but the connection with the outside source of supply 
was maintained as a breakdown service. 

Navy yard, New York. — At this yard, additions were first made to 
the engine room, which necessitated no extension to the building 
proper, and an 800-cubic-foot-per-minute turbo air compressor was 
installed on a structural-steel foundation in available space. A 
2,500-kilovolt-ampere turbo-alternator was placed in the space for- 
merh' occupied b}' a 500-kilowatt vertical generator, which was trans- 
ferred elsewhere. 

The turbo-compressor was designed for operation with either high- 
pressure steam, exhaust steam, or both high and low pressure steam 
at the same time. This compressor required the installation of cer- 
tain auxiliaries — a 4,800-square-foot surface condenser with its ac- 
companying circulating, condensate, and air pumps, and a 2,000- 
square-foot aftercooler. 

The 2,500-kilovolt-ampere turbo-alternator installation required a 
6,000-square-foot surface condenser w^ith condensate and air pumps, 
and both units required extensive changes in the piping system. 

The addition of these prime movers and the installation of new 
buildings in the yard required an increase in the boiler-room equip- 
ment. No additional space was available in the boiler room, and it 
was therefore found necessary to construct an addition to the build- 
ing to contain four COO-horsepower water-tube boilers operated at a 
pressure of 200 pounds and equipped with underfeed stokers, over- 
head coal bunker, coal and ash handling equipment, forced-draft fan, 
flue, new stack, piping, meters, and gauges. 

On account of the importance of continuity of electrical service at 
this yard, it was considered desirable to install an auxiliary connec- 
tion with the public utility supply. A temporar}^ substation build- 
ing was constructed several hundred feet from the poAver plant, and 
two 2,500-kilovolt-ampere frequenc3'^-changers, transformers, and a 
switchboard were installed therein, with underground cables from 
the power company's plant and to the main switchboard in the yard 
power plant. As noted in the case of the emergency electrical con- 
nection at the Washington navy yard, the characteristics of the 
current generated by the outside company were different from those 
of the yard supply, so that frequency-changers were necessary in the 


conversion of 6,600-volt, 3-phase, 25-cycle Edison current to 2,300- 
volt, 3-phase, 60-cycle yard current. 

Naval Academy. — At the Naval Academy, Annapolis, the increase 
in the number of midshipmen, the extension of Bancroft Hall, and 
the construction of new buildings necessitated a considerable enlarge- 
ment of the power plant, which furnished light, heat, and power 
throughout the Naval Academy reservation as well as to the hospi- 
tal and Marine barracks. Additional power-plant units which were 
added at first did not require an extension to the building. This 
equipment consisted of two turbo-generators^— one T50-kilowatt direct- 
current dynamo to furnish electrical energy to the Naval Academy 
proper, and one 125-kilovolt-ampere alternating-current generator 
to furnish additional energy to meet the increasing needs of the 
hospital. These generators were installed on structural-steel founda- 
tions, and were provided with jet condensers, pumps, heaters, tanks, 
and other auxiliaries. Considerable additions were also made to the 
main switchboard to provide for the increased demands. 

In the boiler room only one additional 400-horsepower water- 
tube boiler was installed, owing to space conditions. The capacity 
of the old boilers was greatly increased, however, by the replacement 
of an old type of stoker equipment under the seven existing 400- 
horsepower boilers with new and modern stokers of the forced-draft 
underfeed type, permitting the operation of the boilers at consid- 
erable overloads. This increase in boiler output was greater than 
the capacity of the stack could handle, so that duplicate turbine- 
driven induced-draft fans were installed to augment the chimney 

At a subsequent date, when additional academy buildings were 
to be constructed, it was found necessary to increase further the 
boiler capacity. This was accomplished by an extension to the 
boiler rooni and the installation of three 400-horsepower water-tube 
boilers with underfeed stokers, a new stack, and other auxiliaries. 

All of these changes necessitated extensive changes in the piping, 
the addition of minor equipment, a new ash-handling system, and a 
considerable increase in the outside distributing systems for light, 
heat, and power. 

Boston. — Power-plant improvements at the navy yard, Boston, 
Mass., consisted in general of a new generating unit of a capacity of 
3,750 kilovolt amperes, with surface condenser and circulating, con- 
densate, and air pumps ; four 600-horsepower water-tube boilers with 
underfeed stokers capable of operating the boilers at 300 per cent 
of rating in case of necessity; and two 2,500-cubic-foot-per-minute 
and one 5,600-cubic-foot-per-minute air compressors of the recipro- 
cating type; with condensers and auxiliary pumps. The installa- 

37022—21 18 


750-kilowatt turbo-generator as installed in Naval AcacU'my power plant, Annapolis, Md. 

lieriproraiiu^; air compressor ((;.r,(Hi . niu. ii ct per minute) in power plant, Navy Yard, 

Norfolk, Va. 


tion of the air compressors required an extension of the engine room, 
but all other equipment was installed within the existing building. 

Minor improvements were also effected to improve the operating 
conditions, such as a revision of the main switchboard controlling 
the generating apparatus and the outgoing feeders, the installation 
of a steam- jet system for conveying ashes from boiler pits to an 
elevated tank outside the boiler room, and the provision of new 
coal weighers of the traveling larry type which receive coal from 
the overhead bunker, measure and record its weight, and discharge 
it into the individual hoppers located over the stokers of the several 

Mare Island. — The two main navy yards on the Pacific coast — 
Mare Island, Calif., and Puget Sound, Wash. — as well as the naval 
station at Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, operate their boiler plants with 
fuel oil instead of coal. During the war the power-plant facilities 
of these yards were not increased to the same extent as those of the 
eastern yards. 

At Mare Island a 3,T50-kilovolt-ampere turbo-generator and an 
8,000-cubic-foot-per-minute air compressor were installed, together 
with surface condensers, circulating pumps, condensate pumps, air 
pumps, and an aftercooler. By moving one of the old air compres- 
sors of small capacity, it was possible to install this equipment in 
the existing engine room. At a later date a o.OOO-kilovolt-ampere 
turbo-generator and auxiliaries were purchased, and a 1,000-horse- 
power water-tube boiler was transferred from the contemplated 
nitrate plant at Indianhead. Md.. but the actual installation of 
these units was not effected until after the signing of the armistice. 

To increase the direct-current facilities in the plant, two old, worn- 
out, engine-driven current generators were removed and in their 
place were installed two motor-generator sets and a controlling 

Pvf/et Sound. — The boiler capacity at the navy yard, Puget Sound. 
Wash., was increased by the addition of two 600-horsepower water- 
tube i3oilers with su]:)erheaters, soot blowers, and oil-burning equip- 
ment : and the engine room had added to its equipment a 3,700- 
kilo volt-ampere turbo-generator with surface condenser, pumps (cir- 
culating, air, and condensate), piping, heaters, and foundations. 

To supplement the electrical energy as required, this yard pur- 
chases a considerable amount of current, hydraulically generated, 
from the public utility company at very advantageous rates. 

Pearl Ilarhor. — Xew equipment which has been purchased for in- 
stallation in the central power plant at the naval station, Pearl 
Harbor, consists of a 2.500-kilovolt-ampere turbo-generator and a 
3,000-cubic-foot-per-minute reciprocating air compressor with sur- 


face condensing apparatus, including circulating, condensate, and 
air pumps, an al'tercooler, heaters, piping, foundations, etc. In the 
boiler room the capacity was increased by two 600-horsepower water- 
tube boilers with superheaters, soot blowers, and oil-burning equip- 
ment. All of the above-mentioned equipment was purchased dur- 
ing the war, but had not been completely installed before the armi- 
stice was signed. 

Xew Orleans. — A new power plant was constructed at the New 
Orleans naval station to meet the increasing demands for light, 
heat, and power. A Iniilding and stack had been built several j-ears 
previously for the purpose of providing an adequate central power 
plant, but it had never been used and contained no equipment. 
Apparatus was therefore purchased for this building, consisting 
of two 625-kilovolt-ampere turbo-generators, one 2,500 and two 500 
cubic-foot-per-minute air compressors, jet condensing apparatus, 
aftercooler, pumps, heaters, boilers, oil-burning equipment, tanks, 
meters, switchboard, engine-room crane, etc. It was also found 
feasible to transfer four of the water-tube boilers from the old power 
plant, and these four were combined into two units and reinstalled. 

This plant is arranged for burning fuel oil, and operates con- 
densing with circulating water obtained from the Mississippi River. 
In order to avoid any interference with the levee on account of the 
installation of large pipes, a pump house containing motor-driven 
centrifugal jDumps was constructed in the river. The discharge line 
from the pumps was carried up over the levee and thence along the 
ground to a reservoir adjacent to the power house, whence water is 
obtained for the jet condensers of the prime movers. 

Pensacola. — The power plant at the naval air station, Pensacola, 
Fla., was modernized, increased in capacity, and converted from a 
direct-current generating plant containing small and inelTicient ap- 
paratus to an alternating-current station with modern turl)o-gener- 
ators and auxiliaries. On account of the limited appropriation 
available for the contemplated improvements, it was thought at first 
that these would have to be curtailed; but iuA'estigation disclosed 
that there were available for transfer a 500-kilowatt turbo-generator, 
with surface condenser and auxiliary pumps, and a hydraulic accu- 
mulator at the navy yard. New York; a 750-kilowatt turbo-generator 
at the plant of the American Radiator Co., Bayonne, N. J., which 
u-as the property of the Bureau of Ordnance ; and a surface condenser 
at the navy 3'ard, Norfolk, Va. All of this apparatus was obtained 
without charge, and was transferred and installed in the central 
power plant at Pensacola. 

Other improvements effected were the relocation of a 300 and a 
GOO cubic-foot-per-minute air compressor, and the installation of 


Boiler installation at power plant. Navy Yard. Mare Island, Calif. 

P.ciilei- installation at po 

wtr plant. Xav.v Yard. l'in;t't S.nind. Wasli. 


Turbo-alternator in power plant. Navy Yard, Tugct So'uud, Wash. 

7,500-kilovoU-ampere turbo-generator in power plant at Naval Proving Ground and 
Smokeless-Powder Factory, Indianhcad, Md. 


condensers, pumps, foundations, piping, feed-water heaters, tanks, 
meters, etc. 

Upon approval by the Secretary of the Navy, permission was 
granted the local street railway company to install rotary converters 
at the naval station, Auliich changed alternating current from the 
railway company's feeder into direct current for trolley operation, 
thus materially improving the street car service to the station during 
the morning and evening rush hours. 

Indianhead, Md. — Probably no other plant required a more rapid 
expansion of power generating equipment on account of the war 
than that of the naval proving ground and powder factory at Indian- 
head, Md. Before the war, demands w^ere met by three 625-kilovolt- 
ampere turbo-generators in the central power plant. To meet war 
requirements there were added in rapid succession a 1,875-kilovolt- 
ampere turbo-generator obtained by commandeering, the unit hav- 
ing been intended for the city of Richmond, Va. ; a 3,750-kilovolt- 
ampere unit purchased from the Penn Seaboard Steel Corporation, 
which they were prevailed upon to release hj a special arrange- 
ment negotiated through the War Industries Board; and finally a 
7,500-kilovolt-ampere turbo-generator. This expansion involved an 
increase of over 600 per cent in generating capacity. The 7,500- 
kilovolt-ampere unit is the largest installed in any navy yard power 

It was, of course, necessary to extend the engine room, not only 
for the turbo-generator additions above mentioned, but also for new 
air compressors, operated both by steam and synchronous motor 

All of these prime movers naturally required a large increase in 
the amount of steam available, and two 600-horsepower water-tube 
boilers with superheaters, stokers, soot blowers, and other auxiliaries, 
were added in an extension to the boiler room. Subsequently four 
1,000-horsepower boilers were installed to replace smaller boilers, 
and the boiler room again had to be enlarged. Other improvements 
consisted of an additional cooling tower, a large spray pond for 
cooling the condensing water required by the larger turbines, two 
new radial brick chimneys, jet condensers, pumps, heaters, tanks, 
piping, rotary converters, exciters, and a new switchboard. 


The immediate necessity accompanying a state of "v\'ar is the assur- 
ance of adequate and suitable weapons. At such a time matters 
related to ordnance are of primary importance, both for defense 
and aggression. When American participation in the World War 
became inevitable, the Bureau of Ordnance surveyed existing estab- 
lishments and took such steps toward the extension of ordnance 
facilities as availabilitj^ of resources would permit. 

The increased demand for ordnance equipment and supplies of 
all natures created by the enlargement of the Navy and its entry 
into a belligerent status, together with the arming of merchant ves- 
sels and transports, necessitated the extension of existing facilities 
and the construction of new buildings for the manufacture, as- 
sembly, storage, and issue of such materials. With the tremendously 
expanded scope of the industrial activities at ordnance stations it 
became necessary to construct or expand the accessory facilities, 
including railroad systems, water supplies, and water-front and 
handling facilities, and to provide housing for increased personnel. 

Before the American entry into the war the Bureau of Ordnance 
was manufacturing guns of various sizes, torpedoes, mines, and 
other ordnance equipment, and had contracts for the manufacture of 
quantities of ammunition. In the earliest stages of the war the de- 
livery of these supplies and equipment for assembly, storage, and 
issue made mandatory the most rapid possible expansion of the 
ordnance stations. Also, the production program outlined by the 
Bureau of Ordnance required the utmost speed in the construction 
of public works at the naval gun factory and the other manufac- 
turing plants operated by the Navy. 

Most of the ordnance stations are remotely located, because of the 
very nature of the activities carried on, and a large proportion of 
the personnel consists of trained and experienced workers. Hence 
the provision of housing facilities within the confines of the stations 
themselves, without dependence upon the surrounding regions, is 
essential, and it was necessary to construct additional quarters for 
the greatly increased number of officers and enlisted and civilian 
workers assigned to or procured for such duties. The state of war 



necessitated the assignment of an adequate marine guard to each 
station, especially in view of the hazardous nature of the materials 
to be handled. The marine guards at ordnance stations were placed 
under the administrative jurisdiction of the inspectors of ordnance 
in charge, so that barracks for the guards were constructed or 


Major ammunition depots are located in the general vicinity of 
the naval bases. The elements entering into the assembly of am- 
munition are shipped in bulk to these depots, where they are assem- 
l)led and loaded and made ready for issue. Other depots provide 
facilities for the storage of the bulk materials and loaded or as- 
sembled ammunition. 

The raw materials for the ammunition details when they are 
received at the ammunition depots must be stored separately and 
u.nder various conditions requiring a variety of storehouses. Build- 
ings of various characteristics are also required for loading the fuses 
and primers, for filling the shells, for sewing and filling the powder 
bags, and for other purposes connected with the assembling of am- 
munition. After the ammunition or ammunition parts are assem- 
bled, provision must be made for storage and issue to ships. 

The major ammunition depots, at which facilities exist for the 
conversion of the raw materials into loaded and assembled ammu- 
nition, are located at Hingham, Mass. ; lona Island, N. Y. ; Fort Mif- 
flin, Pa. ; St. Juliens Creek, Va. ; Puget Sound, Wash. ; Mare Island, 
Calif.; and Kuahua, Hawaii. In addition to these, there are minor 
ammunition depots which provide for the storage of the bulk mate- 
rials and the storage and issue of assembled ammunition, situated at 
New London, Conn. ; Fort Lafayette, N. Y. ; Lake Denmark, N. J. ; 
Charleston, S. C. ; Olongapo, P. I. ; and Cavite, P. I. There are also 
located within various naval stations facilities for the storage and 
issue of ammunition, as at New Orleans, La. Necessarily, the great- 
est expansion during the war occurred in the depots located on the 
Atlantic coast. 

The considerations governing the design of buildings for like pur- 
poses were essentially identical for all depots, and the greatest pos- 
sible expedition of construction was necessary. The development of 
standard designs for various structures was therefore considered ex- 
tremely advantageous, and good results Avere effected along this line. 
Besides the buildings of standard designs, which were applicable to 
a number of stations, there were, of course, buildings constructed to 
fulfill local conditions and purposes peculiar to one station. It is 
believed that the tremendously augmented facilities at ammunition 


depots may be best illustrated by a discussion of the two classes thus 

The standard design which was applied to the greatest number of 
projects was that of a building for the storage of powder, shells, or 
fixed ammunition. The essential requirements in this case were ease 
of handling, protection against high temperatures, sparkless floor 
construction, and resistance against exterior disturbances, such as 
flying sparks. The designed superimposed floor loads, adopted after 
consultation with the Bureau of Ordnance, were 750 pounds per 
square foot for magazine buildings and 2.000 pounds per square foot 
for shell houses and fixed-ammunition storehouses. 

The buildings are one story in height, owing to the comparatively 
large floor loads, requiring floors to be laid on the ground. In some 
instances pile foundations and reinforced concrete floors were neces- 
sary, but the design of the buildings above the floor level is identical 
in any case. A standard width of 50 feet was adopted, with a height 
of 14 feet from the floor to the underside of the roof framing, and 
the lengths vary up to 250 feet by the addition of typical interior 
bays. The standard construction consists of terra-cotta hollow-tile 
walls, stuccoed on the outside, steel columns, steel roof trusses span- 
ning the entire width of the building, asbestos shingle roofing on 
wood sheathing, and steel doors opening on a loading platform which 
extends the full length of the building and is served by a depressed 
railroad track. No windows are used in this design. Two types of 
floors were installed in various instances to obviate the danger of 
sparks being struck by the wheels of the hand trucks. Either an 
asphalt mastic floor or a blind-nailed maple floor on sleepers, above 
the concrete slab was adopted toward this end. and the relative 
economy of the types depended upon local conditions. 

It was essential that the contents of the building be protected 
against high temperatures caused by the heat of the sun. Induction 
ventilators in the roof were installed in alternate baj'S, and, for sit- 
uations having climatic conditions equivalent to those which exist 
on the Atlantic coast south of Hampton Eoads, a ceiling was sus- 
pended from the lower chords of the roof trusses, with vents into the 
air space under the roof. It has been observed that the temperature 
inside these buildings during the heat of the day is considerably 
less than that outside. A lightning-protection system was installed 
in connection with each building. More than 100 buildings follow- 
ing this standard design were constructed at various depots. 

A standard magazine storehouse was developed for the storage of 
ammunition details and miscellaneous materials. These buildings 
are constructed of the same general materials as the standard maga- 
zines, but are two stories in height, because of the lighter floor loads. 
They are provided with elevators between the two floors and have 


windoAvs and heating and electric lighting systems, since work is to 
be carried on in them. Buildings of this design were constructed 
at four stations. 

Black powder, guncotton, and other particularly hazardous mate- 
rials are stored underground for reasons of protection, isolation, and 
equality of temperature. For such storage subsurface magazines of 
several sizes, but of identical constructional characteristics, were 
designed. The subsurface magazines have reinforced concrete walls, 
floors, and roofs, and are built in sidehills. A steel door affords en- 
trance into each building, faced with concrete wing walls where 

Consideration was at first given to constructing the roof of each 
subsurface magazine in a very heaA^y manner, to confine a possible 
explosion. It was concluded, however, that such a construction 
might subject surrounding property to damage from flying pieces of 
concrete, and that it would probably be impracticable to construct a 
roof strong enough to confine the explosion entirely. The roof is, 
therefore, covered with about 3 feet of fill, and is designed strong 
enough merely to support the fill and any superimposed load on the 
ground, on the theory that an explosion will follow the lines of 
least resistence and will probably blow out the door and break the 
roof into small parts. Subsurface magazines have been built at 
most of the ammunition dejiots. 

Designs were standardized for a number of other buildings in 
addition to the above, and the preparation of estimates, plans, and 
specifications was considerably expedited thereby. 

Only a portion of the work, however, which was performed at 
ammunition depots as a part of the war program permitted stand- 
ardization. The opposite condition prevailed in connection with 
water-front improvements, office buildings, quarters, central power, 
lighting, and heating systems, railroads, etc. 

The railroad systems serving several of the depots w^ere exten- 
sively augmented by additional track, and the water approaches in 
certain instances were deepened and widened to allow access to larger 
ships, in order to permit the issue of ammunition to vessels without 
rehandling. New piers and other water-front improvements were 
also constructed to increase berthing space for ships and lighters 
receiving or discharging ammunition. 

At ammunition depots, where immense quantities of very hazard- 
ous materials are stored, the matter of fire protection is a serious and, 
in fact, critical item. At the outbreak of the war several of the 
depots which were to be greatly expanded were almost entirely devoid 
of proper fire protection, and several extensive systems had to be 
constructed, notaljly at Ilingham, ]\Iass.; Lake Denmark, N. J.; Fort 


Lafayette, N. Y.; St. Julians Creek, Va.; Fort Mifflin, Pa.; and 
Charleston, S. C. It was usually possible to procure a fresh water 
supply from near-by municipal or navy-yard systems, but, in the 
cases of St. Juliens Creek and Charleston, salt water is used. In 
two instances it was necessary to develop new water supplies for fire 

Permanent barracks for the Marine guards were built at all of 
the larger depots, including Hingham, Lake Denmark, and Fort 
Mifflin, in pursuance of the adopted policy of designating the Marine 
guards at such stations as units under the administration of the com- 
manding officer of the depot. 

In addition to projects of the nature specifically mentioned, mis- 
cellaneous construction of various descriptions was necessitated by 
the expansion of ammunition depots occasioned by the ordnance pro- 
gram for the war. The funds expended on public works at such 
depots to keep pace with this program aggregated $11,000,000. 


In spite of the fact that the use of the torpedo by the American 
Navy during the war was restricted by lack of opportunity, its use 
by the enemy demonstrated its merits as a potent weapon. 

During the years preceding the war, the Bureau of Ordnance had 
developed the design and details of torpedoes to a very high degree, 
so that at the beginning of the war plans were on hand for the plac- 
ing of contracts for the manufacture of large numbers of torpedoes. 
This condition made necessar}?^ the provision of additional assembly, 
overhaul, and storage facilities. 

Torpedo activities of the Navy are centered at the naval torpedo 
station, Newport, R. I., where the repair, overhaul, issue, and prov- 
ing of torj^edoes are performed and where the larger part of the 
reserve supply is stored. Experimental and development work and 
the training of torpedo officers is also carried on at Newport. The 
plant at this point was largely increased during the war to increase 
production and to provide additional facilities for the handling and 
storage of spare parts and reserve supplies. All of the space avail- 
able on Goat Island, the main torpedo station, and on Rose Island, 
intended for the storage of explosives, was early filled with new 
structures, and it became necessary to extend the development of the 
station to Gould Island. Altogether, the additional construction 
at Newport completed or initiated during the war entailed an ex- 
penditure of over $1,500,000. 

The old power plant on Goat Island was entirely inadequate for 
the increased demands. A new power plant was therefore built 


ill the industrial area, at a cost of $800,000. (See chapter '' Power 

Quarters for seaman gunners, with dormitoiy and classi-oom facili- 
ties, were built to care for the large classes to be trained at Newport, 
and barracks were constructed to provide for an increase in the 
marine guard. 

Considerable alterations Avere performed in connection with the 
existing buildings on Goat Island. N-ew buildings, including a boat- 
house and miscellaneous storage buildings, were constructed in prac- 
tically every available space on the island, until the facilities there 
comprised a well-arranged and self-contained industrial establish- 
ment, with all facilities for the care and development of torpedoes. 

The storage for war heads and other explosive materials on Rose 
Island was increased in proportion to the increased torpedo storage 
on Goat Island. The construction on Gould Island, effected at a cost 
of about $180,000, includes a storehouse with racks for 880 tor- 
pedoes and a corresponding number of gyros, two war-head store- 
houses, office space, a reinforced-concrete pier, a narrow-gauge rail- 
road system, and water-supply and fire-protection systems. An 
existing house was converted for use as quarters for the Marine guard. 
Difficulty in the construction of the pier Avas presented by the fact 
that the shale bedrock occurred at a very shalloAV depth. This diffi- 
culty Avas overcome by placing riprap around tlie precast reinforced 
concrete piles. 

It is satisfactory to note that the enlargement of the public-works 
facilities and the increase in ordnance personnel enabled the au- 
thorities at the torpedo station to keep ahead of the torpedo program. 

At the beginning of the Avar the Pacific coast torpedo station. Key- 
port, Wash., Avas ecjuipped only to store, overhaul, and effect minor 
repairs to torpedoes. During the Avar, storage facilities there Avere 
increased by the construction of an additional building, but it Avas 
not necessary to augment the other facilities. 

The lessons of the early stages of the Avar emphasized the idea, 
long existent Avith certain ordnance officers, that it Avould be both 
economical and expedient for the Navy to have a torpedo-assembly 
plant Avhicli Avould operate in times of peace, and which could be 
transformed to a Avar basis at times Avlien hostilities advised the 
immediate increase of production. Sucli a plant would be in a 
position to assemble parts Avhich could be economically made by 
various manufacturers. In the summer of 1918 tlie Secretary of 
the Navy approved the project for the construction of such a plant, 
and a site on the Potomac RiA-er at Alexandria, Va., was selected by 
the Bureau of Ordnance. Steps Avere taken to acquire the property, 
and the Bureau of Yards and Docks prepared plans for the plant, 
in consultation Avith the Bureau of Ordnance, to include a 4-story 


Torpedo storehouse at Naval Magazine. St. Juliens Creek, Norfolk, Va. 

Typical torpedo racks and crane as designed by the Bureau. 




assembly building 300 by 240 feet, a 2-story storage and office build- 
ing 240 by 110 feet, a timber pier and bulkhead, dredging, and other 
auxiliary features. The buildings are of reinforced-concrete con- 
struction of the flat-slab type, and are considered to be particularly 
pleasing architecturally. The floors are designed for heavy loads 
imposed by machines necessary to the making of air flasks and the 
assembly of parts. 

The plant has been completed, and provides facilities for the 
assembly of torpedoes to meet the needs of the Navy. The total 
expenditure for construction at Alexandria has been about $1,300,000. 

The manufacture and assembly of torpedoes require such a period 
of time that it is essential that a sufficient number be on hand at the 
beginning of hostilities to fulfill immediate needs. The Bureau of 
Ordnance has accordingly completed a number of torpedoes, in 
fulfillment of the war program, which must be stored either ashore 
or afloat. New torpedo storehouses were built during the war, or 
construction started, at New London, Conn. ; Newport, R. I. ; St. 
Juliens Creek, Va. ; Hampton Roads, Va. ; Charleston, S. C. ; Pensa- 
cola, Fla. ; Coco Solo, Canal Zone ; Keyport, Wash. ; and Mare Island, 
Calif. In addition to the new storehouses, racks for the storage of 
torpedoes have been installed in existing buildings at Alexandria, 
Va., and Kuahua, Hawaii. 

The Bureau of Yards and Docks, in consultation with the Bureau 
of Ordnance, has designed standard torpedo storehouses, either with 
or without overhaul space, and standard war-head storehouses. 
Formerly torpedoes were stored on chocks, which practice tended 
toward inconvenient handling, requiring the moving of a number 
of torpedoes to get at those at the bottom of a stack. Standard racks 
have been designed, which materially increase the capacity of the 
storehouse and permit the handling of any one torpedo without dis- 
turbing others. Methods of transfer and stowage have been de- 
veloped which minimize time and labor and which practically 
eliminate manhandling. 

In regard to the provision of facilities for the assembly and stor- 
age of torpedoes and accessories, the Bureau of Yards and Docks has 
kept ahead of the requirements of the Bureau of Ordnance, so that 
the production program has been enabled to proceed without inter- 
ference on this account. A large factor in the speed of construction 
is attributable to the standardization of design which has been 



The detailed plans formulated by the Bureau of Ordnance for the 
North Sea barrage contemplated the manufacture and placing of 
about 100,000 mines, of a type especially developed by the Bureau of 
Ordnance for this purpose. The numerous parts of the mines were 

37022—21 19 

288 ^^'AR activities of bureau of yards axd docks. 

manufactured by a number of firms, and it Avas decided to ship the 
parts abroad for assembly. 

The larger part of the mines were loaded with their charges of 
T. N. T, at the mine-filling plant, St. Juliens Creek, Va., which 
was built during the early part of the war. The construction of this 
plant was conceived after the manufacture of parts had been started, 
and great speed was necessary in order that the completion of the 
plant should not hold up the entire project. 

It was proposed to build a plant to receive, load, and ship 1,000 
mine cases per day, which was an undertaking entirely without prece- 
dent in the United States.' Its design was accomplished by the 
Bureau of Ordnance and the Bureau of Yards and Docks in consulta- 
tion. It included the layout of an extensive conveyor system to 
handle the mines. A lump-sum contract was placed and actual work 
was started shortly before the 1st of November, 1917. In spite of 
very severe weather and labor troubles, the plant was in an operative 
condition in March, 1918, as soon as the facilities were needed, the 
project for the mine barrage not being retarded on this account. 
The cost of construction was about $500,000. 

The group comprising the mine-filling plant consists of 22 build- 
ings and a wharf. The type of construction in general was steel 
frame with galvanized metal siding, which permitted rapid erec- 
tion. The conveyor system proved to be excellently planned, and the 
handling of over 22,000,000 pounds of T. N. T. in the loading of more 
than 73,000 mines was performed without mishap. The rated 
capacity of the plant was exceeded in operation. 

Shortly after the beginning of the war, construction was started 
on a small mine depot adjacent to the submarine base, New London, 
Conn. This depot was completed in accordance with the original 
intention, namely, to provide for the storage of mines for planting 
the waters in that vicinity. 

In 1918 the Bureau of Ordnance presented plans to the depart- 
ment for the establishment of a large mine depot on the Atlantic 
coast, to be used for the storage, assembling, loading, testing, and 
issuing of mines to meet all probable future needs. The project was 
approved, and the vicinity of Yorktown, Va., was chosen as the site, 
for military and other reasons. About 11,000 acres of land for this 
purpose were commandeered by presidential proclamation, under 
authority issued by Congress, and the preparation of plans was begun 
for the establishment, which was designated as the Na\^ Mine Depot. 

There has been completed at the Navy mine depot a filling plant 
essentially similar to the one at St. Juliens Creek, although of a more 
permanent type of construction. There were also built five mine- 
storage buildings, each 100 feet by 500 feet, and one story in height. 
These buildings were made thoroughly fire resisting. 


For the storage of T. N. T. 10 magazine buildings were erected at 
points on the reservation remote from each other. The character of 
the terrain facilitated segregation for the storage of explosives, each 
building being located in a ravine separated from other buildings by 
high land. 

The inaccessibility of the site, which is highly advantageous from 
a military standpoint, was overcome industrially by the construction 
of a railroad system, about 10 miles in total length, making connec- 
tion with the main line of the C. & O. Railroad near Lee Hall, Va., 
and by the construction of a pier, 2,000 feet in length, extending into 
the York River to a draft of 30 feet at mean low water. The 
railroad is carried over the pier, and sidings serve the mine-filling 
l^lant and other buildings. 

The transportation difficulties have been overcome further by the 
construction of an 18-foot concrete road, constituting a highway 
from the railroad station at Lee Hall to the depot and to the village 
of Yorktown. It forms a continuation of a concrete road extending 
all the way to Newport News. 

This depot was established as a war activity, but construction was 
just started before the cessation of hostilities. Construction was con- 
tinued, however, to the entire scope originally contemplated, and the 
industrial facilities have been completed, together with quarters for 
officers and enlisted men, an office building, a heating plant, and 
electrical transmission lines. The development is being continued 
further by the construction of water-supply and sewerage systems, 
a dispensary, a power plant, and additional railway. The total cost 
of the whole development is about $2,700,000, exclusive of the cost of 

In addition to the above facilities for the manufacture and loading 
of mines, storage has been provided at certain naval stations, so 
that loaded mines may be kept on hand ready to place immediately 
as needed. For this purpose a standard mine-storage building was 
designed, having a capacity of 1,008 mines. This building has con- 
crete foundations and floor, steel framing, brick or tile walls, a steel- 
skeleton mezzanine floor, and built-up roofing on wood sheathing. 
The small flanged wheels on the mine anchor fit the gauge of channel 
tracks, which are laid on the floor and on the mezzanine, extending 
the length of the building, and the units are stowed in this manner. 
A crane extends over the adjoining railroad track, so that the mines 
may be carried from the cars to the tracks inside the building with- 
out manual effort. 

More than 20 of these standard storage buildings, costing about 
$800,000, were erected at various stations. 




The activities of the Bureau of Yards and Docks at Indianhead 
practically began with the declaration of war, as prior thereto the 
public-works projects undertaken there from time to time as part 
of a gradual development were carried out under the cognizance of 
the Bureau of Ordnance. At the beginning of the war the facilities 
for proving guns and testing shells and armor plate had been devel- 
oped to a point where only a small amount of public- works construc- 
tion was needed to cope with the greatly increased demands on the 
actual proving and testing equipment. These demands, however, 
necessitated enlarged facilities for the handling and transportation 
of guns, shells, supplies, and equipment, and a considerable increase 
in housing accommodations for additional officers, enlisted men, and 
civilian employees. 

That part of the station designat-ed as the smokeless-powder fac- 
tory had been developed to a maximum capacity of 20,000 pounds 
per day. Immediately following the outbreak of the war it was de- 
cided to double this capacity, and construction work was started 
accordingly. As preparations for actual warfare progressed, how- 
ever, it appeared that the enormous requirements of the Army would 
absorb the total output of all private powder-manufacturing con- 
cerns, and that the Navy would have to depend upon its own facilities 
to supply its needs in this respect. It was therefore decided further 
to increase the capacity of the factory at Indianhead. Under this 
program there were constructed a large number of buildings to house 
the additional special equipment required in the various manufac- 
turing processes, together with storehouses for raw material, build- 
ings for drying and blending powder, extensions to the power plant, 
and steam, water, and electric distribution systems, and additional 
railroad and water-front facilities. 

As practically all of the employees of the station are quartered on 
the Government reservation, the enlargement of the powder factory 
necessitated the construction of additional officers' quarters, cottages, 
boarding houses, and barracks, and the improvement of roads, walks, 
and other facilities tending to the comfort and welfare of the per- 

Among the buildings directly related to the expansion of the 
powder factory were : 

Four storehouses for nitrate of soda, constructed of concrete 
and steel, with an exterior covering of corrugated galva- 
nized steel. These storehouses are connected in pairs by a 
wing in which freight cars are spotted. Each pair of build- 


iiigs is equipped with a monorail hoist system for loading 
and unloading. The combined capacity is 25,000 tons. 

Five cotton storehouses of construction similar to the above, 
but of smaller capacity. 

A one-story building of steel construction for use as a labora- 

A storehouse of concrete-and-steel construction for the storage 
of sulphur. 

Two blending towers of brick and steel-covered frame con- 

Four solvent-recovery buildings of brick construction, each 
consisting of four units and each unit having its separate 
condenser house. 

Two magazine buildings of brick construction. 

One pulping and poaching house of brick and steel construc- 

An ammonia-compressor building, a dehydrating house, two 
cotton dry houses, and three picking houses, all of concrete 
and brick construction. 

An ether house of heavy frame construction, coA^ered with cor- 
rugated galvanized steel. 

Twenty-five powder dry houses of brick construction, 10 of 
which had been completed when the armistice was signed, 
work then being stopped on the other 15. 
Most of the powder dry houses were erected on a newly acquired 
tract of land, which was of rough topography and heavily wooded, 
thus necessitating considerable clearing and grading. Approxi- 
mately 2 miles of railroad had to be built to tie in this tract with 
the rest of the station. 

Among the projects of a general character were: 

Bridge over Mattawoman Creek. 

Steel fence inclosing a portion of the reservations. 

Machine shop. 

Carpenter shop. 

Public works office building. 

Storehouse for Marine Corps. 

Thirty-room hotel. 

Three 10-room boarding houses. 

Garage for seven trucks. 

Annex to dispensary. 

Laboratory office building. 

Chemical laboratory. 

Post office. 

Bachelor officers' quarters. 


Group of 30 frame buildings comprising mess halls and cot- 
tages for employees. 
Extension to a development of the United States Housing 
Corporation, comprising 45 cottages and including roads, 
walks, and sewer and water facilities. 
Group of cottages as nucleus of a village for colored em- 

At the beginning of the war the station's supply of fresh water 
was obtained from nine artesian wells, having a combined capacity 
of 1,600,000 gallons per 24 hours; but with the suddenly increased 
requirements of the powder factory and the added personnel, includ- 
ing more than 2,000 building mechanics and laborers, this capacity 
was soon overtaxed, and at times the shortage of water presented a 
serious problem. To meet this situation five additional artesian 
wells were drilled, and a test made at their completion showed that 
the station's water supply had been more than doubled. Unfor- 
tunately, the completion of these wells was delayed beyond the 
expected date of completion, and the full benefit of the increase 
was not felt until near the end of the period of the station's greatest 

Almost from the date of the establishment of the naval proving 
ground the lack of rail communication had been a cause of great 
delay and inconvenience, the nearest railroad being about 14 miles 
distant, and reached by a road which was usually in such poor con- 
dition as to negative the benefit which might otherwise have accrued. 
This condition enforced dependence on tug and barge transporta- 
tion between Indianhead and the Washington navy yard. Funds 
for better facilities became available only during the war. After 
the necessary authorization was granted a standard-gauge single- 
track railroad approximately 12 miles in length was constructed 
between the proving ground and White Plains, Md., at a cost of 
$850,000. It makes connection at White Plains with the Popes Creek 
branch on the Pennsylvania Railroad, which joins the main line 
at Bowie, Md., some IT miles northeast of Washington. 

While not making direct connection with Washington, this trackage 
has admirably fulfilled the purposes for which it was projected, 
namely, the avoidance of transfers of carload shipments to the 
Washington yard and thence to lighters for Indianhead, the 
elimination of delays due to congestion at railway yards, and the 
saving of time and expense generally. 

While this railroad is a facility built, owned, and oi)erated by the 
Government, its advantages have been made available to private com- 
merce by the construction of sidings at convenient points for the han- 
dling of shipments of tobacco, pulp wood, and farm products in gen- 




Blending towei' at Naval Proving Ground and Smokeless-rowdor Factory, Indianhead, 


iii -^)iu|i. Navy VnnK Wasliington, D. C. 


The powder- factory terminal of this railroad was electrified (on 
the overhead system) in order to minimize the dangers incident to the 
emission of sparks by steam locomotives. Along with the construction 
of the railroad, additional locomotives, flat cars, and section cars were 

Prior to the war, the water-front facilities at Indianhead consisted 
of a merchandise pier on the Potomac River and a small coaling pier 
on Mattawoman Creek. The Potomac pier and the main battery of 
guns are located within 100 yards of each other. This arrangement 
presented no difficulties until, owing to the development of long-range 
guns, it became necessary to fire downstream instead of across the 
river. This change caused firing to be directed across the pier and 
the railroad track thereupon, and put a stop to wharf operations at 
such times. 

To remedy this condition, a new concrete bulkhead and timber pier 
were constructed about 1| miles upstream from the old landing, to- 
gether with a single-track railroad connection. Approximately 30,000 
cubic yards of material was dredged from the area in front of the bulk- 
head to secure a depth of 24 feet below mean low water. 

The railroad to the new pier was constructed with great difficulty, 
owing to the fact that a large portion of the line skirts the high banks 
along the river shore, where the character of the soil was such as to 
cause frequent slides during construction and after initial completion. 
In one instance, after this line was placed in operation, a slide from 
one of the upper slopes required the removal of more than 10,000 cubic 
yards of earth. 

At the Mattawoman Creek wharf the bureau constructed a concrete 
and timber bulkhead and enlarged the coal storage area to a capacity 
of 25,000 tons. 

It is estimated that the cost of the work performed at Indianhead 
under the cognizance of the Bureau of Yards and Docks up to the 
signing of the armistice was $5,000,000, and that $2,000,000 additional 
was subsequently expended on projects which were started there dur- 
ing the war. 


The scope of activities at the naval gun factory was practically 
doubled during the war. To permit the carrying out of this increased 
program, old structures were extended and new industrial and storage 
buildings were erected at a total cost of approximately $7,000,000 ex- 
pended under 55 contracts. 

The land available within the former boundaries of the navy yard 
would not permit the expansion projected during the war, so that ad- 


ditional tracts to the east and west were acquired, practically doubling 
the yard area. 

Most of the public works executed at the naval gun factory during 
the war comprised shop facilities, although transportation, water- 
front, communication, and municipal improvements were performed 
to supplement the industrial expansion. 

At the beginning of the war this establishment was supplying the 
larger proportion of the guns for the Navy, and was working at maxi- 
mum capacity. This function was continued without break, and the 
very earliest war program included extensions of buildings and facili- 
ties to enable the gun factory to fulfill the greatly increased demands 
made upon its resources. Plans were prepared and work was begun 
without delay on the following projects: An immense gun shop ca- 
pable of assembling and machining naval guns of the greatest caliber ; 
a brass foundry ; a steel foundry ; a forge shop ; a pattern shop ; an 
optical shop with its range-finder testing tower ; and a five-story ma- 
chine shop for miscellaneous work. 

From an engineering standpoint, one of the most interesting of the 
shop buildings constructed by the bureau during the war is the new 
gun shop. This structure and its crane equipment are laid out with 
a view to the economical and efficient manufacture and handling of 
20-inch 50-caliber guns. 

Its width, 241 feet, was determined by the length of the lathes 
required for turning and boring the guns, the lathes being installed 
crosswise in the building. The height (to the bottom chords of the 
roof trusses) and width of the two main aisles, 6U and 86 feet, 
respectively, were determined by the clearances needed for handling 
guns over the lathes and by crane dimensions and clearances. The 
length of the building is 567 feet. 

The two main aisles are equipped with overhead traveling bridge 
cranes of unprecedented capacity, namely, 300 gross tons each, with 
a 40-foot lift. This capacity is based on the weight of a 20-inch 50- 
caliber gun, including its jacket and trunnions. Each crane is pro- 
vided with an auxiliary trolley and hoist for handling smaller loads. 
For 168 feet at one end of the main aisle the roof trusses are raised 
to a height of 121-;^ feet above the floor, and an additional 300-gross- 
ton crane, with a lift of 100 feet above the floor, is provided. This 
great height and lift are provided in order that the maximum gun 
may be handled in a vertical position in and out of the shrinkage pit, 
which is located in this aisle. On account of its unusual height, a 
small electric passenger elevator is provided for access to this high 
crane runway. 

The low portion of one of the main aisles is equipped with 10-ton 
and the 36-foot north aisle with 25-ton traveling cranes. One main 
aisle is provided with a 40-ton crane, operating on the 300-ton crane 


runway, for economical handling of smaller loads. Offices, tool 
rooms, and toilet and locker rooms are provided in the 31-foot south 
aisle. A storage yard 65 feet wide, served by an 80-ton traveling 
crane, is placed on the north side of the building. 

On account of the very heavy crane loads and lateral thrusts, due 
to cranes and wind, it was necessary that especial care be taken and 
the most accurate practicable methods used in designing the struc- 
tural steel framework and bracing of this shop. (See Bulletin No. 
29, Public Works of the Navy, for a full engineering discussion of 
this and similar problems.) 

The shrinkage pit mentioned above is in itself an extremely inter- 
esting engineering work. This pit, 35 feet by 68 feet in inside hori- 
zontal dimensions, with walls 5 feet thick and having an inside depth 
of 95 feet, was sunk by the open-caisson method. The walls were 
constructed in successive lifts above the floor level and the structure 
was gradually let into the ground at a rate keeping pace with the 
addition of lifts by excavating the earth inside and under the cutting 

Owing to the imperviousness of the soil at the site, which is a very 
hard clay, little water was encountered and no difficulty was experi- 
enced in keeping the bottom dry enough, by comparatively little 
pumping, for economical sinking. The only difficulty of note in the 
entire operation was that due to encountering layers of bowlders, in 
which cases the sinking was aided by blasting. Upon final placement 
of the caisson the bottom was sealed with a heavy slab of reinforced 

The inside of the pit is divided into 15 vertical compartments. 
Six of these, 12^ feet square, are open throughout their entire depth, 
and it is in these that the casings are shrunk on the guns. The other 
compartments contain stairs, an electric passenger elevator, piping 
and valves, machinery, pumps, motors and shafting, etc. 

A number of column foundations adjacent to the pit, placed imme- 
diately after the sinking operation, were constructed on concrete piles 
in order to minimize the danger of settlement. 

To permit the performance of the tremendous amount of tool and 
miscellaneous work required on the numerous parts of guns and 
torpedoes, a new machine shop was built in the western extension of 
the yard. This building is five stories in height, 500 feet long, and 
160 feet wide, with a central court roofed over at the first floor. It 
is among the largest buildings ever constructed for such purposes. 
The structure is of reinforced concrete throughout and is equipped 
with 15-ton cranes on the first floor, where the heaviest machines 
are located. The crane girders are of reinforced concrete. 

The foundation conditions in this part of the yard are very poor, 
the ground consisting: of the filled bed of the historical James Creek. 


A pile substructure was used, and it was necessary to straddle two 
large sewers which underlie the side and could not be diverted. 

Wood-block floors were laid throughout the machine shop to the 
extent of 36,000 square yards. This type of floor has been found to 
serve its purpose here in a very satisfactory manner. 

Before the war the steel and brass founding were carried on in a 
general foundry building. In the early part of the war a separate 
brass foundry was built, and the general foundry building was ex- 
tended for use in steel founding alone. 

The new brass foundry is one story in height, with a two-story 
clear height in the main aisle, and is of steel-frame construction 
throughout. The length is 340 feet and the over-all width is about 
145 feet, including a! lean-to containing rooms for locker, storage, 
pattern, and office purposes. The building contains complete mod- 
ern equipment, including crucible furnaces and core ovens. A large 
molding and casting floor is provided, consisting of 4 inches of mold- 
ing sand on a clay base. 

A separate building, 170 by 33 feet, is provided for cleaning and 
finishing castings. It is of the same type of construction as the 
brass foundry. Extensive bins for the separate storage of the sev- 
eral kinds of foundry sand are provided. 

The extension to the general foundry is about 200 by 139 feet in 
plan and one story in height, with a two-story clear height in the cen- 
tral aisle. This building is of steel-frame construction, with steel 
sash, brick walls, and sandstone trimmings. 

In order to provide proportionate facilities auxiliary to the new 
foundries, a pattern and joiner shop was built, which is four stories 
in height, 321 feet long, and 137 feet wide, with a central court. The 
construction is of reinforced concrete of the flat-slab type, with 
steel sash and brick curtain walls. The columns are hollow, and a 
system of forced ventilation is carried up inside them. A blower 
system is installed for the removal of sawdust and shavings. This 
shop is adjacent to the machine shop and has pile foundations. 

Passenger and freight elevators are provided in both the pattern 
and machine shops. The freight elevators in the former have plat- 
forms about 20 feet square for the handling of large patterns. 

Practically all the optical work for the Navy is carried on in the 
Washington yard. The facilities for the manufacture, repair, and 
testing of ojjtical instruments were augmented by the construction 
of the optical shop and range-finder testing tower in the eastern ex- 
tension to the yard. A notable feature of the tower mentioned is 
the fact that, although it forms a part of the optical shop, it is con- 
structed with foundations and framing entirely separate from the 
latter in order to minimize vibrations, which would militate against 
accuracy in testing. 


Machine s-hop. Navy Yard, Washington, D. C. 

i'aueiii shut), Xavy Yard. Wasblngtou. D. C. 


Other buildings for various purposes were erected during the war, 
or completed thereafter, to take care of the expansion of the ordnance 
program. Such buildings include extensions to the forge shop, sight 
shop, erecting shop, and broadside-mount shop, besides a new model- 
storage building, a proof shop, lumber-storage sheds, a mine-labora- 
tory building, and a dry kiln. 

The old power plant and boiler house was enlarged to a consider- 
able extent, and two new brick chimneys, 250 feet high, were built 
to take care of the increased boiler capacity. (See chapter " Power 

Immense weights are handled throughout the yard, including as- 
sembled guns, mounts, and parts, and a number of outside cranes 
were built during the war. The heaviest of these has a capacity of 
200 gross tons, with an 80-ton auxiliary, and serves the park where 
finished guns are stored. This is the largest outside crane of the 
traveling-bridge type at any naval establishment. It has a span of 
85 feet and a maximum hoist of 31 feet, with a travel of 740 feet. It 
weighs 526,000 pounds and transmits a maximum wheel load of 
89,000 pounds. Its heavy steel runway is supported by concrete 
foundations on piles. At one end the crane travels over a slip, so 
that guns may be loaded on barges for shipment to the naval prov- 
ing ground. 

A brick building containing complete living and classroom facili- 
ties was erected for the large classes of seaman gunners who are 
trained at the Washington Yard. 

Auxiliary to the increased industrial facilities at the naval gun 
factory, miscellaneous accessory items were constructed or extended, 
including additional railroad, paving, a quay wall, electric ducts, 
sewers, fuel-oil storage, storehouses, a garage, etc. 

New structures were built at the naval magazine, Bellevue, D. C, 
to provide facilities auxiliary to those at the navy yard for the 
storage of gun mounts and the like. The naval magazine was fur- 
ther improved by the construction of a fuse and primer-loading 
house, a central boiler plant, a fire-protection system, a fence, and a 

The war expansion has placed the Washington navy yard and 
naval gun factory among the largest establishments of the kind in 
the world, and the improvements proceeded at all times with such 
rapidity as to permit the fulfillment of its accelerated demands. 


After many years of controversy and discussion as to the making 
of battleship armor by the Government, Congress, in August, 1916, 
made an appropriation for the establishment of a Government armor 
plant. Steps were taken early in 1917 to establish this plant, when 
the entry of the United States into the war caused a postponement 
of the undertaking. The project was resumed during the middle of 
1918, after a great gun- forging plant had been added to the enter- 

The first important decision to be made in regard to the armor 
plant was its location. The Secretary of the Navy notified the cities 
of the country to submit briefs giving their advantages for the loca- 
tion of such a plant. The result was gratifying, as over 200 cities 
responded. They presented a mass of data" demanding most careful 
consideration. The department therefore appointed a board of offi- 
cers known as the armor-plant board, consisting of Rear Admiral 
F. F. Fletcher, U. S. N.; Commander (now Captain) F. H. Clark, 
U. S. N. ; and Commander (now Captain) R. E. Bakenhus 
(C. E. C), U. S. N. The board found it necessary to visit 
25 of the cities which had presented data. A truly remark- 
able spirit was exhibited by the various communities under con- 
sideration. It led them to study their own resources and advantages 
and set them forth as had never been done before. Volumes of 
information were made available, showing the great extent of 
undeveloped resources in the United States. The board carefully 
weighed the labor conditions and tabulated the technical data as 
to freight rates, cost of fuel, pig iron, and other commodities enter- 
ing into the manufacture of armor, and finally recommended that 
the armor plant be placed in the Pittsburgh district, and also called 
attention to the advantages of placing such a plant near Washington, 
D. C. The law, however, required that the armor plant be built within 
a safety zone, to be determined by the General Board. The safety 
zone excluded Pittsburgh, as being within 200 miles of the Great 
Lakes. The board having recommended Charleston, W. Va., as the 
most suitable place within the safety zone, the department announced 
the selection of that place. 

In the meantime, in preparation for the impending entry into the 
war, Congress had appropriated the sum of $2,080,956 for the estab- 



lishment of a projectile plant. On account of the close relation be- 
tween the manufacture of projectiles and armor it was decided to 
construct the projectile plant on the armor-plant site at Charleston. 
About one million dollars of the funds were allotted to the Bureau 
of Yards and Docks for the design and construction of the plant, 
exclusive of machinery and furnaces, which were provided by the 
Bureau of Ordnance. The plant was designed under close coopera- 
tion between the two bureaus involved. Capt. E. E. Bakenhus 
(C. E. C), U. S. N., was designated as project manager of the 
armor and projectile plants in addition to his duties as assistant 
manager of the Division of Shipyard Plants of the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation and later as Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Yards 
and Docks. Mr. Roger M. Freeman was appointed assistant project 
manager and had detailed charge of the designs. 

The foundry and forge shop is a building 138 feet long by 565 feet 
wide, the machine shop is 140 feet long by 400 feet wide, and the 
heat-treatment building is 92 feet long by 153 feet wide. In the 
foundry and forge building particular attention was paid to lighting 
and ventilating, with distinct success. The monitors, with inclined 
sash, are of a new type, affording a greater percentage of daylight 
in the middle of the building than is obtainable with the ordinary 
arrangement. The ventilation is excellent, and the smoke which 
comes from the electric furnaces during certain periods of their 
operation rises directly and passes out through the monitors, keeping 
the air in the shop fresh and clear. The walls of the building are 
constructed of a new type of tile particularly designed to avoid 
expensive plastering on both the outside and the inside of the 
building and yet maintain a perfectly dry wall. 

The projectile plant is located directly on the banks' of the Great 
Kanawha River, on the smaller of the two tracts into which the 
armor-plant site is divided. The larger site, immediately adjoining 
the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, was reserved for the armor plant. 
The whole site comprised over 200 acres and was donated by the citi- 
zens of Charleston. 

During the summer of 1918 the bureaus received instructions from 
the Secretary of the Navy to proceed with the construction of the 
armor plant. A total sum of $8,318,600 was allotted to the Bureau 
of Yards and Docks for the purpose of constructing the plant, ex- 
clusive of the open-hearth furnaces, heat-treatment furnaces, machine 
tools, and other similar manufacturing equipment, which were pro- 
vided by the Bureau of Ordnance. 

The well-organized personnel of the Bureau of Yards and Docks 
was made available for development of the project, with additions 
such as were found necessary during the course of the work. The 
plans were developed by the Bureau of Yards and Docks in close 


*11J ''''""''''"' ""*: 

. ^ . Forqe and Fun 

Gun TreoT ^ 

Machine Shop. Bidg Cross Section Through Buildings 

Open-Hearth Building. 

Plot plan of Naval Armor and Projectile Plants, Charleston, W. Va. 
[Reproduced by permission of American Society of Mechanical Engineers.] 

37022—21 20 


Machine shop at I'lojcctUe I'laut, Charlosion, W. Va. 

Projectile I'lant, Charleston, W. Va. General view. 


cooperation with the Bureau of Ordnance, Rear Admiral Ralph Earle, 
U. S. N., chief of bureau; Commander Logan Cresap, U. S. N., in 
charge of armor desk; and Rear Admiral C. B. McVay, jr., chief of 
bureau since June 19, 1920. The problem presented unusual diffi- 
culties. An inspection of the three existing American armor plants 
at Pittsburgh, Mid vale, and South Bethlehem indicated at once that 
none of them could be used as a model or precedent. These plants 
had all been developed as a part of larger steel-manufacturing estab- 
lishments, and the arrangements were in many cases undesirable. 
Plans of foreign plants, including those of the Krupp Co. and the 
plant at Ansaldo, were carefully studied, but could not be followed. 
It was therefore necessary to make entire!}^ original studies. Unfor- 
tunately the site was intersected by two rather deep gulleys, which 
made a free development impracticable. However, the gulleys were 
utilized in part as a site for a sedimentation and storage reservoir 
and in part as disposal areas for waste materials which will result 
from the operation of the plant. Features originally disadvantageous 
were thus turned to good account. 

During the progress of the war it developed that the great-gun 
manufacturing capacity of this country was insufficient for providing 
the Navy's needs, and it was therefore decided to add to the armor- 
plant facilities for the manufacture of large-caliber naval guns. This 
further complicated the problem. The manufacture of armor and 
guns consists of several principal divisions, which differ somewhat 
for the armor and guns, as follows : 

(a) The manufacture of steel in the open-hearth electric 

furnaces for both armor and guns. 
(&) Forging of ingots for both armor and guns. 

(c) Heat treatment for armor and guns. 

(d) Carbonizing and and special heat treatment for armor 


(e) Vertical heat ti'eatment of gims. 

(/) Heavy machine tool work for armor plate. 

(g) Heavy lathe and machine tool work for guns. 
The armor plant will turn out completed armor plate and bolts 
ready for installation on board ships, but for the guns will turn out 
only the rough forgings, the finishing work being done at the Wash- 
ington Navy Yard, as has been done in the past. 

A thorough analysis of the process of manufacturing armor plate 
and guns was made by the bureau to the extent necessary for making 
the layout of the plant and the designs of the buildings. It soon de- 
veloped that transportation of the great masses of armor steel from the 
open-hearth building to the heating furnaces, thence to the forging 
press, back to the furnaces, then to the straightening press, then to 



the carbonizinor furnaces, the quenchino- tanks, and machine shop, 
formed one of the principal problems. AVith the guns, the masses of 
steel are longer and more difficult to handle, but the transfers are 
not so numerous. Obviously the plant should be so arranged that 
the transportation and handling of these enormous weights could be 
done with the least expenditure of time and power. Many studies 
Avere made of the relative arrangements of the furnaces and the 
heavy forging presses. It has been customary in other plants to 
have the forging presses in one building and the heat-treating furnaces 
in another building, and the original layout for the present armor 
plant contemplated such an arrangement. The studies made led to 
the adoption of a plan wherein the presses are in the center of a 
building in an H shape and the furnaces are in the two sides of the 
H. The general layout of the plant is shown on the accompanying 

Further to facilitate transportation a " backbone " track has been 
provided, leading in a straight line from the open-hearth building 
through the foundry and forge building to the machine shop. The 
bulk of the weights can thus be transferred without recourse to the 
railroad system of the yard. Each of the buildings is equipped with 
giant cranes for handling the materials within the building. These 
are conveniently listed in the following table : 

Crane number . 

Open hearth building. 

Forage and furnace 

Location . 

Capacity (net tons): 

Main hoist 

Auxiliary hoist ...... 

Speed (feet per minute): 

Main hoist 

Auxiliary hoist 


















































Forge and furnace building. 

Machine shop. 

Heat treatment 

Orane number 

.... 11,12 








if Press 
j\ room. 


Capacity (net tons): 

Main hoist 










/Hoist 53 


Auxiliary hoist 



Speed (feet per minute): 
Main hoist 

i 7 


10 14 

23 . 30 
200 200 
100 100 

X 14 

Auxiliary hoist 

. .. 30 



.... 150 

....| 50 

100 200 


50 100 


roiiring aisle in open-hearth building:, Armor Plant, Charleston, W. Vn. 

Charging floor of oncn-hearth building. Armor Plant, Charlesiuu, >*. \ a. 


Administration building, Armor and Projectile Plants, Charleston, W. Va. 

North aisle of for>;e and furnace building. Armor Plant, Charleston, W. Va. 


It will be noted that the hot-metal cranes in the open-hearth 
building on the pouring side have capacities from 75 tons to 250 
tons. In the machine shop and furnace building the cranes have a 
capacity of 100 tons to 200 tons, and in the press room of 250 tons. 
In the machine shop the capacities are not as great, as the ingots are 
reduced in weight before reaching the finishing stage, the maximum 
capacity of cranes there being 150 tons. 

The open-hearth plant is of the most modern design, and com- 
pares favorably with the recent plants at the best steel mills. The 
weights to be handled are, in general, greater than at the majority 
of the steel plants. Two 60-ton open-hearth furnaces are provided, 
and two electric furnaces of 30-tons capacity each. By loading all 
furnaces to their maximum capacity, about 250 tons of molten steel 
may be had for one pouring. There is space for the addition of a 
third 60-ton open-hearth furnace. The stockyard immediately ad- 
joins the open-hearth building and has two overhead traveling 
bridge cranes, equipped with magnets, for handling pig iron and 
scrap. The plant will utilize the scrap metal from all of the eastern 
navy yards. The tracks on the charging side of the furnace are so 
arranged that a train of cars containing a complete charge can be 
handled on the floor. The stock bins for nickel, ferrochrome, man- 
ganese, and the fluxes are beneath the charging floor in convenient 
locations. A low-type charging machine is provided. The open- 
hearth furnaces are at present supplied with natural gas, which it 
is estimated may last for 10 to 15 years. Provisions have been made 
so that gas producers or powdered-coal installation may be pro- 
vided when the gas gives out. 

In the ordinary processes the steel will first be melted in the open- 
hearth furnaces and then will be refined and further treated in the 
electric furnaces. One open-hearth charge is sufficient to charge 
both electric furnaces. The ingot is poured into cast-iron molds in 
the casting pit. When the ingot is solidified and cooled the cast- 
iron mold is stripped off and the ingot transferred to the preheating 
furnaces for the forging process. The crop of the ingot, that is, 
the top where the poorer quality of metal collects, is cut off and the 
ingot is then rough-forged to its approximate shape. After a further 
heating and reforging the ignot is sent to the carbonizing furnaces, 
where carbon is absorbed by the outer surface of the metal in a 
process requiring from 16 to 20 days. The plate is then chilled to 
harden it. 

The forge and furnace building contains one 14,000-ton press, 
operated hydraulically, but of the steam-intensifier type; and one 
6,500-ton press. There are three ingot-heating furnaces, eight 
armor plate heat-treatment furnaces, five armor plate carbonizing 
furnaces, three annealing, two hardening, one rectifying, and three 


reforging furnaces for armor plate, all interchangeable to a certain 
extent. For guns there are two annealing and four heating fur- 
naces. The vertical gun-treatment furnaces in the heat-treatment 
building are additional. 

The forge and furnace building has two main aisles, each with a 
crane span of 100 feet. This is more than that provided in the 
commercial armor plants, but is done to give a more ample storage 
space for plates that are in process of manufacture or awaiting de- 
livery for erection on the battleship. The furnaces are placed in 
lean-tos on both sides of the main aisles. There are thus four rows 
of furnaces. The presses are in the center part of the building, re- 
quiring a much greater head room than any part of the furnace 
building. In fact, the great head room required for the presses was 
one of the reasons for not putting them in the furnace-crane aisles. 

Particular attention was paid to ventilation. The peak of the 
roof from the center of the building is left open, having over it a 
monitor with open sides and flat roof. It was at first contemplated 
having no monitor whatsoever, leaving only the open slot in the roof. 
This would undoubtedly have been successful, but was considered 
to be too great an innovation. 

The open-hearth building is 516 feet long and 225 feet wide; on 
the pouring side it has an aisle 100 feet wide and 516 feet long. The 
sides of the building from the ground to a height of 8 feet are left 
open. A monitor on the roof also has open sides, resulting in very 
perfect ventilation and freedom from smoke or gases in the working 
spaces. The building is provided with an escape gallery for the 
crane operator in the event of severe accidents in pouring. 

The machine shop has three aisles, each having a crane span of 
100 feet and a length of 560 feet. The building has an over-all 
width of 324 feet and a length of 560 feet. It was desired to have 
the most perfect possible natural lighting in this building. This was 
accomplished by the use of monitors with inclined sides. The moni- 
tor over the center bay has lighting on both sides. The monitor in 
the side bays has lighting on one side only. Very careful studies 
were made of natural lighting, and the proportions of the monitors,, 
the amount of glass, and their arrangement are based on these stud- 
ies. The completion of the building has shown a most satisfactory 
light throughout, in spite of the fact that the building is over 300 
by 500 feet in area. 

The gun-treatment building proved to be a problem of some mag- 
nitude. The guns are treated in a vertical position in electrically 
heated furnaces. A quenching tank is provided for the cooling of 
the gun immediately after treatment. The gun must be lifted ver- 
tically above the tank and lowered into the tank. As the guns 
measure 90 feet or more, the total travel is approximately 219 feet. 


Press room, forge and furnace building, Armor Plant, Charleston, W. Va. 


South aisle of machine shop, Armor Plant, Charleston, W. Va. 

Main aisle of macliino shop, Aimor Plnnt. fhuiicsdin. W. A';i. 


The necessary crane clearances make the total height of the build- 
ing, from the floor of the pit to the top, approximately 254 feet. To 
obviate a building of extraordinary height, it was decided to place 
the furnaces and quenching tank in a pit of approximately 50 feet 
depth. When erected, the gun-treatment building will be of monu- 
mental character and, on account of its height, it will dominate the 
valley of the Great Kanawha River for miles. 

The bureau, in designing this plant, made particular efforts that it 
should have not only the maximum of usefulness with the greatest 
economy in construction, but that it should also be of pleasing ap- 
pearance and durable in character. The plans of the engineers were 
all required to pass muster before the bureau's architectural commit- 
tee, consisting of Commander F. W. Southworth, (C. E. C), IT. S. 
N. R. F., chairman, Mr. Philip Hiss, Mr. Wm. Partridge, and Mr. 
W. H. Fenton. The committee passed on the character of material 
to be used for the outer walls, as well as upon the architectural fea- 
tures. The result has been very gratifying, as the buildings are 
dignified in appearance, and pleasing to those who may have only a 
casual glimpse of them from the train, or to those who see them 
daily. The exterior walls are built of a specially designed block 
with air cells so arranged that moisture can not pass through. The 
blocks are strong and have been used in a wall of 8 inches thickness 
for a height of 80 feet without lateral support except from the steel 
frame. The exterior faces of the blocks are large, measuring about 
5 by 12 inches, and have a rough exterior texture. The satisfactory 
architectural appearance did not involve any additional cost ; in fact, 
the suggestions of the architectural committee actually reduced the 
cost to some extent due to the simplification of the designs. The 
practice of requiring all building designs to pass the architectural 
committee has been extended to all of the bureau's projects on ac- 
count of the success gained at the armor and projectile plants at 
South Charleston. 

It was decided in the late summer of 1918 to proceed with the con- 
struction work. Three courses were possible: Cost-plus contract, 
lump-sum contract, or day labor. Most careful thought was given 
this matter. The cost-plus form of contract was at the time in evil 
repute in the Government service as there appeared to be no way in 
which minimum cost could be assured. It must be remembered 
that at the time the rates of wages and the costs of materials were 
continually rising, and it would have been futile to expect to secure 
a contractor to prosecute the work on a lump-sum contract. The only 
course left open was to construct the work by direct employment of 
day labor. The bureau was not unmindful of the responsibility 
which it was undertaking to construct a plant under such unfavor- 
able conditions, bv dav labor, on the basis of estimator ma do in 


1912 and 1913, yet, based on the recommendation of the project 
manager, this course was recommended to the Secretary jointly by 
the Bureaus of Yards and Docks and Ordnance. Secretaiy Daniels 
showed his confidence in the naval organization b}^ approving the 
day-labor method. 

Active construction work btgan on the site in July, 1917. The 
designing force, in part, under the immediate supervision of Mr. 
Thomas Callahan, with Mr. Freeman in charge, were transferred 
gradually to Charleston to direct the construction work. Almost 
insurmountable difficulties presented themselves due to shortage of 
labor. There was almost no local labor and no vacant housing for 
imported labor. Barracks were therefore first constructed with 
messing arrangements, and labor was then brought in from distant 
points. There was a heavy turnover. 

Salvage construction plant and building material were secured 
from the Erie Forge Plant, from the new Navy Building in Wash- 
ington, and elsewhere. The armistice came while the work was in 
progress. This brought with it the opportunity to secure further 
salvage material from other points. These materials as well as 
plant were utilized to the greatest possible extent. Contracts were 
let for 50,000,000 pounds of steel framework, the gypsum of nearly 
20 acres in area, the steel sash 267,000 square feet in area, and the 
roof covering of about 20 acres, but the excavating, the concrete 
foundations, the building walls and floors, the railroad track S3'stem, 
and the distributing systems were done by day labor. 

The power problem was one of the most serious of all. Little 
data could be obtained upon which to base designs, and draftsmen 
and engineers could not be had in sufficient numbers to make the 
designs. The power-plant work was in charge of Mr. H. M, Cogan, 
electrical and mechanical engineer, reporting direct to the project 
manager. It was always the desire to have an electric generating 
station on the armor-plant property, but it developed after the armis- 
tice that the Army, in connection with the development at Nitro, 
had placed power-plant apparatus in the plant of the Virginian 
Power Co. at Cabin Creek, about 15 miles up the valle3\ This re- 
mained the property of the Army, but due to the closing of the 
Nitro project was of no further use to the Army. Accordingly a 
three-part contract was made between the Army, the Navy, and the 
Virginian Power Co., transferring the plant and necessary trans- 
mission lines to the Navy. While this was not so desirable as a 
power station on the site, it was most fortunate for the armor plant 
as it saved an investment of some $3,000,000 which the armor-plant 
appropriation could not have afforded. There are duplicate trans- 
mission lines by entirely different routes. 

Ti '1 


For operating- the forging presses a complete steam boiler plant 
was secured from the Army powder plant at Old Hickory, Tenn. 

The projectile plant w^as constructed by contract. Mr. F. D, 
AVarren, supervising engineer, was the representative of the bureau 
at South Charleston, and was the first representative of the Navy 
Department on the ground for any purpose in connection with the 
naval ordnance plant. Work was begun in August, 1917, and sub- 
stantially completed in May, 1918. The plant began operations 
under the direction of the Bureau of Ordnance in September, 1918, 
for the manufacture of 4-inch and 6-inch gun forgings, as well as air 
flasks for torpedoes, wdiile Commander J. B. Rhodes, U. S. N., 
was inspector of ordnance in charge. Capt. George R. Marvell, 
U. S. N., was inspector of ordnance in charge during the principal 
construction work on the armor plant. Mr. W. E. Hayes has been 
in charge of the cold-metal division since the beginning, and his 
advice has been invaluable. Mr. W. J. Priestley, in charge of the 
hot-metal department, came to the plant in time to be of valuable 
service in the final features of the design. 

The plant already has an order for armor for ships on the 1916 
program, construction of which Avas delayed due to the World War. 
It is fortunate that the plant is ready for service, inasmuch as the 
capacity of the civil armor-making plants is not sufficient to supply 
the demand at the present time. This is true also of large-size guns. 
It is the policy of the department not to drive the privately owned 
armor plants out of business, but to use the Government-owned 
plant as a check on what should be reasonable prices for armor and 
gun forgings, to supplement the total capacity of the country, and 
to use the Government plant for experiments in improving the manu- 
facture of armor and other forgings under the direct supervision of 
the Government. 



Necessity for additional facilities. — As the demand for storage 
space, long prior to the war, exceeded that available, the need of 
additional facilities to provide for the storage of supplies for in- 
creased shipbuilding and general industrial activity and for a far 
greater number of ships was taken account of in connection with the 
development plans begun as a result of the preparedness program 
of 1916. 

Type plans. — Studies of the needs of the yards were made, and 
type sketches for storage buildings for general supplies, lumber, 
steel, boats, etc., were worked up in consultation with a representa- 
tive of the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, and the plans for a 
typical permanent general storehouse were submitted to the various 
yards for comment. Certain specific appropriations for storage 
facilities were secured from Congress by act of March 4, 191T. 

First new general storehouses. — At the outbreak of the war the 
enormous and immediate increase in the Navy's ships, industries, 
and personnel made quick action imperative. Accordingly, allot- 
ments of funds were made by the department from the naval emer- 
gency fund to supplement the comparatively small specific appro- 
priations, and plans and specifications were prepared for large rein- 
forced-concrete general storehouses for the industrial yards and 
more important stations, such as New York, Boston, Philadelphia, 
Mare Island, Puget Sound, New London, Hampton Roads, Charles- 
ton, Pearl Harbor, and Washington. Contracts were awarded dur- 
ing 1917, in the order named, for all of these buildings. 

Fleet supply bases. — At the primary bases for operations on the 
Atlantic coast. New York and Hampton Roads, it was also neces- 
sary to provide millions of square feet of space for the storage of 
supplies for the fleet. 

The navy yard at New York providing neither the storage space 
nor the requisite room for expansion, it was necessary to look else- 
where on the water front for a location for an adequate fleet supply 
base. The requisite site was found in South Brooklyn, and the emi- 
nently successful construction operation carried through at this 



point will be discussed in some detail at another place in this 

The reasons for locating the other fleet-supply base at Hampton 
Roads were similar to those which determined the location of the 
Brooklj'n supply base — the Hampton Roads site was more to be 
preferred for operating reasons; space at the Norfolk yard was 
already restricted and needed for industrial purposes, and although 
no storage facilities were already available at Hampton Roads, the 
space and water front were more than ample for the immediate and 
future development. At this location, besides the general storehouse 
started in 1917, a large cold-storage and ice-manufacturing plant, 
various provisions for the open storage of nonperishable materials, 
and a large frame temporary storehouse were started or completed 
in 1917 and were followed in 1918 by additional large temporary 
storehouses and further provisions for open storage, and in 1919 by 
still further temporary buildings and three additional permanent 
storehouses — a six and a one story general storehouse and a three- 
story airplane storehouse. 

Teuiporaiy storage facilities. — In naval appropriation and defi- 
ciency acts passed during 1917 and 1918 Congress took account of 
the necessity of a general fund for the provision of emergency 
storage by appropriating a total of $5,700,000 under the heading 
"Temporary storage facilities. Navy." 

With this fund a number of large emergency timber storehouses 
were rapidly erected at Norfolk, Philadelphia, and New York; the 
development of the supply base at Hampton Roads was continued 
to a great extent, and a large number of storage projects of a mis- 
cellaneous character were carried out at practically all yards and 
stations of any importance, thus greatly ameliorating conditions 
but by no means affording entire relief. 

General results. — Although funds in excess of $30,000,000, granted 
under specific and general appropriations, have been expended 
for storage purposes and about 30 large permanent buildings 
and over 100 temporary and minor structures have been erected 
since 1916, providing in all 15,000,000 square feet of storage area, 
and although considerable storage space in addition was rented at 
various locations and space was used in Army supply bases, it is a 
significant fact that the need for space is still urgent at most sta- 
tions, and it is probable that practically all of the storage facilities 
installed merely as " temporary " or " emergency " projects will be 
used advantageously for many years to come. 

The foregoing figures, the following list of specific appropriations 
for storage purposes, and this chapter generally, do not cover stor- 
age for ordnance and ammunition, fuel (except emergency coal 


37022—21 21 


/-Cm dt ^l«v. t 

iQl • THoor • T^larv- 

aa--o" J. ao'o" ^ t o-Q' l M'o" J 


= GENERAL, PL^^^S • 




37022 — 21. (To face page 320.) 




depots), and fuel oil, nor medical supplies, which facilities are treated 
under other headings. 

Appropriations. — These are best presented in tabular form, as 
follows : 

Specific ui)i>ropri(itions for storage .since IDIG (not includiny ordnance, fuel, and 

medical storage). 

Date of ap- 
proval of act. 

Oct. 6, 1917 



28, 191S 

4, 1920 

Aug. 29,1910 


1, 1918 

July 11, 1919 
Aug. 29,1916 
Julv 1,1918 
June 4. 1920 
Julv 11,1919 



Mar. 4,1917 

July 1,1918 

July 1, 1918 

Julv 11,1919 

June 4, 1920 

Oct. (1.1917 







Mar. 4.1917 232 






Temporary storage fa- 




Navy yard, Portsmouth. 

Navvyard, New York.. 




Navy Yard, Philadelphia 


Na%T yard, Washington ., 

Xavv vard. Norfolk 


do ; 


Navv vard, Charleston. . . 

do 1 

Navy yard, Puget Sound. i 

Naval station, Guam ' 

.do I 

do j 

Naval station, Guanta- ' 

Naval station, Pearl 

Marine barracks, Phila- 
Naval Academy, An- 
Naval .station, Tutuila, 


Naval fuel depot, San 

Naval operating base, 
Hampton Roads. 

168 Lumber yard and storage 

229 Storage facilities 

233 Storage facilities for gasoline and 
' turpentine. 

230 Steel storage, etc 

200 Quartermaster's depot, Marine 

204 do 

208 Depot of supplies 

209 Additional land for above 

213 Pattern shop and storage 

115 Model storage 

234 Steel and luratjer storage 

244 steel storage 

241 Paint and oil storehouse 

242 Pattern shop and storage 

109 ' Storage facilities 

114 Boat storage 

220 Storage facilities 

27 do 

31 Cold storage 1 

36 Lumber shed 

14 Storage facilities 

63 Storehouse . 

4 Advance base storage... 
19 General storage building 
27 Storehouse 

30 Lumber storage 

3 S torehouse and fleet landing 

2 Cold storage 










35, 000. 00 
41, 240. 23 






80, 000. 00 

100, 000. 00 



300. 000. 00 

Emergency fueling plants. — Particularly urgent needs during the 
Avar were those for facilities for the storage of coal at the points of 
troop and supply embarkation for Europe, and for facilities for the 
fueling of ships without a moment's delay to troops or cargo. It 
will be recalled in this connection that the Navy, through the Naval 
Overseas Transportation Service, was charged with the whole opera- 
tion of transports conveying America's contribution to the western 
front. These storage and bunkering facilities and their effect in 
reducing the turnaround of transports are discussed under the head- 
ing " Emergency coal and bunkering depots." 


Some of the larger storage projects are considered of sufficient 
general and engineering interest to warrant further description, 
which is given below under " Details of design and construction " and 
" Fleet supply bases." 


Permanent general storehouses. — In connection with its studies on 
the type plans for permanent general storehouses the bureau made 
analyses of the various types of fireproof construction, namely, («) 
structural steel framework with reinforced-concrete floor slabs; {h) 
the reinforced-concrete column, girder, beam, and slab; and (c) rein- 
forced-concrete column and flat-slab construction. The outcome 
was that the last-named type, as had been expected, was found to 
be the most desirable from the standpoints of economy, speed of con- 
struction, floor headroom, and daylighting, and (together with the 
second named) more desirable and economical than steel construc- 
tion from the standpoint of fireproofing. 

The typical new general storehouse is from 4 to 11 stories in 
height, and is, as implied above, of flat-slab or " mushroom " con- 
struction, with columns spaced 20 or 21 feet on centers in both direc- 
tions. The four-way system of reinforcement was almost entirely 
used, and the design codes of the Joint Committee on Concrete and 
Reinforced Concrete, the Bureau of Yards and Docks, and the city 
of Chicago were used in various instances. 

The story heights generally used were 15 feet for the first and 
10 feet 6 inches for stories above, measured from floor to floor ; stair- 
ways are located adjacent to outside walls of buildings in fireproof 
wells; elevators are also located in fireproof wells; interior fire 
walls with automatic fire doors and automatic sprinkler sj^stems 
are provided in accordance with the best current and codified 

In the more recent of the large storehouses the elevators are ar- 
ranged in banks for the maximum efficiency in operation and routing 
of supi:>lies; the number of cars is amply proportioned to the floor 
areas served, and the size of car platforms, 9 by 18 feet, with two 
end doors of full width, adapts them to the use of storage-battery 
trucks or tractors and trailers. The usual live-load capacity is 5 
tons per car. 

The main floors are generally about 4 feet above street level and 
are provided with outside platforms to permit of trucking material 
directly into and from railroad cars or trucks. As a further aid to 
" keeping goods on wheels and moving " while in transit, ramps are 
usually provided from street to first-floor level for the use of storage- 
battery trucks, etc. 


Six-story general storehouses. Naval Opcratiug Base, Hampton Roads, Va. Buikliu^; lUl. 

Six-story general storehouses. Naval ( ti"'ia l in,:; liase, Hampton Koads. \';i. I'.uiMiii^ 1' 


General storehouse cioui>, Navy Yard. Wasliiugton. D. ('. 


of general, Navy Yard, Wa>hin„.m, P. C. ^1.--.,, ,rane service. 

sngirudmal ■ 3ecKi©n. 






37022 — 21. (To face page 324.) 

6 — it 1 ri i\ r- 

'_ 'y,. ,,.^i", .:.^"r..^i''...i'itiTi.„-..'Bi 






One-story general siurehuuse, Naval Oijerating Base, liaiii[>ion itoads. Va. 

General storehouse, Navy Yard, Puget Sound, Wasli. 


General storehouse, Navy Yard, Puget Sound, Wash. Interior view, top floor. 

General storehouse. Navy Yard, I'uget Sound, Wash. luteriui view, j^ruund Hour. 



The outside faces of the buildings consist of concrete wall columns 
and spandrel beams, hollow brick spandrel walls, and steel sash 
with heavy wire glazing. Because of the heavy loads and the 
foundation conditions existing at practically all navy yards, these 
buildings have been founded on timber or concrete piles. The illus- 
trations show typical floor plans and exteriors. 

Considerable speed was made in the construction of some of these 
buildings, notably in the case of the large general storehouses at 
the New York navy yard and at the fleet supply base, South Brook- 
lyn, both of which were constructed by the Turner Construction Co., 
of New York. The former building, the largest of any constructed, 
next to those at South Brooklyn, is 11 stories high, 180 feet Avide by 
360 feet long, with a floor area of 713,000 square feet, and it was com- 
pleted for occupancy in six and one-half months after the contract 
was signed. The two large general storehouses and two warehouses 
at the fleet supply base, containing together 2,300,000 square feet of 
storage space, were made ready for occupancy in seven and one-half 

Another type of general storehouse needed at the important yards 
and stations is a one-story building with suitable crane facilities for 
the storage and handling of heavy material, salvage material, mate- 
rial turned in from ships, etc. Large buildings of this type have 
been erected at the South Brooklyn and Hampton Roads supply 

The following table shows the principal permanent storehouses 
constructed and the more important characteristics of each : 

Permanent naval storage projects executed subsequent to the "preparedness 

act " of August 29, 1916. 


Yard or station. 

Building. ,--. 





Type of 
construction . 





Generalstorehouse 1917 





Reinforced con- 
crete (flat 
slab. 1 


fGenera'storehouse 1 ,„,;, 
t addition. / ^•'^'^ 


f 265 
\ 180 



1 385,000 


New London 

Genera storehouse. 1917 






New York 

do 1917 






South Brooklyn 

do 1918 







do 1918 







Aircraft store- 1917 





Steel, brick, etc. 


Warehouse 1918 





Timber, tile, 


do 1918 






Genera: storehouse 1917 





Reinforced con- 
crete (flat 


do.... 1918 







Aircraft store- 1918 






do 1919 







J'crinancnt naval atoirif/c projects executed sulisequcnt to the " prepai'edness 
act •' of August 29, i.'^iC— Continued. 

Yard or station. 







Number of 


Type of 


Hampton Roads. 




























Reinforced con- 
Crete (flat 





Mare Island 

Cold storage 

General storehouse 

Aircraft store- 

. do 

263 4 
614 1 

935 3 

320 4 

404 4 and base- 
104 5 

240 10 
120 :? 

Structural steel 
and tile. 

Reinforced con- 
crete (flat 


Electrical store- 
General storehouse 
... do 


Puget Sound 




General storehouse 



Crete and 
Reinforced con- 
crete (fla t 

Temporarj/ storehouses. — The temporary general storehouses 
erected are, as a rule, of one or two stories. Timber construction was 
used in most cases. Concrete ground floors were used as the material 
of lowest cost consistent with durability and ease in trucking and 
handling stores. In some instances light steel buildings of a portable 
unit type were used. 

Some of the largest of the timber buildings erected were : Hampton 
Roads, 2 structures, one story, 265 by 720 feet ; Norfolk, 2, one story, 
250 by 780 feet; Philadelphia, 3, one story, 100 by 800 feet, 90 by 800 
feet, 60 by 800 feet: Xew York, 2, two story, 100 by 175 feet; 1, two 
story, 84 by 175 feet : South Brooklyn, 2, two story, 350 by 380 feet, 
320 by 346 feet, etc. 

In most cases these structures were Aery rapidly erected. For 
instance, the 265 by 720 foot building at Hampton Roads Avas con- 
structed in 28 days from the date of authorization. 

Cold storage. — Cold-storage facilities Avere also in considerable de- 
mand, and small plants haA^e been installed at scA^eral locations. At 
the naval operating base, Hampton Roads, the need for such space, 
due to the enormous personnel and ships and stations to be supplied, 
and to the lack of available commercial facilities, made it imperatiA'e 
for the Navy to construct its own cold-storage and ice-manufacturing 

The building is 118 feet Avide by 263 feet long. The main part of 
the building, 194 feet long, is four stories high, Avith a coil loft 
additional. Each of the lower floors is divided into six longitudinal 


jwrnrifinmn — tmrr tTmir- :- . — 

Emergency storehouse. .\a\y Yai'l, riiiladi/lpliia, I'a. 

Temporary general storehouse, Navy Yard, Puget Sound, Wash. 



\l \ 


Wear €le>/c>K<Dn 

€.aa>' Qwyo^io^ 

\ licsEiRATiivQ Plant 






37022 — 21. (To face page 330.) 

r ' ■ ' • • T r r • ■ < ■[ 


n.riK twyor-crv 


""^ '?^ *? <?^ 


REFRKiEiFiAnivG Plant 




insulated compartments devoted to cold storage, the inner compart- 
]iients in general to be maintained at temperatures to 30° below 
freezing point and the outer ones to freezing or higher temperatures. 
The fourth floor is divided into 14 compartments, the 4 outer of 
which are devoted to freezer storage and the inside 10 to sharp- 
freezing compartments (zero Fahrenheit). 

A lean-to building, one story high, 69 feet long, separated from the 
main storage area by a corridor, contains the engine and compressor 
room, the freezing tanks for ice manufacture, and ice-storage space. 
The present ice-manufacturing capacity of the plant is 900,000 pounds 
l^er day, and space is provided for the addition of more units. 

The construction of the building framework is similar to that of 
the permanent general storehouses, except that windows are neces- 
sarily omitted in storage areas. All walls and partitions, roof, and 
main and fourth floors are heavily insulated with cork board, and 
refrigerator doors are used throughout the storage areas. 

Two electric elevators are provided to carry meats and provisions 
to freezing and storage rooms, and six spiral gravity chutes are pro- 
vided for carrying meats and provisions from freezing and storage 
compartments to the main floor for shipment. A monorail system 
is provided for handling meats from loading platforms to the fourth 
floor via the elevators. 

Boat storage. — Several boat-storage buildings, of various capacities 
and types of construction, have been erected. The largest of these 
was constructed for the storage of heavy and bulky general storage as 
well as of boats at the Philadelphia yard. It has a steel frame, hollow 
terra-cotta tile walls, wood roof, and concrete floor, and is 267 by 502 
feet in maximum dimensions. The main aisle is 65 feet wide, and is 
equipped with 20-ton traveling cranes; two side aisles are each 50 
feet wide, and are equipped with 10-ton traveling cranes; four 
smaller aisles, each 25 feet wide, and one of which is provided with 
5-ton bridge cranes, are located along the south side of the main aisles. 

At Mare Island a timber building 80 by 320 feet was constructed, 
with a 25-ton traveling crane, and racks for storing boats in three 

Airplane storage. — The development in naval aircraft during the 
war made necessary the installation of special storage facilities for 
airplanes and aircraft materials at certain stations. Large buildings 
have been constructed at the naval aircraft factory, Philadelphia, 
and at the supply bases at Brooklyn and Hampton Roads. 

The Hampton Eoads building is three stories in height, 168 feet 
wide by 935 feet long, with steel frame, tile walls, steel sash, rein- 
forced-concrete floors, gypsum roof slab, etc. An open aisle runs 
longitudinally through the center of the building, with a railroad 
track at the ground level, and with 10-ton crane service above third- 


floor level, so that heavy and bulky parts, crates, etc.. can be handled 
directly from cars to loadin<r platforms at the various floor levels, and 
vice versa. The two halves of the building are connected at second 
and third floors by movable transfer bridges. As at the general 
storehouses, elevators and outside platforms for loading cars and 
trucks at the first floor have been provided. 

This large building was constructed by the H. F. Friestedt Co., of 
Chicago, and was comj)leted for partial occupancy in :d)out eight 
months from the time contract was entered into. 

The South Brooklyn aircraft storehouse is also of steel construc- 
tion, of one story, with three main aisles equipped with 2.', and 5 ton 

The Philadelphia aircraft factory, including the storehouses, is dis- 
cussed in the chapter *'' Shore facilities for aviation." 

Metal storage. — At the industrial yards, in addition to the facilities 
for the storage of plates, shapes, and billets at structural shops, and 
metal, etc., at foundries (described in chapter •' Shipbuilding facili- 
ties"), a special storehouse is desirable for steel and other metal 
stock because of the difficulty of handling heavy material in store- 
houses designed for the lighter loads of general supplies, and because 
of the deterioration of metals stored in the open. The need of storage 
facilities for greatly increased stocks of metals to be carried because 
of the organization of the Pacific Fleet, following the armistice, made 
such a building a necessity at Puget Sound. The metals storehouse 
being constructed at that location is 65 feet wide by 260 feet long, and 
forms one-half of the complete project. It will be of one story, steel- 
framed, and will be equipped with 5-ton cranes spanning the Avidth of 
the building. 

A permanent metals storehouse was constructed at Boston, and 
temporary buildings for the same purpose at New York and other 

Lumher storage. — Among the many pressing ]:)roblems approached 
in 1916 was that of lumber storage. After considerable study of the 
conditions at navy yards and of the report of the then recent investi- 
gation conducted by the Forest Service of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, a type plan Avas prepared for a complete lumber stoi-age layout. 
This typical plant covered an area about 450 by 1,000 feet, provided a 
receiving and sorting shed 60 by 30 feet, an open-air storage area 
200 by 700 feet served by standard-gauge tracks and locomotive 
cranes, storage shed 188 by 500 feet, and a dry-kiln with a heated 
storage building 87 b}' 300 feet. This plan contemplated storage of 
lumber generally on skids, of concrete piers and steel rails, raised 
from the ground to allow ventilation of piles, and canted toward one 
corner to allow drainage in both directions. Adequate surface drain- 
age (and subsurface drainage, where necessary) is contemplated, with 


Partial interior view, boat and general stci-aae building, Xavy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Boat storage building (timber;. Navy Yard. Mare Island, Calif. 



Lumber-storage building No. 1022, Navy Yard, Charleston, S. C. 

Lumber-storage building No. 1078, Navy Yard, Charleston, S. C. 
37022—21 22 


Lumber-storage building, Navj' Yard, Portsmouth, N. H. 

I 11.^ iiliaiiilisc jiicrs. Naval Oiioratiu.i; ]'.:i--r. Hamilton Roads, Va. 


a view to eliminating continued dampness and consequent hazards of 
rotting infections. A fire-protection system is worked out for the 
entire area, including automatic sprinklers for buildings; standard 
and narrow gauge tracks are indicated for linking up the various 
parts of the lumber yard in order to facilitate direct receiving, trans- 
ferring, and shipi)iiig of lumber. 

While it Avas not anticipated that this plan could be followed in 
its ultimate detail in the instalhition of lumber storage at any par- 
ticular navy yard, nevertheless its preparation was considered desir- 
able as a standard guide for provisions to be made in the design of 
new plants or additions to existing ones. 

Since 1916 extensions have actually been made to a number of 
lumber storage areas and buildings at various yards and stations, 
including Portsmouth, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Norfolk, 
Washington, Charleston, Mare Island, Puget Sound, and outlying 
stations. At Philadelphia a new lumber-storage plant (including 
dry-kiln and heated and open storage) was designed and constructed 
in connection wdth the naval aircraft factory (see chapter " Shore 
facilities for aviation''). 

Early in 1918 the congestion in lumber storage at Norfolk had be- 
come so great that it was neccssar}" to secure space for this purpose 
outside the yard. Accordingly a tract on the Elizabeth Kiver 
adjoining the navy 3'ard was secured, and over 80 acres of this land 
were developed during the summer and fall of 1918. This emer- 
gency development (knoAA-n as the "' lumber annex " to the naA^y yard) 
included clearing, grading, and drainage operations in addition to 
the construction of the required lumber bearers, 10 sheds (six 40 by 
400 feet, tAvo 70 by 400 feet, and tAvo 250 by TTO feet), about 6 miles 
of standard-gauge railroad track, and 1| miles of road. Storage was 
thus proAided for Avhat Avas said to be one of the largest stocks of 
lumber in the Avorld. 

Freight sheds and piers. — Another important part of the modern 
storage development planned for most of the larger yards is a shed 
for receiving and shipping miscellaneous 3'ard freight. In some in- 
stances a special freight pier is also contemplated to preA'ent con- 
gestion of industrial water-front facilities and to expedite the han- 
dling of supplies, loading of supply ships, etc. 

At the ISIare Island yard a freight shed has long been an urgent 
need, Avhich need was greatly augmented on account of the war and 
the expansion of the Pacific Fleet. To meet this need a frame build- 
ing has been erected on the AAater front at the A'ard terminus of the 
causeAvay connecting A'ard and mainland — a location admirably suited 
for receiving and shipping by water, rail, or truck. The part of this 
building at present constructed is 50 feet wide by 300 feet long. It 


is set at right angles to the water front, with a railroad track along 
each of the long sides. The floor is 4 feet above track grade for 
convenience in trucking freight, and an adjustable inclined apron, 
with truck escalator, is provided at the quay wall for unloading from 
boats. This building is described because embodying the essential 
features of the more elaborate freight shed project proposed for the 
large navy yards. 

Although urgently needed, no piers have been especially con- 
structed for freight and merchandise handling except the two new 
125 by 1,400 foot piers at the Hampton Roads supply station de- 
scribed hereinafter. 


South BrooJdyn, X. Y.^ — The spring of 1917, with the Navy at war, 
developed man}^ gigantic problems, among which was the purchase, 
assembling, and storing of upwards of $100,000,000 worth of mer- 
chandise covering some 30,000 different items. The Bureau of Sup- 
jilies and Accounts were charged with the procurement of these sup- 
plies, and it was the duty of the Bureau of Yards and Docks to pro- 
vide adequate facilities to insure the assembling and storing of these 
purchases in the most efficient manner. 

An inspection of the principal ports where supj^lies were to be as- 
sembled, namely, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and 
Norfolk, developed the fact that the facilities at the disposal of supply 
officers there were of an obsolete tj'pe. It would appear that when a 
building was not fitted to be used for any otlier purpose, it was ad- 
judged fit for the storage of merchandise and forthwith turned over to 
the supply officer. Hence, at the beginning of the war the storage 
Avarehouses to be found at navy yards and naval stations were not de- 
signed for the business that was being conducted in them. 

Operating under war emergencies the correction of these condi- 
tions was extremely difficult, and in a great many cases impossible. 
The bureau, however, began a study of the situation immediately, 
going into the nature of the various commodities that were purchased, 
stored, and distributed, and taking into consideration the points from 
Avhich these commodities were assembled, and also whether they 
arrived by rail or water. This study developed that it was necessary 
to purchase one, two, and even three j^ears' supplies at one time of 
certain commodities, as the source of supply was rapidly being 
exhausted by the purchases of our allies in this country. The far- 
reaching Ijencfits from such foresight may be judged when it is 
recalled that the Navy increased its personnel from 65,000 to over 
half a million in 18 months. 

'Contributed by Cogiraander E. S. Nugent (C. E. C), U. S. N. R. F., (inactive), formerly 
projVft managor. 





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The bureau ordered a scientific study with the object of devel- 
oping permanent, efficient supply depots with a full complement of 
railroad facilities, up-to-date water fronts, and the most modern 
handling devices. New York and Norfolk were decided upon as 
locations for the two major operations. About the 1st of December, 

1917, a board, consisting of the representatives of Operations, Sup- 
plies and Accounts, and Yards and Docks, proceeded to New York 
to survey and report conditions facing the supply officer in that port 
in so far as storage space and transportation facilities were concerned. 

There had just been completed at this time over half gi million 
square feet of storage space at the New York yard. There was also 
constructed, under construction, or under lease nearly a million 
square feet of temporary storage space in the vicinity of the yard. 
A site in South Brooklyn adjacent to the terminal warehouse of the 
Bush Co. had already been selected and a tract of land taken over 
from the city of New York. The first buildings constructed were 
on this city property and were of temporary character, built of 
timber, each two stories in height, and 319 by 346 feet and 380 by 
450 feet in plan, respectively. They were completed late in 1917. 
A building of the American Can Co. had been taken over for use as 
a naval clothing factory, as had also been one other factory build- 
ing in the immediate neighborhood. The large New York City pier 
at the end of Thirty-fifth Street was taken over by the Navy for 
loading purposes. 

It developed that these facilities were not even halfway meeting 
the requirements. With the Navy going at top speed in the year 

1918, the report of the board set forth the urgent need of 3,000,000 
square feet of fireproof permanent storage space properly equipped 
to handle upward of 100,000 tons a month in and out. The weight, 
number of cubic feet to store, the necessary equipment to handle 
in and out of stores, the nature and volume of each commodity for 
each month in the year as handled by the supply officer were all 
determined by the representative of the bureau, as was also the dis- 
tribution to be made from the port of New York, not only overseas 
but to other points on the Atlantic coast. The source of the supply 
from which these commodities would flow, the method by which they 
would be transported to the storehouses, and the points to which they 
would be issued seemed to control the location of a central and dis- 
tributing storage station, which afterwards came into being as the 
Fleet Supply Base, South Brooklyn, N. Y. 

To create the transit facilities, both rail and water, which would 
have been necessary to insure the efficient operation of a plant of this 
magnitude would have been both impracticable and extravagant 
as a war emergency. It was therefore de ided to tie in with the 
large industrial storage terminal already operating with a full 


equipment of piers, railroad facilities, motor trucks, and general 
traffic arrangements. 

An additional site was purchased on the northerly end of the Bush 
Terminals. The land purchased was served by the Bush Indus- 
trial Eailroad, seven large Bush Terminal piers, and five modern 
piers of the city of New York ; two of the latter, including the Thirty- 
fifth Street pier, were retained from the city for exclusive naval use. 
With the above complement of piers and railroad facilities the land 
purchased by the IS'^avy, with the several acres (adjacent to the city 
piers) which were acquired under lease for the period of the war 
and one jenr thereafter, it was possible to design and construct build- 
ings destined to meet the requirements of the supply officers in the 
port of New York. The buildings were fitted to the business that was 
to be conducted in them rather than trying to fit the business to the 

Working in conjunction with the Bureau of Supplies and Ac- 
counts, the representative of Yards and Docks was able to lay out 
the entire amount of merchandise to be stored. It developed that a 
great manj^ commodities required ground-floor storage, the average 
being far in excess of supplies that could be stored on the upper 
floors of a building. With it clearly established what amount of 
ground-floor space would be needed, and the amount of upper-floor 
space that could be utilized, the problem began to take some definite 
shape. It was at this point decided to construct on the land leased 
from the city of New York only one-story buildings of a semifire- 
proof nature, and eight-story fireproof buildings of a permanent na- 
ture on the land purchased. 

The design of the one-story buildings presented quite a problem. 
They were designed to handle shipments arriving by both rail and 
water, and departing in the same manner, some individual packages 
weighing as much as 30 tons. The floors of these warehouses M^ere 
designed on a 4-foot slope from Second Avenue to the marginal way 
separating warehouses and piers. Freight cars could thus be un- 
loaded at the Second Avenue end with their floors level with the 
warehouse floor, which was, in effect, an enormous ramp assisting the 
trucking of supplies downhill to the piers. The two remaining sides 
of each building would be well adapted to the transfer of merchan- 
dise b}'^ horse-drawn or motor trucks, the floor being situated at any 
convenient level according to the door approached. 

In the design of the two eight-story buildings, which were to be 
TOO by 200 feet, it was necessary to consider that war conditions 
would not always prevail, and that the space required by the New 
York supply officer would materially shrink with the coming of 
peace. Hence the reason for the tAvo different types of eight-story 


buildings. One, a U-shaped building, was eventually to be used for 
manufacturing purposes, more particularly the manufacture of cloth- 
ing for the Navy. Every modern equipment for elevating, lowering, 
conveying, or transporting merchandise was investigated and con- 
sidered in the design of these buildings. It has been said that since 
these buildings have been under operation a carload of nails in kegs 
was unloaded at the freight platform, transported to and stored on 
the eighth floor, in the short period of 40 minutes. 

The thought carried out in the design of this storage terminal 
was to avoid the handling of merchandise from one conveyance to 
another, from the time it arrived at the buildings to be stored until 
it actually left the premises for its final destination. 

There was available, in close proximity to the site selected for the 
fleet supply base, the largest plant in the world producing sand and 
gravel for building purposes. Representatives of the bureau visited 
this plant and practically commandeered its output to be used in 
the construction of the base. There were also operating along the 
banks of the Hudson River large cement mills. With these two 
sources of supply in mind, deliveries to be made from each by water, 
thereby avoiding congestion and embargoes almost continuous in the 
port of New \ ork during the war period, it was recommended and 
adopted that the major portion of the plant be constructed of rein- 
forced concrete. 

A contract was awarded the Turner Construction Co., of New York 
City, on a cost-plus-a-fixed-fee basis, and a representative of the 
bureau turned over to the company the preliminary studies which 
had been made, and he, together with the engineers of the contractor, 
and other engineers employed from time to time, whipped the plans 
into sufficient shape to permit the work to start 21 daj^s after au- 
thority for the supply base had been secured from the Secretary of 
the Navy. 

The 8-story buildings are of flat-slab design, of the same type of 
construction as the other permanent general storehouses described 
herein. The equipment of the larger of these buildings includes 2 
passenger and 21 freight elevators, and in addition 3 automatic ele- 
vating and lowering convej^ors ("lowerators"). 

The Turner contract also included the two 1-story semipermanent 
buildings above mentioned, designated as warehouses W-1 and W-2 ; 
a 3,000-horsepower permanent power plant and building ; a railroad 
system and classification 3^ard, including over 10 miles of track; and 
two float bridges to permit of deliver}^ and shipment of cars and 
material by water as well as by land. Warehouses W-1 and W-2 
are of timber and hollow-tile construction. 300 by 355 feet and 355 
by 361 feet, respectively, and are located on the city property. 


In addition to the buildings mentioned above, a permanent 1-story 
steel-frame brick and tile aircraft storehouse, 300 by 382 feet, was 
constructed on the city tract early in 1918. This building is pro- 
vided with 5 and 2^ ton crane service and railroad facilities. 

Exceedingly rapid time was made by the Turner Co. in the con- 
struction necessary to place the bulk of the supply base in operation. 
The two large 8-story permanent storehouses S-1 and S-2 were made 
ready for occupancy in seven and one-half months, and the power 
house was i^ut in operation within five months of the time its con- 
struction was authorized. The Degnon Contracting Co., of New 
York, and the Austin Co., of Cleveland, Ohio, also made record time 
in the construction of the temporary buildings A and B and the 
aircraft storehouse, respectively. 

The total expenditures for the fleet supply base amounted to ap- 
proximately $12,000,000. The cost of the two 8-story concrete store- 
houses was approximately $2,771,000 and $2,623,000, respectively. 
Warehouses W-1 and W-2 cost approximately $214,000 and $295,000, 
respectively. The power plant, furnishing power to all of the units, 
cost approximately $572,000. The auxiliary construction, namely, 
railroad tracks, distributing systems, garage, Marine Corps barracks, 
office building, float bridges, fire-alarm system, etc., brought the 
grand total of expenditures up to the $12,000,000 figure. 

Hampton Roads, Va. — A general description of the development 
oC the great naval operating base, Hampton Roads, has been includec' 
in another chapter. Among the earlier projects undertaken at the 
base, in 1917, were the 6-story reinforced-concrete general storehouse, 
of the type already described, and the cold-storage warehouse, also 
described in some detail earlier in this chapter. Besides these two 
permanent buildings, seven large temporary buildings (two 265 by 
720 feet, two 100 by 700 feet, two 45 by 160^feet, and one 115 and 45 
by 350 feet) were completed during 1917 and 1918, and various open- 
storage facilities were provided for such materials as nets, chain, 
mines, etc. During 1919 and 1920, the need not having decreased, 
and it being desirable to replace much rented storage space by Navy 
buildings, the development of this fleet supply station was continued 
by the construction of additional permanent buildings — an additional 
6-story reinforced-concrete general storehouse, 118 by 442 feet; a 
1-story general storehouse, 170 by 614 feet; and a 3-story airplane 
storehouse, 168 by 935 feet. (The latter two buildings are also de- 
scribed hereinbefore.) In addition a light steel building, 58 by 998 
feet, was shipped from the Ford shipbuilding plant at Detroit, Mich., 
where it was no longer needed, and reerected as three buildings, two 
396 feet long and one 196 feet long. 

Two merchandise piers, 125 feet wide by 1,400 feet long, for berth- 
ing, loading, and unloading supply ships, barges, etc., have been 



Fleet supply station group, Naval Operating Base, Hampton Roads, Va. 


Electiical storehousi 

Mare Island, Calif. 

Advance-base storehouse for Marine Corps, Navy Yard, riiiladLl|iliia, I'a. 


provided opposite the supply station. These piers are of creosoted- 
timber construction and are provided Avith a transit shed 67 feet 
wide and 1,192 feet long. Eailroad tracks are located on one side 
of the pier and ramps for loading barges and small boats on the 
other side. 

The auxiliary improvements at the supply station include about 
9 miles of railroad track, several miles of concrete and timber roads, 
sewers, water, and steam and electric distributing lines. 



Xecessity. — ^To prevent a recurrence of the experience of the winter 
of 1917-18, when the shortage of coal on the east coast was so acute 
as seriously to cripple shipping out of the ports, and to provide 
against a shortage due to a possible blockade in rail transportation to 
tidewater points, a policy was formulated early in 1918 whereby 
emergency storage depots for coal were to be established at the prin- 
cipal ports. In order to guard against the possibility of interruption 
in the great flow of material and troops from any of the principal 
ports under the severest winter conditions, with the demand for coal 
at a maximum, five points were selected for the collection of these 
reserve supplies of coal, namely, Boston, New York, Baltimore, 
Hampton Roads, and Charleston. Mr. L. H, Sinclair, of the bureau, 
had engineering charge of the projects, which were under the general 
supervision of Commander C. D. Thurber (C. E. C), U. S. N. 

Constable liooh^ N. J. {'port of Neio York). — The first port to be 
provided with such a reserve storage depot was New York, where a 
site was selected at Constable Hook, near Bayonne, N. J., at the 
terminal of the Lehigh Valley Eailroad. This depot was authorized 
by the Secretary of the Navy under date of May 6, 1918; and the 
Bureau of Yards and Docks, cooperating with the Bureau of Sup- 
plies and Accounts, began active development on June 5, 1918, 

On the site selected there had already been constructed by the 
Bethlehem Steel Co. an ore-unloading dock, fitted with two ore- 
unloading cranes, one of the Meacle-Morrison type and one of the 
Hulette type. The purpose of this construction was to unload 
Chilean ore for use in the blast furnaces at Steelton and other 
points. This plant was taken over under Navy order, and suffi- 
cient land immediately adjacent to the pier, owned by the Lehigh 
Valley Eailroad, was also taken. A contract was awarded the 
Guarantee Construction Co. on June 5, 1918, and on July 9, 1,000 feet 
of timber trestle, with the necessary ground tracks, had been con- 
structed and the first collier had started to unload, thus beginning 
the collection of a reserve of coal for this port. 


The original contract with the Guarantee Co. contemphited the 
construction of sufficient trestle and oround tracks to store 250,000 
tons of coal. This was added to from time to time until sufficient 
trestle had been built to store 700.000 tons of coal. Part of the stor- 
age was subaqueous, but all was within reach of 15-ton locomotive 
cranes operating from ground tracks or trestle, a provision particu- 
larly necessary in case of fire. 

Considerable difficulties were experienced in obtaining material for 
the construction of this plant, inasmuch as all of the lumber had to 
be obtained from Texas. As this lumber was of such sizes as were 
being used for the construction of wooden ships, priorities had to be 
obtained in order to secure it, and expediters had to be placed on in- 
dividual shipments to insure its delivery at Kew York. At the close 
of the contract there was available a storage depot of 700,000 tons 
capacity, equipped with twelve 15-ton locomotive cranes, four 50-ton 
locomotives, and fifty 20-yard side-dump standard-gauge railroad 
cars. The coal from the plant was discharged over a dumping trestle 
into barges, which were towed to the embarkation piers at Hoboken, 
and the coal was there loaded on transports and other vessels re- 
quiring it. 

The cost of the construction of this plant complete, including all 
equipment, etc., was $1,011,175. 

Boston, Mass. — The second port to be considered was Boston, and 
under order of the Secretary of the Navy, dated June 17, 1918, ar- 
rangements were made for the storage of 60,000 tons of coal on land 
owned by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and located adjacent 
to an existing coal plant operated by the Metropolitan Coal Co. of 
the city of Boston. The plant constructed at this location consisted 
of a cableway trestle, approximatel}^ 600 feet long, running parallel 
and being connected wath the cableway trestle of the Metropolitan 
Coal Co. The coal w^as received over that company's receiving towers 
and cableway at the trestle constructed hy the Navy, and there 
dumped and spread by locomotive cranes operating on the ground. 
The coal Avas reclaimed b}^ locomotive cranes and dumped into barges 
from an elevated trestle constructed on an existing pier belonging to 
the CommouAvealth of Massachusetts. 

There were provided at this plant duplicate driving motors, elec- 
trically driven, for service in case the steam-driven cable motors of 
the Metropolitan Coal Co. should fail, electric current being obtained 
from the city of Boston. The equipment of the plant consisted of 
two 15-ton locomotive cranes, one 50-ton locomotive, and twelve 20- 
yard side-dump standard-gauge railroad cars, with the necessary 
clamshell buckets for cranes. 

The total cost of the plant, including equipment, was $2-43,170. 

Charleston^ S. C. — After the Boston plant had been well started, 
attention was given to Charleston. S. C, and. under Operations 


Hulette unloader, Emergency Fuel Depot, Constable Hook, N. J. 

Mead-Moi-rison coal unloader, Emergency Fuel Depot, Constable Hook, N. J. 


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jnstable Hook, N. J. 

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Dclivir.N -ii '■■•■n 10 barge, Kinergoncy Fuel Depot. < ,,ii,i;i; i^ Hook, N. J. 


order of July 16, 1918, arrangements were made Avith the Southern 
Railway for the use of a plot of ground adjacent to their classifica- 
tion yards and lying immediately inshore from their coal-dumping 
apparatus on the Cooper Eiver. The location of this plot of ground 
was approximately halfway between the city of Charleston and the 
navy jurd, where it would insure an adequate coal supply for trans- 
ports and overseas vessels departing from the Army depot at North 

A contract was entered into with the Charleston Engineering Co. 
for the construction of a trestle, with the necessary ground tracks, 
for the storage of 200,000 tons of coal. Use was made of one of the 
classification tracks of the Southern Eailway and of a portion of the 
lands of the Maybank J^'ertilizer Co. and the Kennerty estate. This 
land was all leased for a period of years. The equipment consisted 
of four locomotive cranes with the necessary clamshell buckets, cars 
for the transportation of coal from the depot to the coal dumper 
being furnished by the Southern Railway at a price agreed upon. 

The total cost of the Charleston plant, including equipment, was 

Baltimore^ Md. — Baltimore was next given consideration on ac- 
count of the increased volume of shipping leaving this port, on ac- 
count of the congested conditions existing at New York, Phila- 
delphia, and Hampton Roads, and on account of the construction of 
an Army supply depot at Curtis Bay. This plant was constructed 
under order of the Secretary of the Navy dated August 14, 1918, and 
arrangements were made with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad for 
use of a plot of ground adjacent to their Fairfield classification yard, 
near Curtis Bay, Md. The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad undertook 
the receipt of coal from this plant for handling to barges over their 
coal tipples at Curtis Bay. 

A contract was entered into with the Piel - Construction Co., of 
Baltimore, Md., for the construction of a trestle, with the necessary 
auxiliary construction, for the storage of 200,000 tons of coal. Con- 
siderable difficulty was experienced in the construction of this plant, 
due to the lack of water both for construction work and for supply 
to locomotives and personnel. To overcome this handicap a contract 
was made as a supplement to the original for the driving of a 200- 
foot well on the property. Work was progressing very satisfactorily 
on this plant when the signing of the armistice brought construction 
work to a close. Construction work was canceled at this time, all 
of the material salvaged, and the site turned back to the owners. 

In all of the cases described above it is to be borne in mind that 
these plants were established as emergency fuel reserves, the coal 

37022—21 ^23 


not to be used except when current sources of suppl}' failed. The}' 
ilhistrate in a striking manner the mobilization of vast, and some- 
times inactive, resources demanded by war conditions. As a matter 
of fact, the coal reserves established as above were hardly touched, 
affording a sharp contrast with the plants to be dealt with in the 
following section. 


Necessity. — The most literal and direct contribution of the Bu- 
reau of Yards and Docks to the prosecution of the actual fighting 
on the western front was made as the result of a peculiar situation 
of comparativeW late development. 

Throughout the course of the war the Naval Overseas Transporta- 
tion Service of the Office of Naval Operations had been operating all 
United States transports to and from the war zone W'ith phenomenal 
success at all times. Coaling of such vessels was a necessary part of 
their operation, and this feature was taken care of by the N. O. T. S. 
at the ports of embarkation, utilizing commercial facilities which 
would normally remain outside the cognizance of the Bureau of 
Yards and Docks. 

It is a matter of common note, however, that a large proportion of 
the American transportation endeavor was concentrated on the 
maximum utilization of the German shipping Avhich had been in- 
terned in United States ports since 1914 and converted to American 
use following our declaration of war. Kapid bunkering of these ves- 
sels became a problem as the peak of the war effort was approached. 
The}' had formerly been coaled in German or other ports equipped to 
meet their special requirements. The transports of the Mount Ver- 
non, George Washington, and De Kalh type were fitted with small 
ports near the water line, through which all of their bunker coal had 
to be obtained. There w\as little equipment at our ports of the char- 
acter and capacity required to supply such coal readily to these ships, 
a condition which materially dela5'ed the turnaround of transports 
on this side and to that extent abated the effectiveness of our par- 
ticipation in the war. 

It Avas to remedy this situation at the princii)al ports of embarka- 
tion for men and materials that the Bureau of Yards and Docks was 
called upon as the agency of naval shore construction to assist the 
Naval Overseas Transportation Service in rushing the troops and 
supplies to France. 

Hampton Roads and Neicport Neivs, Va. — On January 10, 1918, 
representatives of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the Bureau 
of Supplies and Accounts visited Hampton Roads with a view to 
iletermining what arrangements could be made to increase the 
bunkering capacity of this port. After consultation Avith the chief 


Be Mayo elevator installation at Bunkering Donot. Pier 4. Lamberts Point, Va. 

Mitchner elevators, stream fueling barge, and escalade in operation at Bunkering Depot. 
Pier 4. Lamberts Point, Va. 


Derricks for supporting De Mayo elevators. Bunkering Depot. Newport News. V;i. 

De Mayo elevators in operation al I'.uiiL. i in;; iKput, Newport News, \'a. 


engineer of the Norfolk & AVestern Railroad, the officials of that 
railroad decided that they could release Pier No. 4 of their coaling 
docks for use by the Navy, and arrangements were made to install 
coaling gear on this pier for delivering coal to the side-ported ships. 

After consultation with representatives of the Chesapeake & Ohio 
Railroad, arrangements were made with them for the use of Pier No. 
10, at Newport News, provided the Army, which was then using the 
pier, would allow the Navy to install coaling gear for use in bunker- 
ing transports. The Army officials at the port of embarkation were 
interviewed, and they decided to release the south side of the pier 
in question, whereupon arrangements were made for the installation 
of derricks for handling coaling gear. The type of equipment used 
on these piers was similar to that in use in New York Harbor by the 
De Mayo Coaling Co. and installed on the piers of the International 
Mercantile Marine in the Chelsea district. After considerable nego- 
tiation, the De Mayo Coaling Co. agreed to release their drawings 
and patterns for this equipment, and after numerous conferences the 
Bureau of Construction and Repair took over the manufacture of 
the same. The De Mayo equipment consisted essentially of a self- 
contained bucket conveyer, electrically driven, with special handling 

Pier No. 4, located at Lamberts Point, was remodeled to take seven 
of these De Mayo elevators resting vertically on the apron- of the 
pier. Hoppers were located inboard from the elevators so that coal 
could be dumped from the upper deck of the pier through the hop- 
pers to the bases of the De Mayo elevators; from thence it was ele- 
vated and delivered to the side ports of the ships through cylindrical 
chutes approximately 16 inches in diameter. Pier No. 10 at Newport 
News was equipped with derricks, six in number, of 10-ton capacity, 
for handling the De Mayo elevators. In this case elevators were 
suspended vertically from the ends of the booms and allowed to 
reach down to the coal in barges, the elevator lifting the coal and 
delivering it through cylindrical chutes to the side-ported ships, as at 
Lamberts Point. 

For coaling the offshore side of the ship, the Mitchener elevator, 
drawings an4 pattern of which were obtained from the Coast Coal- 
ing Co., was used, the machines being manufactured under the in- 
spection of the Bureau of Construction and Repair by the Wellman- 
Seaver-Morgan Co. These machines are self-contained units of the 
bucket conveyer type, and were suspended from the outside of the 
ship, obtaining coal from barges lying alongside. The capacity of 
both the Mitchener and the De Mayo elevators was approximately 
T5 tons each per hour. On both the Lamberts Point and Newport 
News Piers electrical equipment was installed to operate the motors 
of the conveyers, current being delivered in each case at high alter- 


nating-ciirrent voltage to motor-generators installed on the piers, 
where the current was converted to 110 volts, direct current. All of 
the electrical equipment, including motor-generators and distributing 
sj^stems, w^as installed bv James Stewart & Co., of New York. This 
company also i)erformed the work of strengthening the pier at Lam- 
berts Point and the erection of the derricks at Newport News, all the 
:d)ove operations being undertaken as an extra under the contract for 
the construction of bulkheads and piers at the naval operating ])ase, 
Hampton lioads, Xn. 

In addition to the electrical system and wharf construction, there 
Avere constructed at Lamberts Point an office and dormitory building 
for the operators of the coaling equipment, and motor-generator 
house inshore from the pier; and at Newport New^s a barracks build- 
ing, motor-generator house, tool house, and office building. 

In order to allow the largest transports to berth at both Lamberts 
Point and NeAvport News, considerable dredging was necessary, 
which dredging was done under contracts with the Norfolk Dredg- 
ing Co. and JSIorris & Cummings. Another feature of these bunker- 
ing depots was the prejDaration of berths so that transports could be 
coaled during all kinds of w^eather. The Eoads in front of the New- 
port News Pier during the winter months are generally choppy, and 
the fueling barges had difficulty in operating continuously. Berths 
were provided b}' driving dolphins under shelter of the shore line to 
the south of Pier No. 12 at Newport News, thereby affording a quiet 
harbor for coaling operations at any time. By the installation of 
this coaling equipment for bunkering the special type of ships, the 
time of turnaround of transports in Norfolk Harbor was materiallj^ 

The total cost of the work at Lamberts Point and Newport News 
was approximately $75,000 — an insignificant expenditure for the 
result produced. 

Uohohen^ N . J. — In view of the successful operation of this equip- 
ment at Norfolk, it was decided to seek relief in the same manner at 
the port of embarkation, Hoboken, N. J. The Army during the 
progress of the war had taken over for this purpose the six piers 
comprising the terminal of the Hamburg-American and North Ger- 
man Lloyd Lines at Hoboken. These piers were designed originally 
to make use of equipment of the De Mayo Coaling Co., and the prob- 
lem before the Navy was to furnish and install such machinery. 
Some of the comi)any's equipment was commandeered for the purpose, 
and additional derricks and electrical equipment were installed on 
Pier No. 4. The first installation involved the construction of 18 
derricks on the north and south sides of Pier No. 4 and the north 
side of Pier No. 5. Electrical equipment was available on the piers 


for a iDortion of this machinery. It was later seen that it would be 
necessary to equip all of the piers similarly, including Pier No. 1 
of the Holland-American Line, which pier had also been taken over 
by the Army for embarkation purposes. 

Upon the decision to equip these piers with coaling apparatus, it 
became necessary to increase the electrical facilities of all of them. 
This involved a considerable amount of work, in that a transmission 
line had to be constructed from the Palisades substation of the 
Public Service Corporation of New Jersey and a substation had to be 
installed at the piers for the conversion of the high-voltage current. 
The equipment of this substation consisted of two 1,000-kilowatt 
rotary converters and one 500-kilowatt motor-generator set, with the 
necessary transformers and switchboard equipment. There were 
constructed in addition to this two motor-generator houses, each 
housing one 300-kilowatt set for delivering current to the extreme 
north and south piers. An additional feature of the electrical work 
was the installation of outlets on all of the piers, so that the trans- 
ports when loading troops and cargo could shut down their dynamos 
and take current for lighting and power from the piers direct, thereby 
enabling repairs to be made while the work of loading was going on. 
The work of equipping these piers as above described was divided 
into four contracts : One, for the installation of derricks on all the 
piers, with the O'Eourke Construction Co., for $95,477; one, for the 
transmission line from the Palisades substation to Hoboken, with the 
Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, for $30,700 ; one, for the 
construction of the substation, with George Fearon & Co., for 
$19,400; and one. for the electrical equipment, with Harry Alexan- 
der (Inc.), for $-274,695, making a total cost for all these piers of 
approximately $420,000. The furnishing of all of the coaling equip- 
ment, that is, the Mitchener and De Mayo elevators, with the stream 
fueling barges, hoisting equipment, etc., was under the cognizance 
of the Bureaus of Supplies and Accounts and Construction and Re- 
pair, the Bureau of Yards and Docks constructing only that portion 
of the work that was fixed to the piers. Upon the completion of the 
electrical equipment and the delivery of the mechanical equipment, 
transports could be loaded with coal at the same time that troops and 
cargo were being put aboard, thereby decreasing considerably the 
time of turnaround of the transports in New York Harbor, and con- 
sequently materially assisting in expediting the movement of troops 
and materials to Europe. 

The Hoboken project was undertaken in June, 1918, and the facili- 
ties provided were put to use as each unit became available The 
whole installation was complete and in full operation by October, 


Lighting. — All of the emergency fuel depots and bunl^ering de- 
pots were thoroughly equipped with flood lighting systems, so that 
operation could proceed both day and night. In some cases portable 
acetylene lights were used, and in the case of the Constable Hook 
depot the locomotive cranes were each equipped with high-power 
seachlights, so that the operator would at all times have a flood light 
on his individual operation ; in all other cases the flood light system 
was so arranged as to cover the whole plant during the hours of 

Appropriations. — The bunkering depots at Newport News and 
Lamberts Point (Hampton Eoads) were constructed from funds 
under the cognizance of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, appro- 
priation " Contingent." All the other fuel and bunkering depots 
above described were provided under allotments from the appropria- 
tion " Fuel and transportation, Navy." 


The gradual reduction in the supply of petroleum from wells in 
the United States had led to the recommendation by the General 
Board of the Navy before we entered the war that large facilities for 
the storage of fuel oil be constructed at various points along the coasts 
in order that there might be provided and held in reserve an adequate 
supply, which would presumably be secured from the Mexican oil 
fields. The construction of this storage was not considered a war 
project, but it was deemed of sufficient importance to be carried on 
during the war. The general scheme of storage which was adopted 
consists of groups of reinforced-concrete tanks, rectangular in plan, 
and placed underground, such tanks being particularly suitable for 
the storage of oils of low specific gravity, which the Mexican fields 
afford. Such oils require heating for easy and rapid handling, and 
the plants are accordingly equipped with apparatus for raising the 
temperature of the oil to a degree which will increase its fluidity. 
Steam coils are also installed in the reservoirs in order that the 
temperature of the oil may be maintained at at least 70° F., and 
provision is made for cooling it to 105° F. or less before it is placed 
on board the ship, this being required because of the fact that it is 
inadvisable to store hot oil on vessels carrying supplies of high 

So far as funds would allow, the fuel-oil stations were provided 
with fire-protection systems, using a foaming mixture which forms a 
blanket of bubbles of carbon dioxide gas over the surface of the oil 
in case of fire, all automatically controlled by thermostats. 

As the Navy has not abandoned the use of steel tanks for the 
storage of fuel oil and gasoline, the bureau has also constructed a 
certain amount of storage of that type. 

The first of the new storage plants to be placed under construction 
was that at the naval station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. This station 
thus acquired an additional storage capacity of 6,000,000 gallons of 
fuel oil in two concrete reservoirs. Owing to the diversion of ship- 
ping, the contractor had very considerable difficulty in getting mate- 
rials from the States to the station. The other storage plants which 
were constructed were located at the naval fuel depot, Melville, R. I., 
where there were constructed two reservoirs with a total capacity of 



5.000,000 gallons: nt the iiavv yard. Pu<ret Sound, with two reser- 
voirs having a total capacity of 9.800,000 gallons; at the naval fuel 
depot, San Diego. Calif,, with one reserA'oir of a capacity of 2,100,000 
gallons; at the naval station. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, with one reser- 
voir with a capacity of 7,800,000 gallons ; and at the naval fuel depot, 
Yorktown, Va., where there were constructed eight reservoirs with a 
combined capacity of 30,000,000 gallons. The reservoir at Pearl 
Harbor was built b}^ station labor, while all the others were con- 
structed under contract. 

The naval fuel depot at Yorktown is a new one, established pri- 
marily- for the purpose of storing in one place a large reserve of fuel 
oil. When the work w^as started no facilities whatever were available, 
and it was necessary first to build a pier out to deep water. The 
York River is very shoal for a long distance out from shore at this 
point, and a wharf 2,160 feet long was necessary. It was found that 
at the outer end, where the depth is sufficient to permit large ships 
to come alongside, the bottom is very soft, and the use of spliced piles 
was necessary. The difficulties to be overcome were considerable, but 
the wharf was completed and was ready for the installation of the 
oil pipe line in ample time. 

The fuel-oil storage plants which have been described above were 
not considered of great urgency, as it was not exi^ected that they 
would be used during the World AVar. The bureau was called upon, 
however, to establish a certain amount of fuel-oil storage in France 
for the use of the naval forces operating in European waters. The 
first intimation that the bureau had that such storage would be re- 
quired was contained in a dispatch from Admiral Sims December 5, 
1917, in which he asked for .five 4,000-ton tanks to be installed at 
Brest. This was followed by a dispatch recommending the taking 
over of the French fuel-oil stations at Brest, Furt, LaPallice, and 
L'Orient, Avhich was approved by the Secretary of the Navy. There 
were three 7,000-ton steel tanks at the Xorfolk Navy Yard, which 
had been erected, but had never been filled with oil, and upon receipt 
of Admiral Sims's dispatch a message was forwarded asking if 
these tanks would not be satisfactory in place of the five smaller 
ones requested. A favorable reply being received, the bureau pro- 
ceeded immediately to disassemble these tanks, arranging with the 
supply officer at the Norfolk yard to attend to the shipment. At the 
same time requisitions were prepared for other tanks, as follows: 
Two 560-ton tanks for oil and one 150-ton tank for gasoline for in- 
stallation at Brest, and nine 3,500-ton fuel-oil tanks, three each to 
be installed at the stations of Furt, LaPallice, and L'Orient, as 
recommended by Admiral Sims. 

The three large tanks at Norfolk were taken down promptly and 
were shipped abroad in March, 1918. The securing of the 12 smaller 


tanks for Avhich requisition had been prepared was somewhat de- 
layed, as the contractor for them deliberately held up the work of 
fabrication on the nine large ones, raising one question after another 
as to the interpretation of specifications, etc., until on April 23, 1918, 
the contract was annulled. The bureau then set about locating 
Morks where the nine oil tanks could be fabricated quickly, and as a 
result two contracts were made four days later, on April 27, one for 
four tanks and the other for five. 

In order to connect up the new tanks at the stations mentioned 
above and to increase the handling capacities, a considerable quan- 
tity of piping, valves, and fittings and a number of new pumps were 
required. A list of these was received from Admiral Sims on Feb- 
ruary 2, 1918, and requisitions covering them were issued on Feb- 
ruary 5, February 11, and February 18. On March 12 a request 
was received for two additional pumps at Brest, and a few days later 
the bureau located suitable equipment and issued requisitions to 
cover it. 

All of the material described above which was purchased on requi- 
sition was delivered at the navy yard, Philadelphia, for transship- 
ment to France. Considerable difficulty was found in obtaining cargo 
space for it, as priorities had been established on Navy transports, 
which provided that first choice should be given to ordnance, followed 
by radio material, the fuel-oil equipment having to take any space 
which might then be left. 

The coordination of bureau activities with the demands of the 
war is well illustrated by the history of these fuel-oil projects as 
they actually took shape on French soil under the direction of offi- 
cers of the Corps of Civil Engineers. The following personal ac- 
count is supplied by one of these officers, Lieut. C. P. Conrad 
(C. E. C), U. S. N. (resigned) : 

The fuel-oil tanks constructed at Brest were of great strategic importance to 
the Navy, as tliey made it possible to double the number of destroyers based on 
Brest and thus to double the protection given to transports and store ships 
against submarine attack. 

The French oil depot had two tanks of 1,000 tons each and two of 2,500 tons 
each, a total capacity of 7,000 tons. Since this was less than the cargo of one 
modern transatlantic tanker, these vessels did not come direct to Brest, but 
went to England, Brest being supplied through the British Admiralty by small 
tankers. It early became evident that our needs could not be supplied in this 
way and that additional storage must be provided at Brest. 

In December, 1917, word was received by the force commander that three 
tanks of 7,000 tons capacity each were available at a navy yard in the United 
States,' and could be knocked down for shipment to Brest if space could be 
found to erect them there. The situation was explained to the French, who 
offered us a triangular tract in the dockyard, back of their oil station, on a 
narrow strip of made ground fronting on the inner harbor. This location made 

• Norfolk ; see above. 


it imperative to observe all precautions against fire and overflow. Our pre- 
liuiinary calculations showed that the tanks with necessary basins around 
them could be fitted into the parcel by placing them partly in excavation. 
Request to ship the tanks was cabled to Washington, and the French set about 
to prepare the foundations. 

The cliaracteristics of the made ground rendered it necessary to carry tliese 
to bedrock, 15 to 25 feet below. Wooden piles could not be used, as the French 
wanted a permanent structure. Material was not obtainable for reinforced 
concrete piles, so the French proposed to construct the foundation slab of con- 
crete 3 feet thick, supported on five concentric masonry walls extending to rock. 
The contractors who had just finished two 800 by 120 foot dry docks near by 
and still had their equipment on the ground were invited to bid. They sub- 
mitted reasonable unit' prices for the work, but wanted 10 months' time. 

We then found a site in an unused quarry on the hillside back of the French 
tanks, and about 90 feet above high tide, where our tanks could be placed 
directly on the ground with earth embankments around them. This setting 
seemed to us more rapid and economical than that on the flat below, but the 
French were unalterably opposed to it. They did not want us to set the tanks 
outside the dockyard, and did not want us to block a quarry which would be 
used again when harbor-improvement work was resumed. They induced the 
contractors to cut down the time to four months for completing the first founda- 
tion, and then after communicating with Paris made it clear that they would 
withdraw their cooperation unless we accepted the site first offered. Four 
months was the minimum time in which we could expect the tanks to arrive, 
so the dockyard site was adopted and work started on the foundation on Janu- 
ary 14, 1918.' 

The contractors used a gigantic endless-chain bucket excavator, of the type 
the French left us at Panama, to remove the earth down to bedrock over the 
entire area of the foundations. Then they built up the five concentric masonry 
walls to elevation — 12 feet below ground and backfilled between them, bring- 
ing the earth to a crown in each annular space. A concrete slab was then 
placed over all, having a minimum thickness of 3 feet over the earth crowns. 
This concrete was laid dry and rammed into place, but remained porous. It 
was mixed by dumping a small car of mortar, made in a batch mixer similar 
to our concrete mixers, into a tremie with two cars of dry crushed rock. As 
the mortar and the rock dropped together through the 16-foot tremie they were 
more or less perfectly mixed by fixed bars within this cylinder. The strength 
of this concrete was never tested, as the factor of safety in the design seemed 
to be large enough to take care of any weakness in the materials. 

The masonry walls forming the basin were carried to a height of 10 feet 
above ground, and between adjacent tanks the division wall was made 3 feet 
higher than the top of the tanks " to prevent the spread of fire from one basin 
to another should the tanks explode." 

The contractors stipulated in signing the contract that labor nuist be pro- 
cured for them by the Government. Common labor was imported from Spain, 
and German prisoners were successfully used as masons, as the local supply of 
labor had been exhausted by French military and industrial needs. 

The foundation work made good progress, the first basin being 75 per cent 
complete when we received word in April that the tanks had been shipped. 
Machinist La Tourette, U. S. N. R. F., arrived about May 1 to take charge of 
erection and we collected the scattered force that had been sent over for this 
work. Most of the men had come in an aviation draft, without ratings to desig- 

* Tanks were shipped in March ; see above. 


luite theiu, and had been assigned as seamen to various air stations. When a 
call was sent out for them commanding officers were loath to give them up, as 
they were tlie most valuable men on the stations for construction that was going 
on everywhere at that time. Erecting equipment for tank work had been ordered 
with that for high-power radio construction, but at the time the Brest tanks were 
built no American equipment was available. Fortunately ship construction was 
not active in the French yard and we were able to borrow and have made there 
the tools we needed. An air line of pipe borrowed from the naval air station, lie 
Tudy, was laid a distance of 1,700 feet from the compressors that were to serve 
the new French dry docks. Wire-wound air hose was our greatest lack, and 
fortunately a shipment of 1,000 feet came in for the Prometheus at this time, 
and Capt. 3Lyou allowed us to keep half of it. 

Fortune^favored us in a much bigger way, for the transport bringing the 
plates, aft#', it struck a rock at the entrance of Mengam Channel, was safely 
brought aloagside the dock and unloaded. 

The contl'actors completed the first foundation on time, May 14, 1918. The 
first bottom was fitted and bolted May 23, when Admiral Wilson drove the first 
rivet. The top ring of this tank was completed June 15, and a waiting tanker 
immediately pumped her oil in. The roof was riveted with the tank full of oil, 
resulting in unsavory baths for two of the buckers-up. This gang of 90 men 
continued work day and night uutil the three tanks were entirely completed, 
September 15, 1918, increasing the storage at Brest to 28,000 tons, or four times 
the capacity of the French depot. Additional pumps and distribution pipe to 
fuel 15 destroyers in six hours had also been ordered but were not received in 
Brest until after the armistice. 

Nine tanks of 3,500 tons capacity each were ordered to be placed, three at 
1. 'Orient, three at La Pallice, and three in the Gironde River at Furt. Com- 
plete pumping equipment and distribution systems were also ordered for these 
stations. The tanks arrived about September 1,^ and active work was in prog- 
ress at all three stations when the armistice came. The French Navy agreed 
to take over the material for L'Orient and La Pallice, but requested that erec- 
tion be stopped as the tanks might be more useful to them elsewhere. The tanks 
at Furt were completed and sold to the French oil company owning the land 

The French Navy very willingly took over the tanks at Brest, and although 
ihere had been no previous agreement to that effect assumed the entire cost 
of the foundations and agreed to pay the United States Navy for the tanks at 
the same price i>er ton as their tanks had cost them in 1914. By this agree- 
ment the French assumed 78 per cent and we 22 per cent of the war-time cost 
of tanks built for our own needs. 

' Contract let for fabrication Apr. 27 ; see above. 


As the naval radio stations are operated by the Bureau of Engi- 
neering, the initiation of new radio projects rests with that bureau. 
The design and construction .of all public works relating to them, 
however, are handled by the Bureau of Yards and Docks, which ac- 
cordingly, when requested to do so. has designed and constructed 
many new stations, as well as additions to the facilities of existing 
ones, the work covering self-supporting towers, varA'ing in height 
from 150 to 820 feet, guyed masts, operating buildings, power houses, 
quarters, barracks, water and sewerage systems, fences, and flood 

The new high-power radio stations at San Diego, Calif., Cavite, 
P. I., and Pearl Harbor. Hawaii, were placed in commission about 
the time that the United States entered the war. At each of these 
stations the installation consisted of three 600-foot triangular self- 
supporting steel towers with the necessary buildings, these stations 
forming units of a chain of high-power stations capable of long- 
distance communication. While this chain would have been extended 
in an}" event, the Avork was considerably expedited on account of the 
needs which arose for uninterrupted communication during the war. 
In October, 1917, the bureau awarded contracts for towers and 
buildings for a high-power station at Cayey, Porto Rico. The towers 
are three in number and are 600 feet high, all of the standard design 
adopted by the bureau for such structures. 

Shortly after our entrance into the war it was decided that a new 
high-power station should be constructed at Annapolis, and in 
November, 1917, the bureau entered into a contract for four 600-foot 
towers, to be constructed on Greenbury Point, across the Severn 
River from the Naval Academy. At the same time the construction 
of an operating building, quarters, barracks, wharf, water-supply 
system, fence, and all other public works necessary to a complete 
station was undertaken, and the work pushed in every possible way. 
The winter of 1917-18 was a severe one, and the erection of high 
steel towers was a most difficult operation, owing to the snow and 
sleet which covered the steel. The station was completed, however, 
during the summer of 1918. and the first message was sent to France 



early in September. At the time of its completion the Annapolis 
station was the most powerful one in the United States, with the 
exception of the one at Xew Brunswick, N. J., and was one of the 
most powerful in the world. 

In January. 1918, plans were completed and a contract let for the 
fabrication of the steel towers for the mammoth transatlantic 
radio station to be erected at Croix d'Hins, France. This great 
project is reserved for a special description, appended at the end of 
the present chapter, from the pens of the civil engineer officers in 
charge of construction at that station prior and subsequent to the 

In addition to the high-power radio stations which have been de- 
scribed briefly above, a considerable number of installations of 
towers and buildings for radio stations of more moderate power were 
constructed. Among these may be noted, the two 300-foot towers 
with operating building and quarters at the navy yard, Philadelphia, 
which were completed in August, 1917; the addition of one 300-foot 
tower to the two existing ones at the navy yard, Charleston ; the two 
200-foot steel towers at St. Thomas, Virgin Islands ; the erection of 
two masts at Port au Prince, Haiti; and the construction of bar- 
racks, operators' quarters, and Marine Corps quarters at the receiv- 
ing station, Bar Harbor, Me. The addition of these structures at 
the latter station was of great importance, as Bar Harbor was used 
for the receipt of all messages from abroad. 

Another project of comparatively small importance but of some 
interest was the station established on Navassa Island in the West 
Indies, where the existing lighthouse was made to serve as one of the 
masts, and a wooden spar 65 feet long was secured for the other. 
This spar was obtained from the Norfolk Navy Yard and was hur- 
riedly forwarded by one of the ships of the Panama Railroad Steam- 
ship Co. As the steamer makes no stop at Navassa, where there is no 
suitable landing, instructions were given that the spar be thrown over- 
board while passing the island, in order that the men quartered there 
might pick it up and tow it ashore. 

In addition to the foregoing, tlie bureau carried through a large 
number of minor projects at Charleston, S. C ; New Orleans, La.; 
Keyport, Wash,; Seward, Alaska; Key West, Fla.; Portland, Me.: 
Portsmouth, N. H. ; North Truro, Mass.; and St. Augustine, Fla. 

After negotiations had been handled through the State Depart- 
ment the bureau prepared drawings and requisition for twenty 
200-foot and four 300-foot self-supporting steel towers for the 
Cuban Government. These towers were fabricated in the United 
States and shipped to Cuba. 



Historical. — As the number of American troops in France increased it became 
apparent during the latter part of 1917 that the capacity of existing means 
of transatlantic communication might be taxed beyond their maximum capacity 
by the constantly increasing volume of messages. Added to this condition was 
tlie ever-present possiliility that communication by cable might be hampered, 
if not entirely suspended, by the operation of enemy submarines, and that trans- 
atlantic radio communication might be similarly affected by aerial attack or 
by Interference from powerful radio installations in enemy territory. Gen. 
I'ershing requested as a war measure that immediate steps be taken to provide 
means of communication that would assure freedom from such risks, and 
accordingly the decision was taken to erect at some point in France a radic- 
station that could be relied upon to transmit messages across the Atlantic under 
any and all conditions that could be foreseen, including attempted hostile 
interference by radio. 

Because of conditions created by the war, it was evident that the radio 
apiJaratus and the towers would have to be supplied by the United States, and 
on account of the special nature of the entire equipment as planned it was 
obvious that the installation and erection could best be performed by American 

Inasmuch as radio matters in the United States were handled exclusively by 
the Navy during the war, and for the additional reason that the Navy had had 
extensive experience with the construction and operation of high-power radio 
installations, the work of designing, fabricating, installing, and erecting the 
radio apparatus and supporting towers was intrusted to the Navy Department, 
the bureaus concerned being those of Steam Engineering, which had cognizance 
of the general features of the design and radio characteristics of the station, and 
Yards and Docks, in charge of the design and erection of the towers and 
of the public-works features in general. 

The French Government objected to the presence of a force of civilians 
working under a contractor, on the double ground of the discontent that might 
be engendered by the comparatively high wages that such civilians w^ould 
enjoy and the difficulty of exercising adequate military control over such a 
contractor and his employees. It was accordingly decided that the whole 
operation in France should be executed by a military force. 

The loftiest radio towers theretofore built by the Navy Department were 
600 feet in height, but for the reasons already stated it was decided that those 
for the new station in France should be 820 feet high. The Bureau of Yards 
and Docks at once began the design of the unprecedentedly high self-supporting 
towers, and by strenuous work was able to make a contract in January, 1918, 
for the fabrication of the towers and their delivery at the navy yard, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., for transshipment overseas. The work in the bureau's drafting 
room included not only the general design but also the elaboration of all shop 
details, in the interest of saving all possible time in the letting of the contract 
and the fabrication of the work ; and it is greatly to the credit of the bureau's 
designers and draftsmen in this instance that not only has the general design 
of the towers been the subject of most favorable comment by noted French 
engineers who have visited the site during and after erection of the steel, and 
who have scrutinized the design quite closely, but also that there was sub- 

> Contributed by Commander F. H. Cooke (C. E. C), U. S. N., in charge of construction 
at this station up to the date of the armistice. 

37022—21-- — 24 


stantially no difficulty experienced in the erection of the towers attributable 
to errors in detail dimensions, despite the high pi'essure under which the 
design was prepared and the great speed with which it was accomplished. 

After extended conferences between American and French radio experts, it 
was decided that the station should be provided with eight towers arranged in 
two parallel rows of four each, the towers being set on the centers of 400-meter 
squares, the rectangle formed by the centers of the end towers being thus 400 
by 1,200 meters, or 1,312 by 3,937 feet. 

The site selected for the station was the little French country village of 
Croix d' Hins, in the Province of Gironde, about 14 miles southwest of 
Bordeaux. The station was known unofficially as the Liberty radio station until 
the name Lafayette was assigned by the President. 

Preparatory icork. — The design of the towers having been completed and the 
contract placed for the delivery of the fabricated material, it was next neces- 
sary to procure the equipment for erecting the towers and housing for the per- 
sonnel to be sent to the station. The force itself had to be assembled. It 
was ascertained that it \AOuld be necessary to construct a self-contained encamp- 
ment, which, in view of its isolation and the distance from the excitement of 
the fighting, ought to be in extent and completeness greatly superior to an ordi- 
nary construction camp, for the sake of creating and maintaining contentment 
and efficiency in the personnel. The outcome was a camp which, it is believed,, 
was imsurpassed in its provisions for comfort and recreation, and the time and 
labor exjiended on it were amply justified by its results in morale. 

Taking into account the pressing need of the utmost dispatch in putting 
the station in operating condition, the bureau ordered erection equipment on 
a most liberal scale. The program for the erection contemplated work on all 
eight towers simultaneously, and equipment was ordered and personnel assem- 
bled on this basis. 

Included in the erection equipment were motor-driven hoists in considerable 
number. Comparatively late in the placing of these orders, it was learned 
that electric current would not be available at the site before a prohibitively 
late date, and, inasmuch as the hoists had been ordered on information from 
France to the contrary effect, material had to be ordered for a 15-mile high- 
tension power-transmission line to be installed by the radio detachment as an 
additional item. 

The collective height of the eight towers at this station is 6,560 feet, as 
compared with the 1,800 feet of the ordinary three-tower navy radio statior 
and with 2,400 feet at the Annapolis station. The erection of high radio towers 
calls for expert work, and accordingly a force of approximately 150 skilled ste(;l 
erectors were enrolled in the Naval Resen^e Force especially for this job. in 
addition to approximately 450 men in a wide variety of ratings for .service other 
than work aloft on the towers. A number of officers were enrolled in the Naval 
Reserve Force for the paramount duty of supervising and directing the work of 
the steel erectors, and the rapid progress of erection on the first four towers 
was directly due to the efficient work of these officers and men, without whose 
skill the elaborate and extensive erection equipment would have been of but 
little avail, particularly in view of the dizzy height at which most of the work 
had to be done. 

Included in the personnel especially detailed were an electrical engineer and 
a force of experienced linemen, whose expeditious construction of the power- 
transmission line quickly provided llie camp with light and the erectors with 

37022—21. (To face page -AGS.) 


The station's organizatiou included a supply department, upon whose efforts 
depended the highly satisfactory messing and canteen service, in addition to that 
department's ordinary functions of handling and accounting for material. 
There was also a complete hospital unit, including an officer of the Dental 
Corps. Recreational and amusement features were very successfully admin- 
istered by the chaplain and other oflicers on the station. 

The camp. — The first contingent of oflicers and men arrived in France in 
April, 1918, and the officers charged with the construction of the camp and the 
erection of the towers made their first inspection of the site on April 29. 
This site is a large clearing, about 1 mile wide by 3 miles long, in the midst 
of the pine forests that cover a large part of the flat country of southwestern 
France. The site is practically level, and the soil is a fine sand of indefinite 
depth. At the time of this examination the effect of the winter rains was 
still apparent, the ground being saturated and the surface covered with stand- 
ing water in considerable areas. The drainage system consisted of several 
wide and comparatively shallow ditches traversing the site and leading to a 
small stream some miles away, and it was at once apparent that the sanitation 
of the camp would require careful treatment. 

On account of the comparatively late date at which portable buildings and 
their appurtenances had been ordered, authority had been obtained to divert 
a number of portable buildings from the aviation stock already in France for 
use in beginning the construction camp. The first shipment of these borrowed 
houses arrived at Croix d'Hins on May 28. The first draft of enlisted men, 
about 30 in number, arrived on tlie 29th, and were quartered temporarily in 
a French "Adrian " barrack that fortunately was at the site. This barrack 
was very kindly loaned to the Americans by the French contractor for the 
tower foundations, after extensive inquiry in Bordeaux and Pauillac had de- 
veloped the impossibility of obtaining any tents from either the American 
Army or Navy, or from the French. 

Emergency messing acconnnodations for this first contingent had also to be 
made, -and after an unsatisfactory experience with a wayside restaurauteur, 
sufficient galley and mess equipment were improvised to set up independent sub- 
sistence arrangements of a temporary kind. 

These first days were very rough by contrast witli the later period after the 
camp was finished. Later drafts were received directly into well-ventilated 
electric-lighted barracks, where they slept on comfortable cots, with more than 
the officially prescribed air volume per man. They messed at clean, comfort- 
able tables in cheerfully lighted, well-ventilated mess halls, and obtained their 
food fresh and hot from steam tables supplied by a large galley plentifully 
equipped with the most modern American facilities. 

In the early days the problem of water supply was peiplexing. The local 
wells were at once condemned by tlie sanitary officers, and for a number of 
weel^s the water used for drinking and cooking was hauled from Bordeaux 
in a tank wagon borrowed from the Ainny, whose leakage was at first a serious 
factor in the camp's activities. Water could be had by digging holes almost 
anywhere to a depth of about 5 feet, but this was not suitable for drinking 
or cooking, nor was it obtainable in any quantity for other purposes. Never- 
theless it was the only recourse for bathing, and, until better facilities were 
installed, it was bailed out in cans and so used. Tlie contrast between this 
process and the luxury of the hot and cold showers and modern plumbing 
subsequently placed was very striking. 


When the first contingent arrived at Croix d'Hins there was a Froneh-built 
raih-oad siding connecting with the main line of the Midi Kailroad, but extend- 
ing only a short distance into the site. The only means for propelling the cars 
within the site was by man power, supplemented at times by a team of horses, 
hired from a near-by farmer, and the work of unloading material and erecting 
the camp was frequently interrupted by a call for all hands to push the freight 
cars. The French contractor for the tower foundations was also receiving 
considerable material, and inasmuch as the railroad wye was not then built, 
frequent perplexing problems arose as well as some arguments between the 
Americans and the French as to the right of way on the single track. After 
scouring Bordeaux and vicinity an old " Sotteville " locomotive, built before the 
Franco-Prussian war, was located at a small railroad station outside the city, 
and was hired by the Americans. Its advent at the station was hailed with 
delight by both the French and Americans, wliose enthusiasm was evidenced 
by the respective pseudonyms liy which the two nationalities designated it. 
Its performance might, in general, be characterized as " temperamental," but by 
dint of careful handling and judicious repairs it was made to play an invalu- 
able part up to the arrival of the efiicient new American switching locomotive 
in September, 1918. 

The problem of a permanent water supply remained unsolved luitil those in 
charge of the camp were directed to the out-of-the-way shop of an elderly 
Bordeaux citizen, who was the patentee of a successful system for extracting 
a continuous flow of water from the sand strata of the region. A contract was 
made with him for one well to supply at least 10 cubic meters per hour, and 
after considerable delay in obtaining the requisite materials, he began oper- 
ations. His efforts were watched with considerable solicitude, and the relief 
was great when he struck a copious flow of water at a depth of 32 feet below 
the surface. In the meanwhile, pending the arrival of the 12,000-gallon tank 
and steel tower, ordered in the States, a 3,500-gallon tank had fortunately been 
found at a winery some miles from Bordeaux and had been set up on 12-foot 
posts in anticipation of the striking of water. A gasoline-driven i)ump, of 
limited capacity, was borrowed from the well contractor, and did service for 
many weeks. This temporary installation wrought an inunediate and welcome 
change in bathing facilities for the personnel, inadequate as were the pump and 
piping installed, and it was not long until the first permanent bathhouse, with 
heating apparatus, was completed and supplied from this source. 

Later on another well was sunk, and by means of two electrically-driven 
pumps, obtained from the Army at Tours, and by piping obtained from the 
States, or borrowed from sundry French localities, an adequate supply of potable 
water was piped to all parts of the camp, with fire hydrants and hose at 
various points — all in striking contrast to the water wagon lumbering and 
splashing its course along the weary miles and the shallow pools of uninviting 
water at the bottom of holes in the ground. 

On account of the flatness of the site and the general condition of saturation 
to be expected when the winter rains should begin, and to meet the require- 
ments of sanitation and decency, two septic tanks were built alongside the 
main drainage ditch that has been referred to. The drainage from the camp 
was led to these tanks by a system of sewers built above ground, as only by 
these means could it bo assured that the tanks would not be flooded in winter. 
Winters in this part of France are characterized by chilly and rainy weather 
rather than by low temperature, and no trouble was experienced in either of 
the winters during which the sewer system functioned from flooding or freez- 
ing, nor has there been any trouble from the sanitary standpoint. 


The completed camp is indicated on tlie .-iccompanying layout map, ligure 1, 
and comprised the following buildings : 

Square feet. 

20 barracks 42,620 

Mess hall and galley 9,655 

Officers' quarters 4, 700 

Four latrines 4, 400 

Recreation building 5, 200 

Refrigerator building 700 

Laundry 4, 300 

Two administration buildings 4,300 

Six storehouses 14, 215 

Sick bay and hospital 3,700 

Canteen, carpenter shop, electrical storehouse and office, guardhouse, 
pump house, boiler house, garage, tool house 5, 467 

Total 97, 757 

In addition to the foregoing buildings there were constructed a motor- 
generator house and an assembly and repair shop, aggregating 8,193 square 
feet, and also engine houses at the towers and A^arious sheds. The procure- 
ment of the material for all of these buildings and their appurtenances and their 
delivery at the site required a great deal of work. For example, it was neces- 
sary to run trains of trucks and trailers a distance of some 50 miles to obtain 
lumber from an American lumbering camp in the pine woods ; it was necessary 
to set up a service of motor trucks between a quarry and the railroad station 
at Dax, about 80 miles from Croix d'Hins, to obtain stone for road construc- 
tion ; it was necessai-y to go to Tours with a long list of needed materials, 
most of which was supplied from the A. E. F. depot at Gievx-es, some 40 miles 
from Tours; the A. B. F. establishments at Bassens and St. Sulpice, on the 
opposite side of the river from Bordeaux were continually solicited for mate- 
rials, as was the Navy aviation base at Pauillac; and in addition there was a 
constant combing of French sources of supply, sadly depleted by the war condi- 
tions. The outcome of all this was a ci:nip which, it is believed, was not sur- 
passed anywhere in France in completeness and comfort, and the thanks of 
all who enjoyed these comforts are due, in great measure, to the helpful coop- 
eration of the Army and Navy organizations in France, and to the French 
authorities who did all they could to assist the enterprise. 

No account of the Croix d'Hins camp is complete without favorable allusion 
to the recreation building. AVhatever expense was entailed by its ei-ection and 
adequate functioning was more than repaid in the contentment and genuine 
enthusiasm it served to inspire. Its effectiveness was reflected in the whole 
spirit in which the job was attacked ; and the officer in charge of the comple- 
tion of the towers, after the suspension of work following the armistice, has 
voiced the opinion that an outlay of .$10,000 on the recreation building and 
amusement facilities would have been justified and would have paid large 
returns in maintained efficiency. 

Tr(ins)nission line. — As finally built, the transmission line constructed by the 
Americans was about 11 miles in length, and supplied current at 11,500 volts, 
three-phase, which was transformed at Croix d'Hins to 2,200 volts by a bank 
of three single-phase transformers, and again transformed to 220 volts direct 
current and 110 volts alternating current by motor-generators and secondary 
transformers, for power and light, respectively. The route traversed pine 
forests, country roads, and private grounds, and in its final form was the result 
of a great deal of scouting and forest ranging on the one hand ; of negotiation 
with French landowners and officials on the other. Shortage of materials and 
breakdown of transformers diversified the geographical and linguistic problems 


from fiuie to time, but the work was carried to a successful conclusion by 
untirinfr and persistent effort, and the camp burst into a blaze of light on the 
night of September 3, 191S. At first the current was shut off at 10 p. m. from 
the French station in the outskirts of Boi'deaux. but before long authority was 
obtained for all-night service, Avhich continued to the end of the work. 

Although six steam hoists had been provided in addition to the electric hoists, 
the latter were used exclusively in the completion of erection after the armi- 
stice; the average daily rate of consumption of power was 120 kilowatts, the 
maximum for any one hour being 300 kilowatts. 

Tower foundations. — The design and construction of the fouiulutions for the 
main towers were handled entirely by the French. These foundations are of an 
unusual type, consisting essentially of a reinforced concrete disk about 40 feet 
in diameter at substantially the surface of the ground, supported by 28 j)i"ecast 
concrete piles driven to refusal, and surmounted by a central pedestal 12 feet 
high and approximately 8^ feet in diameter, braced to the bottom disk by in- 
clined reiuforced-concrete buttresses. The steel shoes for the tower columns 
rest in recesses formed in the top of th(; pedestals, susbequently filled with con- 
crete. Figure 6 gives a good idea of these foundations. 

Tower erection.— The individual towers are made up of 2G panels, panel points 
A to Z, inclusive, as shown in figure 2. They are triangular in ])lan, 820 feet 
high, 220 feet center to center of columns at base, 105 feet center to center of 
columns at panel point F, 215 feet above the base, and 9 feet 8* inches center to 
center at the top, panel point Z. The tops of the foundations are about 12 feet 
above the surface of the ground, and above panel point Z there is a steel topmast 
18 feet high, thus the extreme top of the steel is 850 feet above ground. The 
weight of each tower is substantially 560 tons. 

The general scheme of erection devised by the Bureau of Yards and Docks 
and followed in the field contemplated erection to panel point G by means of an 
" erection tower " supporting three 120-foot steel booms, one for each leg of the 
main tower, stepped at panel point N. Each of these booms was provided with 
its own hoist, and since the program contemplated erection of the lower part of 
four towers and the upper part of four others simultaneously, it is obvious that 
very extensive erection gear was required. This equipment was designed and 
ordered by the bureau, at a cost of approximately $450,000. Its extent and cost 
were fully justified by the need for the most expeditious erection possible, and 
the expectation of speed was realized when tower erection began. 

Panels J to P of each main tower were utilized as erection towers, l)eing 
supix>rted for this puri)ose on specially built concrete foundations. Figure 3 
shows an erection tower in process of construction. The first two panels of the 
first erection towers were put in place by the steel gin pole provided as part of 
the erection equipment, the pole being supported on the ground during this 
operation ; later on, when locomotive cranes were available, these two panels 
were erected by the cranes. The remaining panels were erected by the steel 
gin pole suspended and operated in the same manner as Its subsequent use in 
the main tower; this was not only expeditious but useful in training the per- 
sonnel in the use of the suspended gin pole. Figure 4 shows a completely 
erected and equipped erection tower in use in erecting the lower part of a main 

The .scheme of erection contemplated the use of the gin pole alone from panel 
point G to the top, the length and weight of gin pole being reduced as the height 
of erected steel increased. This program was successfully carried out by the 
force that completed t)ie erection of the towers when work was resimied after 
the armistice. Figure 5 gives ;i good idea of this jpliasc of the ei'ectioii. 



Fig. 2. — Lafayette Radio Station. Individual tower witli 
panel points indicated. 


Fin. 3.-Lnfnyptto Radio Station. Erection tower in process of construction. 


Reference to figure 4 will show that the three main tower legs were supported 
during erection by guys. Although the trussed struts at panel point D were de- 
signed to take erection stresses in the absence of all guys, the guys were kept 
in place until the trussing at panel point F was erected, under which conditions 
the " portal " or lower 215 feet of the tower is fully self-supporting. Figure 4 
shows the erection of the D-trusses in a single lift. 

There was a great deal of difficulty experienced in making the necessary ar- 
rangements for the transportation of the fabricated structural steel and heavy 
erection equipment to Croix d'Hins from the point of discharge of vessels. 
This difficmlty, though less accentuated, existed with respect to all materials 
brought to the station. The war had greatly depleted the rolling stock avail- 
able, and the denrands from the fighting front from time to time reduced cars 
to almost nil. Docking facilities were hard to get, as the port of Bordeaux is 
limited in this respect, and the requisite combination of docking facilities and 
transportation from dock to Croix d'Hins was very difficult to attain. It was 
only by dint of constant activity and frequent conferences with French and 
American officials, including a strenuous day spent among the offices of the 
vai'ious ministries at Paris, that dockage and cars were obtained and materials 
unloaded and shipped to Croix d'Hins, and this battle had to be fought prac- 
tically every time a ship carrying radio material was due in port. The hazards 
of transatlantic transportation at this time are exemplified by the fact that one 
ship containing more than 1,000 tons of tower steel, or substantially 25 per 
cent of the total, comprising parts of seven of the eight towers, was narrowly 
missed by a torpedo fired by an enemy submarine off the west coast of France. 
If this torpedo had hit its mark, Armistice Day would have seen but little struc- 
tural steel erected. 

The erection-tower steel arrived at the station after a great deal of other 
steel had been delivered and sorted, and it was not until October 4, 1918, that 
the erection of the first erection tower began, but so thorough and complete was 
the preliminary work by the tower-erection force that erection of the main 
towers began early in Novemher ; towers 1 and 2 were completed to panel point 
F during the week ended December 7, 1918. and towers 3 and 4 to the same 
point during the week ended December 16. 

Among the items of preliminary work referred to may be cited the completion 
of "dead-men" (nine per tower for all eight towers), the construction of en- 
gine houses and setting up of hoists, both steam and electric, the provision of 
electric power and compressed air at all parts of the work, the construction 
of an assembly and repair shop, served by two 6-ton stiff-leg steel derricks bor- 
rowed from the Army at Bassens, the construction of spur tracks to serve the 
site of each tower, and the construction of foundations for the erection towers 
for the first four towers. 

A healthy spirit of competition was fostered among the gangs erecting the 
respective towers. No one was killed, and there were but one or two serious 
injuries. The rapidity and certainty of the erection is most complimentary to 
all concerned, but particularly to the designers in the bureau and the officer? 
and men composing the tower-erection force. If this force had not been espe- 
cially recruited for this particular work, there would have been a very different 
tale to tell. 

Noveml)er 11, 1918. found erection in progress on the first four main towers. 
The military necessity for early completion of the station having ceased to 
exist, it was decided to carry the erection of the first four towers to a iwint 
where they would be self-supporting in all conditions of weather, and to sus- 
pend erection pending further decision. Accordingly, towers 1 to 4, inclusive, 
were carried to panel point F, all loose erection gear was sent down and stowed. 


and all made snuj;' and secure until such time as erection should be resumed. 
The bulk of enlisted and enrolled personnel and most of the officers were re- 
turned to the United States in January, February, and March, 1919. 

Post-armistice erection.^ — Construction having been stopped, the French War 
Department, after some consideration, expressed its desire to have the work 
continued as an after-war project ; but being unable to procure French labor 
sufficiently skilled in such work to insure speedy and economical completion, re- 
quested the United States Navy Department to complete the station for the 
French Government. With this request the United States Government com- 
plied and, on May 4, 1919, work was recommenced with the date of completion 
of the towers fixed as January 14, 1920. All work, with the exception of paint- 
ing, which was delayed on account of rain, was completed on December 1, 1919, 
44 days ahead of contract time. Figure 7 is a view of the completed project. 

Camp and personnel notes. — The actual camp construction work was under- 
taken, all preliminary work and 25 per cent of steel erection completed prior to 
December, 1918, by enlisted personnel of the regular and reserve forces of the 
Navy. It is believed that never before has a project of such magnitude and 
unusual chai'acter been undertaken by any naval service, and the rapidity with 
which the work progressed and the excellent character of the work done 
remain a testimonial to the marked efficiency which the United States Navy had 
developed prior to the close of the Great War. When work was recommenced 
after the conclusion of the war, it was considered an injustice to the enlisted 
personnel of the Navy to expect it to continue the work at the enlisted rate of 
pay, especially as the military necessity for the station no longer remained, and, 
accordingly, the Navy Department let the completion of the work by contract 
to the Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Co. By the conditions of its contract the 
Navy Department furnished everything necessary for the work with the excep- 
tion of labor. This included transportation of employees to and from France, 
food and housing for employees, office space, and all equipment and material. 

It is interesting to note the accommodations furnished the workmen. Owing 
to the isolated location of the station and the belief that contentment spells 
efliciency, every effort was made by the naval authorities to take care of the 
men properly. The results obtained may well serve as an example for others 
engaged in similar work in a foreign country. Space in the Navy standard 
portable barracks, which are light and airy, well ventilated, and easily heated 
in winter, was provided at the rate of 500 cubic feet per man. A substantial 
iron cot with good springs, mattress, four sheets, and two pillow cases was given 
each man. Foremen were assigned to separate barracks with double space. 
Superintendents aJid office force were quartered in officers' barracks. Two 
medical officers and one dental officer were provided and furnished their serv- 
ices to all without charge. A dry canteen where Navy standard shoes and 
clothing (uniforms excepted), candies, sweets, tobacco, soap, and other neces- 
sary articles might be bought, was run by the Government without profit. A 
branch post office where money orders might be purchased was established. 
Excellent me.sses for foremen and workmen were maintained and run by the 
Government without cost to the employees. The food served was the Navy 
standard ration somewhat altered to meet the requirements of steel workers. 
These messes were models of cleanliness and were up to date in every respect. 
They were run on the cafeteria system and all modern culinary apparatus was 
provided to insure success. When it is realized that 400 men were served three 

'The succeeding paragraphs relative to the Croix d'Hins project have been abstracted, 
by permission, from an article by I.ieut. Commander D. Graham Copeland (C. E. C), 
U. S. N. (resigned), published in United States Naval Institute Proceedings for Decem- 
ber, 1920. 



ni I. I « «'. .., .^ « *.-«- - 


Fig. 6. — Lafayetto Radio Station. .Tower fnotiiiu:s a« dcsic'iiort i.v i ic 


I,at:l.\<'ttc l;;l<li(i .<l:llinll. Ijl-cnillli' (iT rnllllilclrd Inwcr: 


times :i day in less than 12 minutes per meal, it will be seen how thorough this 
detail was. There was scarcely ever a complaint received. The cost of the 
service to the Government was extremely low. averaging about 90 cents per 
man per day. 

Owing to the prevalence throughout France of skin diseases, which are 
spread chiefly by hand laundries where all kinds of clothing are washed in 
tlie same tub or pool, it was found necessary to install a modern steam laundry 
to take care of the force's laundry. This was the only service for which the 
Government charged, but charges were just suflScient to cover cost of operation 
and replacement. From the start the laundry was well patronized, and its use 
soon caused an abrupt drop in the number of admissions to the sick list. 

The design and general layout of tliis radio station were made under the 
cognizance of the Bureau of Engineering. The public works features, including 
the design and preparation of all plans for the towers, were carried out by the 
Bureau of Yards and Docks, under the direction of Commander E. C. Sherman 
(C. E. C), U. S. N. R. F., project manager, and Mr. J. T. Maguire, assistant. 
The actual computations involved were made by Mr. A. E. Falconer, of the 
Bureau of Yards and Docks, who was in charge of the drafting squad who 
made the detail drawings. 

The work at the site was begun under the administration of Lieut. Com- 
mander George C. Sweet, U. S. N. (retired), commanding officer, and under the 
personal supervision of Commander F. H. Cooke (C. E. C), U. S. N., who com- 
pleted the construction camp and about 25 per cent of the steel erection, Lieut. 
T. A. Baldwin (C. E. C), U. S. N. R. F., being in charge of the tower-erection 
forces ; and the work at the site was completed under the administration of Capt. 
A. St. Clair Smith, U. S. N., commanding officer, under the personal supervision of 
Lieut. Commander D. Graham Copeland (C. E. C), U. S. N.. officer in charge, 
and Lieut. A. C. Eberhard (C. E. C), U. S. N., assistant. The construction 
work was handled for the Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Co., of Pittsburgh, con- 
tractors under the Navy Department, by Mr. H. W. Smith, superintendent, and 
Mr. Loyd Ellis, assistant superintendent. 


Previous to the outbreak of the World War and up to June, 1915, 
very little consideration had been giA^en to the care and upkeep of 
submarines, except at the primary navy yards and stations. The 
crews were taken care of in mother ships, which provided sleeping 
accommodations and, to some extent, machine-shop equipment. Most 
of the repair jobs for submarines were done at the navy yards in 
shops provided for general purposes, the actual work being done 
either by members of the crew or by j^ard mechanics. 

No consideration had been given to the establishing of bases for 
the maintenance of submarine detachments outside of the established 
navy yards, and until June, 1915, no comprehensive plan had been 
laid down for the accommodation of submarines in units. 

In that month studies were undertaken by the Bureau of Yards 
and Docks with the view of developing a typical submarine base; 
that is, a base to be self-supporting as regards shop facilities, storage 
facilities, berthing for submarines, and barracks for crews and offi- 
cers. A typical j^lan was developed for a unit of 10 boats. This 
plan contemplated the construction of two piers approximately 250 
feet apart, with the idea of berthing two boats on each side of each 
pier, leaving space for a tender and sufficient space for increasing 
the number of submarines by triple banlring to 18. The shore fa- 
cilities consisted of a combination shop building, storehouse, bar- 
racks for crew, quarters for officers, towers for radio communica- 
tion, fresh-water and fuel supply, a small magazine for small-arms 
ammunition. The piers were arranged in two ways, one perpendicu- 
lar to the shore line for locations where the current was not too swift 
to interfere with submarines berthed alongside the pier, and another 
arrangement with the piers parallel to the shore line for locations 
where the contrary situation was encountered. 

Considerable study was given to the arrangement of piers, shops, 
etc., and the resulting layouts embody the following features : 

The piers were designed of concrete, supported on concrete piles, 
and equipped with large outlets for submarine storage batteries, and 
also with high-power compressed air for charging torpedoes inside 



the submarines. The shop biiildino;. which was shaped in the form 
of the letter U, comprised a machine shop for light work, a small 
foundry, a blacksmith shop, and a pattern and woodworking shop in 
the main portion of the building; in one wing a torpedo and gyro 
testing room, Avith the necessary compressors and accumulators ; and 
in another wing a substation with the necessary motor-generators for 
converting current to 110 volts direct current for submarine bat- 
teries. This building was to be located immediately inshore from 
the piers, so as to be readily accessible for ref)air work. 

Adjoining the shoj) building, but separated by the width of a 
street, was located the storehouse. This building consisted of a two- 
story building, affording accommodations for the storage of tor- 
pedoes, small parts, and miscellaneous materials, with individual 
rooms for the storage of parts belonging to each submarine assigned 
to the station. This building was to be equipped with a traveling 
crane for handling torpedoes in and out of racks and on to trucks 
for delivery to the water front. Sufficient space was left behind the 
storehouse and shops for additional facilities of the same kind. 

A barracks building to accommodate 350 men was designed, to be 
located immediately back of the shop buildings. This was of two 
stories, and contained sleeping accommodations, mess hall, and recre- 
ational features for 350 men. The Bureau of Navigation stated at 
that time that a submarine base for 10 submarines would require 
accommodations for 600 men and 80 officers. This would make neces- 
sary the construction of two buildings for crews as outlined above. 
The building for officers was designed to accommodate 43 officers in 
individual rooms, with facilities on the first floor for messing and 
recreation, and also contained offices for the flotilla commander, 
officer of the day, and the necessary clerical force for the administra- 
tion of the base. In addition to this there was provided a radio 
installation for communication, crematorj'^ for disposal of station 
waste, elevated water tank for fresh-water supply, and storage tanks 
for fuel. These, with the necessary underground distributing sys- 
tems, made up a complete unit for the basing of 10 submarines. 

Pearl Harlor. — The first modification of the typical plan was made 
for Pearl Harbor, where the arrangement of piers was somewhat 
changed, in that the spacing was changed to 75 feet clear between 
piers, it being then the policy of Operations that submarines should 
not be double banked. This made necessary the construction of more 
piers of a smaller character, one pier only being designed for railroad 
track and other facilities, although all piers were designed with 
units for charging submarine batteries. A special feature was 
provided on the outer end of the charging pier for lifting the tails 
of submarines clear of the water for propeller and rudder adjust- 





37022—21 25 





ments. This consisted of a crane of 30-ton capacity at a reach of 
13 feet clear of the fender system, the crane having a less capacity 
at greater reach. 

Very little change was made in the quarters accommodations, ex- 
cept that all were designed for tropical conditions. 

The layouts for the typical base w^ere approved by the chief of the 
bureau in September, 1915, and certain modifications were approved 
in May, 1916, which modifications involve the providing of additional 
cubic space for men in the barracks buildings. The tentative layout 
for the Pearl Harbor base was approved by the chief on December 28, 
1915, with modifications recommended by Navigation, which modi- 
fications received the chief's approval on May 18, 1916. 

The particular location selected was Quarry Point. An allotment 
was made in March, 1917, for the construction of a creosoted-timber 
pier at Quarry Point, this marking the beginning of the submarine 
development at Pearl Harbor. Since that time one additional creo- 
soted-timber pier and a barracks building inshore have been con- 
structed. No shop facilities of a permanent nature or housing have 
been attempted up to the present time, although a complete layout 
for a submarine base of 24-boat capacity has been designed and ap- 
proved by the Board for the Development of Navy Yard Plans. 

New London. — The first continental location selected for a subma- 
rine base was New London, Conn. The improvements at the New 
London naval station which existed prior to March, 1917, were used 
as a basis for the development of a submarine base, and the naval 
appropriation act of March 4, 1917, contained aji item of $1,250,000 
for the erection and equipping of repair shops, quarters for men and 
officers, and berthing sjlace for submarines. This appropriation was 
expended toward the development of the water front, the enlarging 
of existing structures, and the erection of new structures for shop, 
storage, housing, and all other features allied to a submarine base. 

The improvements existing at the beginning of the development 
of the base were : A wharf running parallel to the shore line, ap- 
proximately 600 feet long, which was used as a coaling wharf, a 
large portion of the shed and deck of which were destroyed by fire 
previous to the beginning of the development; a coal shed imme- 
diately inshore of the wharf; two small brick structures used as store- 
houses ; a brick building used for marine barracks ; a steel coal shed ; 
and a 100,000-gallon steel water tank. No other improvements were 
on the property at that time. 

The old coal shed was converted into a machine shop and power 
house, and the quay wall inside the wharf was used for a beginning 
of submarine berthing space. Eight finger-piers, 275 feet long by 20 


feet wide were constructed at an angle of 30° with the water front, 
the water front beinir a continuation of the existiiifr quay walL One 
pier 350 feet long by 35 feet wide, and having on the outboard end 
a 30-ton crane for lifting the tail ends of submarines, was con- 
structed to the south of the main machine shop. The finger piers 
were located with a clear distance between of 125 feet. 

Buildings were constructed ashore as follows: A general store- 
house, torpedo storehouse and shop, battery overhaul, mechanical 
laboratory, garage, engine laboratory, individual storerooms, and 
various other smaller units for base activities. 

The housing development consisted of two barracks buildings for 
500 men each, mess hall for 1,000 men, dispensary, quarters for 
student officers, quarters for submarine officers, submarine school, an 
extension of the old marine barracks for housing 750 men. a club- 
house, a bench school, and a recreation building. 

The New London site was also utilized for a mine and ordnance 
depot, as discussed in another chapter. 

Coco Solo^ Panama. — The necessity for a submarine base at the 
Panama Canal was realized, and early in 1917 the War Department 
was asked for a site on the Atlantic side. The War Department 
designated Coco Solo Point as being best suited for submarine activ- 
ities. A preliminary estimate for the construction of a base was sub- 
mitted to the Secretary of the Navy on May 25, 1917. This estimate 
was $741,025 for the construction of a submarine base, consisting of 
dredging, concrete Avharf, finger-piers, electrical work, storehouse, 
and miscellaneous construction. The construction of the base was 
proceeded with, and at the present time there is located in Panama 
a complete base for the maintenance and upkeep of 20 submarines. 

The development consisted of the construction of a basin inclosed 
by quay walls, four piers being constructed at right angles to the 
innermost wall, about which wall were also constructed the station 
buildings and accommodations for submarine crews and officers. 
Immediately to the rear of the buildings and housing development 
there was constructed the fuel-oil and gasoline storage for the 
station. Immediately adjoining the submarine base to the south 
there was constructed the air station, a description of which is to be 
found under the title " Shore facilities for aviation." All the 
buildings were of the tropical type and follow the designs, types of 
which are shown in accompanying illustrations. 

Philadelj)hia., Pa. — At the navy yard, Philadelphia, in order that 
submarines might be separated from the station proper. Pier D in 
the back basin was assigned to submarine activities, and on this pier 
were constructed submarine charging facilities and a small machine 
shop. The pier was also equipped with facilities for berthing sub- 


P>att(M\y-ov('i-lianl Imililiii!^', Sulinmriiic T.nsc, Now TiOndoii, Cotih. 

Industrial group, Subinnrino r.nsc. Now T.oikIdu. Conn. 


Torpodo shop, Submarine Base, New liOiiiIou, Conn. 

Shore accoiniiKidations lor suhnuinno crews, 8uuinariiie itaso, .New J.uinKin. (^diiii. 


Typical barracks for 500 men. Submarine Base, New London, Conn. 

OHicers' quarters, Submarine Base, New London, Conn. 


marines on each side. This pier was of the filled-in tj'pe, and had a 
depth of water of 30 feet on either side. Ek^-tric current, fresh 
water, and other services were obtained from the yard supply. 

Wesf coast. — The Commission on Xavy Yards and Naval Stations, 
of which Rear Admiral J. M. Helm. U. S. N., was senior member, 
reported on January 3. lOlT. that this commission liad investigated 
the west coast of the United States, and that the followino- sites were 
recommended for submarine bases: 

Ediz Hook, near Port Angeles, Wash. 
Tongue Point, near Astoria, Oreg. 
Los Angeles. Calif. (San Pedro). 

Additional facilities at the Puget Sound and Mare Island navy 
3'ards were recommended, but the Puget Sound undertaking was 
later abandoned. Appropriations were obtained only in the last 
naval biir(1920) for the initial development of Tongue Point. 

Mare Island. — A beginning was made on the ISIare Island base in 
the latter part of 1917, comprising an L-shaped pier with a storage- 
battery charging and repair station located at the inshore end. This 
station being situated on tule-lands necessitated the use of pile 
foundations, and also the construction of a trestle for carrying the 
roadway and railroad tracks from the submarine base to the yard 
projDer. All facilities for service were connected to the main yard 
sj'Stems and all repair work was done in the yard shops. 

Hampton Roads. — When the naval operating base at Hampton 
Roads was first conceived a section was devoted to submarine-base 
activities. This section was laid out at the extreme northeast corner 
of the property and sufficient land was reserved immediately inshore 
from the north and west boundary lines for the development of the 
submarine base to accommodate 20 boats. 

The base as laid out consisted of an inclosed basin approximately 
1.100 feet wide by 1,200 feet long, with a dredged depth of 25 feet 
at mean low water. The inclosing structures consisted of a creosoted 
sheet-pile platform bulkhead on the north and west sides, served by 
railroad tracks, and a pier 1,300 feet long by 120 feet wide, with a 
sheet-pile bulkhead on the basin side for protection against wave 
action from the southwest. An opening was left at the extreme 
northwest corner, 150 feet wide, for ingress and egress of submarines 
and destroyers. Ten finger-piers, 33Q feet long by 18 feet wide, with 
a clear distance between of 75 feet were constructed at right angles to 
the bulkhead, the spacing of 75 feet being adopted upon the recom- 
mendation of Operations that submarines be not double banked. 

The original design called for dolphins, four in number, to be 
placed in the center of each slip so tliat there would be no ])ossibility 



Scaplaiip view of Siil)iiiaviiie Bai^e and Air Staticm, Coco Solo, C. Z. 



-.4 H«aiifiH»«^3«^8^ ■™5l>i('nl tropical barracks for 200 men, Submarine Baso, Coco Solo. C. Z. 

392 ^VA^. activitiks of buiikai' of vaud^ and docks. 

Executive officer's quarters, Sulunarinp Base, Coco noio. (_■. Z. 

Construction of ijier at i-uUi ui -ubmarine ba.-iu. ( »iifr:i(iiig W:^--,. Hampton 

Roads, Va. 


of siil)niarines coming in contact with each other. These dolphins 
were later omitted, so that in case of necessity an additional sub- 
marine could be berthed between the boats lying at the piers. 

The inclosing bulkheads and pier were designed for the accom- 
modation of destroyers. All of the piers are equipped with railroad 
tracks and are designed for carrying a 15-ton standard locomotive 
crane. They are of timber construction on creosotecl piles, and are 
built at an elevation of 10 feet above mean low water. 

The shore structures consist of a torpedo-storage and administra- 
tion building, battery storage, a machine shop, a storehouse, a boiler 
house, a subcharging and compressor station, and two compressor 
buildings. All of these buildings are of permanent construction, and 
are interconnected by a railroad track system, which tracks, running 
parallel with the water front, connect the submarine base to the 
main station. The entire shore plant is constructed on made land, 
and in the early stages of construction it was necessarj^ to build 
a corduroj^ road from the main base to the submarine base for the 
transportation of construction material. Sufficient space was left 
immediately east of the buildings enmnerated above for future ex- 
tension of industrial activities. 

There has been laid out a housing development, consisting of bar- 
racks buildings and mess hall for crews, and quarters for bachelor 
and married officers. The construction of these, however, has not 
been undertaken up to the present time, accommodations for sub- 
marine crews having been constructed in the form of temporary 
wooden barracks buildings fronting on the bulkhead along the ex- 
treme northern boundary line of the station. 

By berthing submarines three to a slip the capacity of the base 
can be increased by 11, making a total berthing capacity at the piers 
of 31. This can be increased to a still greater capacity by berthing 
submarines at the inclosing bulkheads and on the inside of the 120- 
foot pier. 

The weather conditions in Hampton Roads made it absolutely nec- 
essary to provide an inclosed basin, and even with the protection af- 
forded by the inclosing bulkheads, the basin in extremely rough 
weather is chopped to such an extent that submarines do not lie as 
quietly at the piers as is desirable. 

Kexj ^Vest. — The Commission on Navy Yards and Naval Stations, 
in their report on the south coast of the United States, recommended 
that a submarine, destroyer, and small-boat base be established at 
Key West. Work at this point is now in course of construction, 
consisting of piers and breakwater for berthing submarines. This 
project was not actualW inaugurated, however, until after the 


It will be seen from the foregoing that the undertaking of caring 
for submarines and their crews has grown from a very small be- 
ginning, in 1915, to an elaborate program now existing and planned 
for the near future. The activities of the past Avar have shoAvn that 
the submarine arm of the naval service is one that must be kept to 
its maximum efficiency, and the keeping of the morale of the crews 
at a high level makes necessary the provision of recreational and 
housing facilities ashore, so that they ma}' have facilities for relaxa- 
tion from their strenuous duties while engaged in submarine service. 


Fixed land bases for naval aviation, so far as concerns the United 
States, had their beginning at Pensacola, Fla., in 1914. Early in 
1913 the first mobile naval aviation camp had been established at 
Annapolis. During the same winter a second camp was inaugurated 
at Guantanamo, Cul)a. In those days and for some time beyond, 
aviation camps were essentially different in character from the 
naval air stations of to-day. Then a few portable tents, a good 
beach, and a sheltered body of water, usually with the cooperation 
of a naval vessel specially detailed, comprised the entire equipment. 
Two or three planes, with a makeshift machine shop, made up the 
materiel, and an instructor, a student or two. and a couple of jiie- 
chanics formed the personnel. 

It is perhaps not generally understood that as late as 1917 all 
plans revolving about the central idea of sea flights as distinguished 
from those over land were necessarily premised on the use of war- 
ships as mother vessels. It was the accepted notion that the useful- 
ness of aeroplane flights over water, so far as they related to naval 
possibilities, was limited by the extent to which they could cooperate 
and keep in contact with the units of the fleet. During the active 
operations of seaplanes in the theater of war this original tiieory 
was very largely modified. Motor improvements, amplification of 
effective radius of operation due to increased fuel capacity, and the 
satisfactory construction of comparatively seaworthy hulls had not 
a little to do with this variation of the initial concept of seaplane 

This change of view, whether or not destined now to be final, had 
an immediate bearing on the activities of the Bureau of Yards and 
Docks from the outset of American participation in the war. In 
April, 1917. the only naval air station in the country was that at 
Pensacola. Its facilities, though efficient, were limited, consisting 
of three seaplane hangars of steel construction, a brick structure 
used as a hangar, an airship shed mounted on a barge (capable of 
accommodating a small type of nonrigid craft), and a few service 

1 The foregoing is abstracted at large from article " Naval Aviation," by Ensign Thos. 
F. Woods, U. S. N. R. F., in Army and Navy Register of May 31, 1919. 




Original 'patrol stations. — Upon the declaration of war the possi- 
bility of submarine depredations and the effectiveness of air patrols as 
a protective measure led to conferences looking to the immediate es- 
tablishment of air-patrol stations at strategic points, particualrly on 
the Atlantic coast. Prior to this time a program of construction to 
accommodate lighter-than-air craft had been formulated, and this 
took definite shape with the placing of a contract, dated April 18, 1917, 
for the fabrication of the steelwork for eight airship hangars and the 
erection of seven of the same at points to be designated. The di- 
mensions of these early hangars were approximatel}- : Length, 250 
feet ; breadth at ground, 133 feet ; overhead clearance, 66 feet. They 
were designed on the three-hinged arch piinciple, with 12 arch ribs 
for each completed hangar. Contract for the two-leaved doors was 
let separately. Steelwork for the structures proper averaged about 
320 tons each, and for the doors approximately 50 tons. Payment 
was made on tonnage erected, and the final cost under both contracts 
was in the neighborhood of $375,000, exclusive of foundations and 

With the above work under way, development of plans and award- 
ing of contracts for the projected coastal air stations was under- 
taken in the earliest days of American hostilities. A typical instal- 
lation was decided upon and contracts were let on the cost-plus basis 
for the purpose of gaining the speediest possible completion, costs to 
be defrayed from the appropriation "Aviation, Navy," of August 
29, 1916, amounting to $3,500,000. One of the dirigible hangars 
already being fabricated was intended as an element of each patrol 

The new stations developed will be described in a general way, 
following the chronological order of their establishment. 

Montauk, Bay Shore, and Tvockaway Beach, distributed along the 
southern shore of Long Island, were chosen as sites under the first con- 
tract awarded. This contract was signed on June 14, 1917, and flying 
patrols were being operated from Montauk and Eockaway early in the 
autumn of that year. The following facilities were provided at each 
of these two bases: 1 dirigible hangar, as previously mentioned; 1 
steel- framed seaplane hangar; 1 shelter for hydrogen-generating 
plant ; 1 shop ; 1 storehouse ; 1 truck shed and power house ; 1 pier and 
boathouse; 1 seaplane pier; 1 officers' quarters; 2 men's quarters; 1 
mess and recreation building; and all necessary accessory structures, 
together with requisite roads, water supply, sewerage, drainage, grad- 
ing, heating, lighting, and other services necessary to utility and 
habitability. Thus all needs of personnel and plant operation, so far 
as could be foreseen, had to be taken care of at the outset, although at 





;7022— -:i -20 











first sight nothing woukl appear simpler than the mere proposition of 
setting up a seaplane hangar and an airsliip shed. 

The work at Bay Shore was executed to the same specification as 
the foregoing, with the omission of the airship hangar and hydrogen 
facilities. A further contract, dated September 28, 1917, was awarded 
for the construction of a timber seaplane hangar at Bay Shore, at a 
cost of $13,000. This structure, built to house three planes, was the 
earliest hangar of its type erected by the bureau, the roof span being 
carried on wooden trusses instead of steel. This departure was an 
emergency measure due to the increasing shortage of steel as the war 
progressed, and was utilized in naval aviation construction abroad in 
a standardized form. 

Plan of Naval Air Station, Coco Solo, C. Z. 

At Cape May, N. J., a coastal air station was built under a contract 
dated August 16, 1917. This contract was completed early in 1918 at 
a cost of approximately $500,000, and provided facilities similar in all 
respects to those at Montauk and Eockaway, one of the steel dirigible 
hangars aforementioned being located at this point. 

Key West, under a similar contract, followed on August 24, 1917 ; 
Chatham, Mass., on September 8; Hampton Eoads at about the same 
time, being allotted one of the steel dirigible hangars, runways, and 
four wooden seaplane hangars. The coastal stations at Coco Solo, 
Canal Zone, and San Diego, Calif., complete the list of the first eight 
patrol bases contemplated as a war measure. 

The construction of the station at Chatham, on Cape Cod, presented 
some major difficulties which are worthy of mention. In the first 
place, the work was performed during the winter months of 1917-18, 


and the winter Avill long be remembered as a particubirly severe one. 
Again, the site of the station was 5 miles distant from the nearest 
freight station (Chatham), and the roads were in very poor condition 
for hauling the heavj' steel sections for the hangar and the other build- 
ing materials. There was no local labor to speak of. necessitating the 
importation and housing of the workmen. Another difficidty en- 
countered was the total absence of a suitable Avater supply on the 
premises, the Avater having a hardness content of nearly 75. The 
uells which had been driven Avere abandoned and a pipe line was run 
to a lake some 10,000 feet away. 

An elaborate and expensive sewage system had to be designed and 
installed because the State board of health would not permit the 
emptAdng of raw sewage into the surrounding Avaters for fear of pol- 
luting the oyster beds AA'hich completely surround the station. Septic 
and dosing tanks Avere constructed Avith an automatic siphon to dis- 
charge the effluent to a sand filter bed. It Avas further necessary to 
make these filter beds of the subsurface type because of their prox- 
imity to the buildings, this being necessitated by the topography of 
the land and the nature of the soil. The firm of Metcalf & Eddy, Bos- 
ton, sanitary engineers, Avere consulted in the matter and approved of 
the designs of the civil engineer officer in charge. 

The contract covering this operation Avas of the '' cost-plus *' variety 
and required that the contractor furnish detailed designs for all the 
services, such as seAvage disposal, heating, and Avater supply. The con- 
tractor had no organization equipped to do this, and in order to <^et the 
job done at all the civil engineer officer had to do practically all the 
designing himself. 

The scheme of iniproAements originally phumcd for the coastal 
air stations Avould have entailed an expenditure, according to bureau 
estimates, of ap])roximately $:5()0.0(K) each. The first contracts exe- 
cuted, hoAve\"er. largely overran this figure, and the naval aviation 
program (ontinually expanded Avitli the ])r<)gress of the Avork. Com- 
plete new stations Avere called for at various i)oints during lOlS. and 
the first surA'ey of the situation became a nieie detail of a tenfold 
greater development. 

>Vs illustrating the increase of demands for land facilities, it may 
be noted that the single station at San Diego has cost more than the 
amount estimated for the original eight; instead of I'JO men as origi- 
nally contemjjlated. facilities Avere })rovided for as many as 1.200 
men at individual .stations; and instead of one small hangar there 
Avere placed as numy as 15 units of a consideiably larger tyjie. 

Supp7e?)U'nfor}/ ju/trol and ti'(iinin<j progrdm. — As naval pai'tici- 
pation in the Avar progressed and the functions of aviation as an ad- 
junct of operations became more clearly defined, nnich heavier de- 
mantls Avere made for tranino- facilities foi- student aviators at ex- 


isting- stations. It Avas also found expedient to provide a greater 
number of coastal patrols, both as a war measure and for the train- 
in o- features afforded. 

Kxisting plan of Naval Air Slatioii. Anacostia. D. C. showing temporary buildings. 

Permamnt plan for Xaval Air Station. Anacostia, D. C. 

Dealing- first with the additional stations undertakeu (hiring the 
war, these establishirients mav l)e noted bv location, as follows: 

Anacostia. D. C. 
Moi-ehead City. N. C. 
P.ninswick, Ga. 

Miami, Fla. 

Marine flying field. Miami. Fla. 

Akron. Ohio (for ligliter-tlian-air craft). 

Duuwoody Institute, Minneapolis. 
Seattle, Wash. 
San Diego, Calif. 
Cumbridse, Mass. 


Schools for flyers, groiindmen, mechanics, etc., were established at 
the following points : 

Hampton Roads, Va. 
Pensacola, Fla. 
Santa Rosa, Fla. 
Charleston, S. C, 
Great Lakes, 111. 

It is to be noted that several of these schools were placed in con- 
nection Avitli regularly operating stations. 

Rest stations w^ere established as follows : 
Waretown, N. J. 
Assateague, Va. 
Beaufort, N. C. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Roanoke Island, N. C. 

The rest stations consisted, in general, of a small landing beach 
and a supply of gasoline and oil. No repair facilities were afforded. 
The location of these stations was approximately midway between 
the larger establishments. 

Kite-ballon hangars were erected at certain of the established sta- 
tions, and separate projects of this character were undertaken at 
Marginal Parkway (Brooklyn) and Charleston, S. C. 

Before the close of the war, development of the following stations 
was under w^ay: 

Marine flying field, Quautico, Va. 
Marine flying field, Parris Island, S. C. 

St. Augustine, Fla. 
Tampa, Fla. 
Indian Pass, Fla. 
Isla Morada, Fla. 

Naval air station, Yorktown, Va. 
Naval air station, Galveston, Tex. 

As a typical case of the growth of naval aviation up to the very 
close of the war, the circumstances surrounding the establishment of 
the station at Brunswick, Ga., may be cited. On October 5, 1918, the 
Chief of Naval Operations addressed the following circular letter to 
all bureaus: 

OCTOHER 5, 1918. 

Subject: Equipment for naval air station at Brunswick, Ga. 

1. The establishment of a naval air station at Brunswick, Ga., has recently 
been authorized. While it is the intention of the department ultimately to 
convert this station into a 12-seaplane patrol station, it will be originally es- 
tablished as a 2-squadron training station on account of the present urgent 
need for increased training facilities. The bureaus are requested to furnish 
material necessary to operate a 2-squadron preliminary training seaplane sta- 
tion, composed as follows : 

18 tractor type. 
12 F-boats. 
6 IIS type. 

2. It is desired that this material be prepared and shipped at the earliest 
date practicable. 

3. It is requested that a copy of the lists of nil material ordered for this sta- 
tion be furnii^hed this ofTice. 

G. W. Steele, Jr., 

By direction. 


I plane hangar. Car 


, J., straight-truss type. 

iSeaplane hangars, Ilauipluu Kuads. \a. ; >Av.ii-.: 


Sonpl.-inc li:iii;;:i Is. ll.-niiiMnii KuriiN, \ :i. : en: \c 1 ni^s, <l idiiiu dn. .1 1 ; 

Jill nh riwi iivi IIP. IIP. 



i|'l:iiic li:u:'-;;u->. i',-i|i. M.iy. N. J,: ciirvc-i ini.'^s-. sliding-door type. 


The work executed by the Bureau of Yards and Docks under this 
order proceeded at high speed, a standardized instaHation of portable 
buikUngs having been developed for such uses both at home and 
abroad. Material requirements were taken care of by requisition, 
and the formalities of a public-works contract were dispensed with. 

The structures required were 20 buildings for barracks and officers" 
quarters, 6 seaplane hangars, 3 kite-balloon hangars, a pier, a heating 
and power plant, 3 storehouses 60 by 40 feet, 2 storehouses 20 by TO 
feet, 2 administration buildings, one shop 20 by 110 feet, a mess hall 
for 600 men, a garage, oil storehouse, dispensary, concrete landiuix 
platform, timber seaplane ruuAvay, roads, sewers, etc. 

On November 13, 1918, two days after the armistice and less than 
six weeks after the inception of the project, Lieut. 11. L. Pettigrew, 
the public works officer, was able to make the report to the bureau 
from which the following paragraph is extracted : 

Five buildings are now complete except for The electric wiriuL'. Ten more 
are complete except for the roofing, which is being rapidly juit on. Foundation 
posts are in for 12 more. The tloors and foundations have been poured for 
the three 60 by 40 foot storehouses, and concreting was started to-day on the 
platform in front of the hangars. After conference with the conunanding 
ofhcer several days ago it was decided to order six airplanes for delivery by 
December 1. A complete hangar will probably reach here by December S. in 
which event it will be erected by about December l.j. It is expected to stai't 
the runway into the water as fast as the material arrives. 

Very little construction work at Brunswick was done after the above 
date, and the station was closed and property liquidated a year later. 

Returning to the subject of expansions effected at the patrol sta- 
tions subsequent to their establishment, only a few salient details 
need be presented. From an original estimated personnel of approxi- 
mately 1.000, the home naval aviation force, active or in training, 
which had to be housed, rose to 15,000, as many as 5,000 men being 
quartered at Pensacola at one time during the war. The Montauk 
station comprised 49 separate buildings at the time of the armistice, 
and construction expenditures at that place had reached approxi- 
mately $1,500,000 instead of the $300,000 originally estimated. At 
Cape May, Key West, and elsewhere the same conditions were essen- 
tially repeated. The character of improvements effected at Chatham. 
Montauk, Rockaway, Bay Shore, Cape May, Anacostia. Hampton 
Roads, Miami. Key West, and Coco Solo can be inferred from a gen- 
eral summary of facilities placed. Xot every class of building here 
mentioned would be found at each station; still, the distribution of 
the following structures was quite general : Hangars, carpenter shops, 
machine shops, dope and paint shops, storehouses, beaches and piers, 
marine railways, boathouses, observation toAvers, motor test stands, 
oil-storage and reclaiming plants, gasoline storage, garages, fences, 
gas holders, hydrogen generator plants, fabiic storeliouses and shops. 



cylinder storehouses, laboratory and compressor buildings, blower 
houses, administration buildings, barracks, mess halls, officers' quar- 
ters, photograi^hic laboratories, guardhouses, dispensaries, etc. Serv- 
ices supplied included roads, walks, sewers, heating, lighting, water, 
and telephones. 

Cost. — It may be mentioned at this poirt that the cost of the naval 
aviation shore-construction program grew, before the end of the war, 

Details of seaplane-hangar framing, straight-truss, 75-foot span. 

Elevation of standard curve truss, 112-foot span, for seaplane hangar. 

Elevation of standard 151-foot seaplane hangar. 

from the $2,400,000 originally estimated to more than $30,000,000, at 
home and abroad. 

Stations closed since the war. — Further construction was suspended 
at the following stations after the armistice, and the stations have been 
closed : 

Montauk, L. I. 
Bay Shore, L. I. 
Marginal Parkway, N. Y. 
Morehead C;ty, N. C. 
Brunswick, Ga. 

Miiimi, Fla. 

Marine flying field, Miami, Fla. 

Key West, Fla. 

Akron, Ohio. 

Galveston, Tex. 



hanyar. Cape May, N. -I. 

Kite-balloon hungar, Hampton Roads, Va. 


I'.arraiks ami iiioss-hall. Naval Air Station. Hampton Roads. Ya. 

-- jKH'F<f^,.=^- ■. A'^* 


r.arraclvs and, Naval .\ir Station, llanipton Roads, Va. ; viow of court. 






















pi 1 

■. '!;-#<'>^^i9«t'- 




„r y : 


*\ .. 

r.arracks for 200 men. Naval Air Station, Capo May. N, .T 


Jiest stations at all points were closed. 

Schools were closed as follows : 
Santa Itosa, Fki. Seattle, Wash. 

Cliarlo.ston. S. C. Cambridge, IVFass. 

Dunwooily Institute, Minneapolis. 

Pennanent training stations. — Two stations have been reserved per- 
manently for the training of naval aviators located at the points 
judged most favorable from climatic and other viewpoints — Pen- 
sacola, Fla., serving the eastern seaboard, and San Diego serving the 
west. The greater part of the Avork at the latter station is a post-war 
development, but the installations at both places will be briefly de- 
scribed as indicating the present-day conception of proper training 
facilities for the Navy's flyers. 

The Pensacola air station, as previously stated, accommodated ap- 
proximately 5.000 men at the height of its activity, more than 150 sea- 
planes having been in use there for training purposes. The peace-time 
complement of the station is now placed at 2,000 men. Practically all 
of the " emergency " construction at Pensacola is still available for use 
under proper maintenance, being of semipermanent type. In ap- 
pearance the buildings make no architectural pretension, but their pur- 
pose has, in general, been satisfactorily served both during and since 
the war. 

The Pensacola naval station was established as long ago as 1828, but 
for many years had remained in a state of suspended activity. The 
advent of aviation has now displaced practically all other operations 
at this yard, existing buildings having been adapted to aviation needs 
and many new ones built. 

As the station now stands there are 11 large seaplane hangars of 
multiple-unit construction, and 8 smaller ones, all provided Avith 
suitable piers and concrete beaches. East of these hangars are located 
the seaplane erecting shop with its extension, a machine shop, and a 
hirge wet-basin leading in to the boat shed. Xext to the basin stands 
the 200-foot steel observation tower. The eastern water front is 
served with quays, a 600-foot pier, and a sea wall. 

Within the old station wall are placed 80 or more buildings serving 
the various needs of the establishment, as four large mess halls. 
l)ar racks, a bakery, schools, storehouses and shops of all kinds, offices, 
a hydrogen plant, laundry, recreation buildings, gymnasium, officers- 
quarters, etc. 

To the north of this section is located the airship field with its two 
hangars and storehouse, and a commodious drill ground. 

The station as a whole, though developed under great pressure, is 
well arranged for its recjuirements, and the facilities and climatic 
conditions to be found there make it the logical center for naval avia- 
tion traininof on the east coast. 


At San Diego, Calif., the air station has been developed as a 
feature of the program which is to make this cit}^ a base for every 
phase of naval training and operations. Construction at all points 
on San Diego Bay is being executed in permanent materials and to a 
unified architectural style. 

The air station is located on the north point of North Island, 
within the bay. Its permanent facilities represent largely a post- 
war development, though plans were prepared and the first large 
contract was let several months before the armistice. 

Accommodations are now provided for 1.000 student aviators and 
50 officers, with hangar and shop facilities for 20 or more seaplanes, 
1 airship, and 2 kite-balloons. The plans for the station as a whole 
are practically realized, and the architectural finish and arrangement 
of the group are most satisfactory. Roads, grounds, and services 
are complete, and the only contract now under way is to provide 
three supplementary hangars and an aeronautical storehouse. 

The station map inserted will give an idea of the symmetry and 
compactness of the layout, permanent construction being represented 
by the shaded areas. Quarters, shops, and administration buildings 
are rendered in the Mission style, as the purpose has been to make 
all the naval establishments at San Diego conserve the ends of taste 
as well as of utility. 

The type of construction at the air station is illustrated by the 
specification requirements for the administration building. This 
structure of two stories and 125-foot entrance tower is 345 feet long 
over all, with a general width of 40 feet and a maximum of 83 feet 
through its pavilions. Its structural framework is of reinforced 
concrete; the exterior walls are of hollow terra-cotta tile or concrete, 
with cast-stone sill work and trim ; an effective use of red tile roofing 
is made ; the interior walls are of hollow terra-cotta tile ; sheet-metal 
work is of copper: floors are of composition or terrazzo finish; doors 
and sash are of steel ; stairways and balustrades are of plain and or- 
namental iron or steel; exterior finish over all, buff-colored stucco, 
troweled in an irregular wavy pattern to simulate the weathered 
effect of local specimens of Spanish Mission architecture. 

From the above description, which is typical of the whole station, 
it may be observed that the following principles of construction have 
governed: (1) Permanence, (2) fire-resistance, (3) utility, (4) archi- 
tectural harmony, and (5) the greatest practicable measure of 

The station, whose general effect can be described as imposing, if 
not magnificent, has been attained at a total outlay, for both tempo- 
rary and permanent construction, of approximately $2,500,000. 

Naval aircraft factory, Philadelphia. — This brief resume of naval 
aviation shore construction in the United States would be incomplete 


Seaplane view of Naval Air Station, Pensncola. Fla. 






^ .II"' 




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Administration building, Naval Air Station, San Luegu, Calif. 

Seaplane hangar. Naval Air Station, San Diego, Calif. 
37022—21 27 


Commanding oflScer's quarters, Naval Air Station, San Diego, Calif. 

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mil lit ollicers' quarters, N:i\al Air Stalioii, D;iii 1 mi -m, Calif. 

Barracks No. 2, Naval Air Station, San Diego, Calif. 


Avithout mention of tlie aircraft factory at the Philadelphia navy 
yard, constituting, in all its aspects, one of the most surprising per- 
formances of the war. 

The general principles underlying naval exi)erimentation and man- 
ufacturing governed in tlie installation of this plant, and its con- 
struction Avas pushed as an emergency undertaking of the war pro- 
gram. The original contract of $1,000,000 was let on August 4, 1917. 
and the whole structure — steel, glass, and maple floors — was com- 
pleted on the 28th of November, 87 days later. Its immediately suc- 
cessful operation prompted a call for great extensions, and the final 
completion of the project, w^ell ahead of the armistice, involved the 
expenditure of funds in the amount of nearly $4,000,000. 

The buildings provided are of great size and excellent construc- 
tion. The group includes the original factory proper, 400 feet 
square, an assembly building 1,080 feet long with an average width 
of 300 feet, a six-story reinforced-concrete storehouse, a large ad- 
ministration office building, an independent power plant, a dry kiln, 
heated lumber storage, an aircraft storehouse, and a garage. The 
plant is completely equipped with motors and .handling apparatus, 
and a humidifying system permitting absolute control of tempera- 
ture and humidity is installed. The floor space devoted to manufac- 
turing during the war was 900,000 square feet, or more than 20 acres. 
The number of employees rose to a maximum of 4,000. On this basis 
the annual capacity of the factory is very large though impossible 
to state in terms of units produced — the question being analogous to 
that of the annual output of a navy j'ard along any other line. Re- 
pairs and overhaul constitute a large factor in the plant's activities 
at all times. It may be stated, however, that the aircraft factory 
was designed for a theoretical output of 1,000 F-boats per year, or a 
considerably larger number of a smaller type, which capacity would 
be quite practicable under the pressure of an emergency. 


The first occasion for direct activities on the part of the Bureau of 
Yards and Docks in Europe during the World War was in connec- 
tion with aviation. Protection of ships at the entrances to the har- 
bors and near the shore in general was found to be of great impor- 
tance, and it was decided to make full use of aircraft for that "pur- 

Preliminary examinations were made and a number of stations 
were selected on the French and Irish coasts during the summer of 

'Contributed by Commander E. II. Brownell (C. E. C), T. S. X. 



1917. The Bureau of Yards and Docks began the providing of ma- 
terials for building and for public-works construction at these sta- 
tions, the most conspicuous items being in portable houses and other 
buildings and in the materials for hangars for aircraft. In Novem- 
ber, 1917, the first public works officers went over, and from that 
time to the signing of the armistice the personnel expanded in num- 
bers and construction proceeded rapidly. 

The stations first handled and as listed up to March, 1918, consisted 
of the following : 

List of United States naval air stations (foreign service). 






France— Cont'd. 

Lough Foyle.. 




Lough SwiUy . 
W h i d d y Is- 








La Trinite 




Le Croisic 


Queenstown . . 

Repair base and seaplane. 

Paimboeuf — 




Fromentine . . . 



La Pallice 




Rochef ort 



Saint Trojan.. 





Repair base. 












Seaplane school. 

Later expansion included the following stations : 










Day Wing 

Le Frene 

Assembly and repair base, 
northern bombing group. 

General headquarters, north- 
ern bombing group. 

France— Con td. 



Projected mine base. 

! St. Ingleveit.. 

LakeBolsena . 


Porto Corsini. . 


Construction at each of the above stations included the necessary 
buildings for administration, officers' and enlisted men's barracks, 
storehouses, latrines, mess houses, repair shops, dispensaries, garages, 
and recreation rooms ; excepting only where existing buildings were 
available for those purposes. 

Reference is here made to the table inserted, giving particulars 
of all work performed abroad by officers of the Corps of Civil En- 
gineers attached to the naval aviation forces. This table is extracted 
from the comprehensive statistical report of Lieut. Commander D. 
Graham Copeland (C. E. C), U. S. N. (resiirned.X 




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Location map, United States Naval Air Stations abroad. 


The seaplane stations included also the necessar}'- hangars for sea- 
planes and the necessary shore construction for the runways. Prior 
to the construction of the more permanent hangars, temporary can- 
vas hangars were used to a considerable extent, the most common 
type being the " Bessoneau," which consisted of a canvas cover on a 
wooden framework. Those constructed by the United States forces 
were principally of wood, and were of sufficient width to take in the 
large bombing planes. The dimensions called for a clear opening of 
about 24 feet in height, 105 feet in width, and the depth was in gen- 
eral about 93 feet. The Bessoneau hangars were of a size to take 
only the smaller planes. 

The dirigible stations were, in general, located 2 or 3 miles from 
the shore. They included liangars whose size was in general such as 
to afford a clear width of over 70 feet, a clear height of 80 feet, and 
a length of about 600 feet. 

The kite-balloon stations were, as a rule, near the shore, and were 
for the accommodation of kite-balloons designed to be towed by de- 
stroyers. These balloons each required a clear space about 30 to 40 
feet wide, about 30 to 40 feet high, and about 100 feet long. A fair- 
sized station would provide for three balloons inflated and three 

The two repair bases were of great importance. The principal one 
of these was at Pauillac, on the Gironde River about halfway be- 
tween Bordeaux and the ocean. This station included the principal 
repair shop, 250 feet by 600 feet, four hangars, 93 feet by 210 feet, 
and a great number of storehouses and other buildings. There were 
a considerable number of permanent buildings already on the site. 

There were six stations in Ireland. That at Queenstown was ex- 
panded to a repair base. It was located at Aghada, "Aghada Villa '^ 
being used for officers' quarters. There was a camp there of the 
famous " Black Watch " Scotch regiment, the same that was in the 
Battle of Ticonderoga in the American wars of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. About half of the barracks buildings occupied by them w^ere 
turned over to the Americans. Wexford was particularly interest- 
ing as being on what might be termed the southeastern corner of Ire- 
land, where the channel narrows and where many ships were com- 
pelled to pass. Whiddy Island is at the head of Bantry Bay, on the 
southwestern corner of Ireland. Berehaven was also on Bantry Bay, 
but near its entrance. Lough Foyle and Lough Swilly are at the 
extreme northeast of Ireland, and protect shipping past that point. 
Besides the stations noted, a base for material was acquired in 

The station of Killingholme, England, was turned over completely 
to the Americans. 


In the early summer of 1918 an officer of the Corps of Civil En- 
gineers, Lieut. Commander F. N. Bolles, was transferred from St. 
Inglevert, near Dunkerque, to Eastleigh, England, to construct the 
assembly and repair base of the Northern Bombing Squadron. This 
was located near Southampton. It had originally been intended to 
locate this station in France, but the danger of a German drive down 
the channel coast of France had decided the authorities to choose a 
safer site in England. The function of the station was to assemble 
and repair planes for the bombing squadrons in France. 

The station Avas originally designed by the British to serve as a 
reception park for aircraft. Parts and complete planes were to be 
received here direct from the factories and stored until needed. It 
was equipped with enormous storehouses and hangars, but there were 
accommodations for only 100, whereas the accommodations under 
American occupation had to be for 5,000 men. It was the civil engi- 
neer officer's function to provide barracks, mess halls, hospitals, light- 
ing, sewage disposal, and recreation quarters for the 5,000. Addi- 
tional facilities for the assembly and repair of planes had to be pro- 
vided in the way of shops, a power plant, test stands, etc. The boilers 
for the power plant were shipped from the United States, but the 
ship which was carrying them was, unfortunately, torpedoed, and 
the officer in charge had to borrow boilers from the Portsmouth Navy 
Yard, where he was hospitably received by Rear Admiral Sir Stan- 
ley Colville, commandant of the yard. The officer was later obliged 
to go to Scotland to get some additional boilers. 

The station was entirely completed and in full operation by the 
time of the armistice. 

The Dunkerque aviation base was one of the most interesting in 
France. It was situated in the city, where it was subject to nightly 
bombing by the Germans, particularly when the moon shone. In 
this station, as in the great English aviation station at Felixstowe, 
it was necessary to construct bombproofs in which the men could take 

The following incidents, related by Lieut. Commander F. N. Bolles, 
illustrate rather vividly conditions existing in the Dunkerque salient : 

From Taris I was sent to St. Inglevert, near Dunkerque, to construct a small 
squadron base. The life at St. Inglevert was very interesting and at times 
exciting, for the fighting lines were not far distant at that time (June, 1918). 
The near-by British and French squadrons vere going over the lines at night, 
whenever the weather permitte<l, on bombing expeditions, and the old French 
chateau in which we American officers lived was the rendezvous for Belgian, 
French, British, and Portuguese officers from miles around. Upon one of my 
trips to Dunkerque, a German long-range shell wrecked our seaplane hangar, 
spraying shell fragments about promiscuously. None of us was injured, 
though morale for a few moments was at a low ebb. On another occasion, a 
launch which had been sent out to pick up a disabled American seaplane was 
captured by the Germans. The station doctor was among those taken prisoner. 




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Types of standard portable buildings for United States Naval Air 
Stations abroad. 


All of the other French stations were located on the coast extend- 
ing from the Brittany peninsula to the latitude of Bordeaux. The 
Brest station was contiguous with the French navy yard. Treguier, 
L'Abervrach, He Tudy, La Trinite, and Le Croisic are on the 
Brittany coast, Guipavas is 2 or 3 miles inland from Brest. Mout- 
chic was located on a lake and was used exclusively as a school. 

A great deal of work was done by the station forces, using prin- 
cipally materials sent from the United States. Considerable work, 
however, was done by local contractors. This was particularly the 
case in the Irish stations and at the French stations of Brest, Arca- 
chon, and Moutchic. Both French and English construction showed 
a tendency to more permanent work than American engineers would 
undertake for war emergencies, both in the buildings and in the 
ground layout, including shore protection, runways, etc. This was 
partly accounted for by the great dearth of lumber. It seemed best 
in most cases to let these contractors follow their own methods, so 
long as results were accomplished. 

Considerable construction already in place was turned over to our 
forces. Treguier station was in active operation before we took 
it over, as was the dirigible station Paimboeuf. At L'Abervrach, 
La Trinite, Fromentine, and Arcachon we made a fresh start. Other 
stations were intermediate in condition between these extremes. In 
both France and England, naval public works are administered by 
civilians detailed from another department of the Government in- 
stead of by a special corps of civil engineers as in the United States 
Navy. This occasioned some uncertainty and delay. Strictly speak- 
ing, a request from a United States officer had to pass through a 
French or English officer to a civilian official, each of these being 
either a district representative, or possibly at headquarters in Paris 
or London, and thence to the local official of public works, and 
so to the contractor. Of course, we cut across this circuit to a great 
extent, and took matters up directly with the parties who were to 
execute them. 

There were some peculiar classes of workmen on the grounds; 
there may be noted particularly enlisted Kabyles, of the French 
Army, from Northern Africa, German prisoners, and at one of the 
fuel-oil stations a gang of Bulgarian deserters. The Kabyles at an 
airplane station at one time refused work. Their commanding officer 
settled this ; to use his own words, " I did not give them anything to 
eat"; they returned to work. On another occasion the same outfit 
struck or mutinied. It was reported that tlj^ir officer drove the ring- 
leaders into a building with a shotgun, and so ended that difficulty. 

The liaison features at headquaiters were interesting, being lo- 
cated in London in the old buildings of the Admiralty, and in 
Paris in the building which duplicates the Hotel Crillon, and with 


it looks out on the Place de la Concorde, exactly as it did on the 
dayof the execution of Louis XVI. There interviews were had with 
le Capitaine de Fregate Gerspach and the two Lieutenants de Vais- 
seau L'Escaille and Thierry. M. Minard, with the title of Ingenieur 
en Chef des Fonts et Chaussees, but '' servicant aux travaux hydrau- 
liques," was in a building close to the Eiffel Tower. His colleague. 
M. Mallat, with the same title, was in charge of public works at 
Brest, his office being in an ancient building of the navy yard. 
All this, along w^ith the solid construction usually employed, gave 
an impression of Old World conservatism, but in so far as could be 
judged, results were promptly accomplished and usually in the best 
way practicable under the difficult circumstances of the war. For 
one item, the variety of designs for dirigible hangars adopted and 
actually used by M. Minard was particularly impressive; they em- 
bodied ever}" means available. 

The most active coadjutor for the Irish station (Aghada) was 
Lieut. Mulville, who in private life was a civilian engineer of South 
American and other experience. At London headquarters also some 
of the officers concerned in public-works construction were reserve 
officers who in civil life were civil engineers. 

[Certain facts abstracted at this point from the report of Lieut. 
Commander Copeland present phases of the activities of the aviation 
construction forces abroad in a graphic manner.] 

The task set the Corps of Civil Engineers abroad in providing for 
naval aviation was, roundly, that of establishing all proper quarters 
and facilities for the operations of 20,962 officers and men in the 
Navy's flying forces, foreign service. This force was almost half as 
great as the Navy's total prewar strength and almost double the pre- 
war strength of the Marine Corps. 

Barracks aggregated 1,325,699 square feet; if joined end to end, 
they would extend a distance of 12 miles. 

If all piers and sea walls constructed and dredging done were 
combined, the total project would permit the docking and unloading 
of two ships of the magnitude of the Leviathan simultaneously. 

The total volume of concrete placed at all stations would form a 
bulk approximately equivalent to one of the pyramids of Egypt, 
that of Menkaura at Gizeh. 

Twenty-nine telephone exchanges were installed, and 1,323 miles 
of telephone line constructed. 

Twenty-eight j^ower houses were built, admitting of an output of 
energy equivalent to the demands of an average American city of 
40,000 inhabitants. 

The total cubic contents of all structures erected and used would 
be represented by a box sufficient to contain the Woolworth Building 
ten times over. 


Frame dirigible hangar, United States Naval Air Station, Paimboeuf, France ; early 

construction view. 





Frame dirigible hangar, United States Naval Air Station. Paimboeuf, France; late 

construction view. 


3, - * 

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Canvas dirigible hangar, United States Naval Air Stalion, raimboeuf, France. 

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Seaplane view of United States Naval Air Station, Arcachon, France. 


Hospital facilities were provided for 3,000 patients. 

Water supplies with an aggregate yield of 153,000,000 gallons 
per year were developed. A steel tank of the total capacity of all 
tanks erected would encircle the Washington Monument. Such a 
tank set on a composite of all the steel towers built for water-supply 
purposes would form a structure twice as high as the Eiffel Tower. 

Covered storehouses were provided having an aggregate area ex- 
ceeding the prewar storage at the navy yards at New York, Phila- 
delphia, Charleston, and Puget Sound combined. 

If collected in one group, the hangars constructed would cover 
40 city blocks. 

Aeroplane slipways constructed, if laid to a uniform width of 20 
feet, would extend nearly 3 miles in length. On such a slipway 65 
per cent of the German aeroplanes surrendered to the Allies could 
be easily drawn up for inspection. 

Tonnage transported by trucks on these construction projects 
abroad amounted to 162,000 ton-miles. 

Lumber used aggregated 21,834,000 board feet — equivalent to 4,12T 
miles of planking 1 foot wide. 

Stations in Brest and vicinity. — Having briefly surveyed the field 
of aviation construction abroad, the bureau is fortunate in being 
able next to present some first-hand details of construction as exe- 
cuted at Brest, He Tudy, L'Abervrach, Guipavas, and Treguier (see 
map), from the account of the civil engineer in direct charge of these 
operations, Lieut. C. P. Conrad. These aviation stations were con- 
structed in the vicinity of Brest as part of the French and Ameri- 
can naval air program of defense of the coast of France. The sites 
of the stations were chosen by a joint commission in the late summer 
of 1917, with the idea of dividing the territory about evenly between 
the two services. 

Brest was to be a combined H-16 seaplane and kite-balloon station, with a 
complement of 600 men. The ground chosen was a strip of made land 3,000 
feet long, 250 to 300 feet wide, fronting on the inner harbor of Brest. 

When our first construction forces arrived in France in November, 1917, 
work was already under way at the Brest station under the supervision of 
the French civil engineers of the department of Travaux Hydraulques. They 
had prepared complete plans and had let contracts to French contractors for 
the construction of barracks, launching slips, and a wooden hangar. A force 
of 50 German prisoners and 100 Moroccan laborers were doing force-account 
work on roads and foundations at the time of our first inspection. 

All expenses incurred were charged to our account and were billed to us 
quarterly. The French Government charged us 20 per cent on all these 
accounts to cover their engineering and overhead expenses. 

Early construction work by our own forces was carried on in close coopera- 
tion with the French, and with the idea of completing the station as they had 
planned it, adding from our own material barracks and hangars to bnng its 

37022—21 28 


capacity up to our requirements. The United States naval forces had use for 
all their own material elsewhere on new projects, and we were glad to coimt 
on all the buildings that the French could pi'omise us at Brest. 

Our construction up until the receipt of materials from the United States 
in April, 1918, consisted of erecting temporary portable barracks and tents 
borrowed from all sources to house our rapidly growing complement, and of 
preparing foundations and floors for our seaplane hangars. Construction mate- 
rials and tools were almost unobtainable in the French market. Cement was 
imported from England. The sailors broke by hand all the rock for the first 
hangar foundations and floor. Our concrete miser obtained for the second 
hangar was an old continuous type that had been used in the construction of 
fortifications on the opposite side of the bay. A working party on a six-ton 
truck started after this mixer at 4 a. m. one Sunday, made the 150-mile round 
trip, and returned with it at 2 a. m. Monday niorn'ng. We bought the 
hand tools essential to our preliminary work from French hardware stores, 
but the stocks were depleted from three and a half years of war and the models 
were crude. Carpenters' hanmiers were rectangular blocks of steel. A request 
for claw hammers was met by the indignant protest of the merchant that good 
carpenters used pincers to pull nails. 

The sailors, most of whom had enlisted for aviation and were without con- 
struction experience, worked wonderfully well with their crude equipment. 
Barracks and tents for 300 men and complete foundations and floor for two 
bays of a seaplane hangar wei-e finished when the first shipload of hangar 
lumber, tools, and portable barracks arrived from Pauillac in the latter part of 
April, 1918. 

The erecting of the hangar started at once with two 8-hour shifts, because 
there were tools enough for only 75 men. In 15 days after the last load of 
lumber left the ship, the hangar, 93 by 214 feet, was completed. 

Meantime the work started by the French had made slow progress for lack 
of lumber. None of the barracks were completed, though half a dozen were 
started. The distribution of lumber had been placed under the war ministry, 
and the contractor could not get deliveries. No work had been done on the 
seaplane hangar, which was to have been completed February 1, 1918. Finally 
we gave up hope of seeing this work go forward and had all French contracts 
canceled on August 23, 1918. Three barracks had been completed, and we 
finished others with our own material. The hangar was not sufficiently ad- 
vanced to be of any use to us, and we substituted for it an additional hangar 
of the American design. 

After mid.summer, 1918, tools and construction materials came in i-apidly 
from the United States. It became necessary to assemble planes at Brest 
because they were received as deck loads on the troop transports and were 
too bulky to transfer by rail to Pauillac for assembly. This greatly increased 
the size of the station, the complement being raised from 600 to 800 men, and 
machine-shop and hangar space was provided for assembling work. The ma- 
chine shop. 100 by 30 feet with an L 30 by 30 feet, was constructed entirely 
of seaplane crates. The panels were used whole for the sides and roof. The 
posts, plates, and rafters were made of the frames of the crates. The walls 
were made two panels thick to satisfy the requirements of Assembly and Re- 
pair, who were very .skeptical regarding this type of construction. It proved 
entirely satisfactory. This unexpected source of lumber proved a great boon 
and all small structures not the size of standard portable sections were there- 
after built of seaplane crates. 

At the time of the armistice, Brest station had barracks space for 1,000 men, 
quarters for 50 officers and 75 chief petty officers, 3 wooden seaplane hangars 


Seaplane view of United States Naval Air Station, Guipavas, Franc- 

Dirigible hangar, United States Naval Air starimi, ( ,uii);i vn<. l-'rann 


Seaplane view of porti. 

Air Station, Pauillac. France. 

Seaplane hangars, United States Naval Ah .Slaiiun, i'auillac, France. 


(93 by 214 feet each), a steel kite-balloon hangar (100 by 120 feet), and auxil- 
iary buildings such as galley, mess halls, storehouses, machine shops, garages, 
and offices to meet the needs of a station of this size. 

Construction stopped with the armistice and demobilization began. 

The Brest station was the only one of naval aviation's establishments taken 
over by the French Navy, although we had understood up to the armistice that 
several others were also wanted. Only the equipment was moved from the 
station, and the French were given formal possession on February 22, 1919. 
But it was September, 1919, before the minister of the navy approved this 
transfer and agreed on the financial terms, and it was December before the 
transfer received the approval of the naval appropriations committee of the 
Chamber of Deputies, an act necessary to make it legal. 


The construction of the seaplane station at He Tudy was also in the hands 
of the French at the time of our arrival. This station had been laid out on a 
much smaller scale than that at Brest. Quarters for 200 men were fitted out in 
the loft of a large stone building that had served as a sardine cannery. Two 
canvas hangars housed the French-built planes, and a track laid directly on 
the mud flat served for launching them. Substantial wooden buildings had 
been built for carpenter shop, machine shop, and aviation stores, and stone 
buildings for garages and oil storehouse. 

Fresh water was obtained from the village supply, which was brought 
through 13,000 feet of 3-iuch clay pipe from a small spring 14 feet above the 
station. It provided only a trickle at each end of the village, where the 
women stood in lines for hours to fill their pitchers. Our consumption was far 
beyond French standards, and increasing the water supply was the first work 
we iindertook here. All the ground water of the sandy spit on which the 
station was built is brackisli, a condition which necessitated our going 2 miles 
inland to dig a well. Water was hauled by truck from here and from a stream 
about 4 miles away. 

The village pipe line received only one-third of the flow of the spring, while 
a community laundry basin used by half a dozen families received two-thirds. 
The division was made in a locked stone weir chamber on a marquis's estate 
and the game warden could not be persuaded that military necessity was any 
cause for changing this century-old partition. Fortunately for us, the marquise 
came to her country estate earlier than usual that year to escape air raids in 
Paris, and granted the American Navy complete control of the spring, a conces- 
sion that through official channels could not have been obtained in less than 
three months. The increased spring flow and the water hauled in proved suffi- 
cient for what the French officers regarded as our extravagant use. 

He Tudy operated brilliantly with only French equipment, but gradually, as 
portable buildings and lumber were received from the United States under 
Yards and Docks orders, barracks, recreation hall, and dispensary were pro- 
vided for the men in place of the lofts in which they had slept with the carrier 
pigeons. One of. our wooden seaplane hangars, 214 by 93 feet, supplemented 
the French canvas ones, which were raised on 4-foot piers to accommodate 
HS-1 seaplanes. Concrete aprons and a concrete launching ways replaced the 
French track when the station began to operate with the heavier American 
seaplanes in September, 1918. 

At He Tudy the French completed the station as they ijlanued it, providing 
hangars, shop equipment, .-ind quarters .sufficient for the hare necessities of op- 


oration. We enlarged the establishment to permit more efficient operation 
with heavier machines, and to provide a reasonable degree of comfort for the 

After the armistice, the French Navy having indicated that it had no use 
for this station, the portable buildings were knocked down and turned over to 
the United States Army, who had great need for them in building up the em- 
barkation camp near Brest. The wooden hangar was razed and transferred 
tG the Army as salvage lumber for tent floors, etc. The sardine cannery and 
the land were returned to their owners, who exacted no damages for our occu- 


The seaplane station I'Abervrach, about 20 miles north of Brest at the 
entrance to the English Channel, was located on a rocky island of 16 acres' 
area, three-quarters of a mile across the inlet from the village of that name. 
The island at low water was connected with the mainland on the opposite side 
of the inlet. 

No work was done on this station by the French, but they secured the site 
for us by condemnation and assisted with the preliminary surveys. Our first 
detachment of 40 men arrived on January 26, 1918. They were quartered in 
the village, as there was no shelter on the island, and went to and from work 
in fishing boats. A pier was constructed of loose stones, there being no means 
of access to the island. The stones were collected in carts that we hired locally 
through proclamation of our needs by the town crier. The carts were boxes set 
on two wheels. To dump them the horse was unhitched, allowing the shafts to 
fly up in the air. The drivers were women and children, there being some 
little fellows who did not look over 6 years old. These people spoke only 
Breton, a language entirely different from French, which made it impossible 
to arrange a schedule of work with them. They came and went without a 
word, receiving their pay from us through the mayor of their comnuine. 

Pier construction, road work, and grading for the hangars were carried on 
by working parties living in the village until March. The inlet was so rough 
on some days that boats could not reach the island. Tents were borrowed from 
the United States Army, and the detachment moved over to the island about 
the middle of March. Three French portable barracks were received and 
erected in April. 

Hangar lumber and American portable buildings were received from Pauillac 
in May. All this material was unloaded from the ship in Brest, hauled by 
truck a mile to the narrow-gauge station, there loaded at the rate of eight 
10-ton cars a day, and hauled to I'Abervrach, four cars per train, in two trains 
per day, as this was the maximum capacity of the railroad. At I'Abervrach the 
material was unloaded fronr the cars and taken three-quarters of a mile across 
the inlet in 40 and 50 foot motor sailers, fishing boats, rafts, and on the one 
10-ton. flat lighter in the harbor. The harbor was too small to receive any 
supply boats direct from Pauillac. 

Water could not be obtained on the island, and at first was carried from the 
village in gasoline drums. Four wells were dug on the mainland with which 
the island connected before sweet water was found. This supply was then 
piped 2,000 feet to the station across the tide flat. 

In August, 1918, the station was ready to operate, with one hangar 214 by 
93 feet, concrete apron, launching ways down to mean tide, machine shop, 
office, barracks and mess for 300 men, quarters for 30 officers, and a usable 
pier. Construction continued until the armistice. The ways and the pier were 
lengthened, and grading for an additional hangar proceeded. 


After the armistice, as the French did not want the station, it was torn down, 
and all the salvaged building material was turned over to the United States 
Army for their camp construction near Brest. Within 24 hours after our men 
left the island the peasants from the surrounding country had carried ofC 
every splinter of wood and had completely torn down the out-door oven to get 
the fire-brick. 

The island was returned to its owners bare as before, but a valuation com- 
mission allowed them 26,000 francs damages. This sum was over three times 
the value of the land, but we found that 25.000 francs of it was for destruction 
of the fences. The 16 acres had been divided into 108 distinct parcels, each 
fenced witih a boundary work vai-ying fronr a single line of stones to a turf 
wall four feet high. These had been valued at the price of such fences on the 
mainland, where turf walls six feet high are used. The damages were reduced 
to 5,000 francs. 


The most interesting station of this group from a construction standpoint 
was the dirigible station at Guipavas. Erecting barracks and seaplane hangars 
was comparatively simple even with inexperienced sailors, and most of our 
difficulties at the seaplane stations lay in getting materials; but erecting the 
timber dirigible hangar with inexperienced men and the equipment available 
was an interesting task. 

The camp at Guipavas was started about the middle of March, 1918, as the 
French did not allow us to occupy the land until then. Working parties from 
the Brest air station erected a borrowed hospital barracks as galley and mess 
hall and 10 British " 10-men " tents that were really crowded for four men. 
The first detachment of 50 men arrived at 8 o'clock at night, separated from 
their hammocks and bedding. 

Four hundred yards of road was hastily built in to the hangar site just in 
time to receive the first shipload of lumber, April 3, on the U. S. S. Bella from 
Pauillac. The lumber was hauled by truck 7 miles from Brest to where the 
Bella docked. 

The only erecting equipment received with the lumber was two 60-foot gin 
poles ; so while the hangar site was being graded and the first foundations put 
in, we collected equipment. The French, on a similar hangar, assembled the 
trusses complete on the ground and erected them with a traveler that picked 
them up at five points. Even with this traveler they dropped four trusses and 
killed two men ; so it was evident that because of the limberness of the trusses 
we could not pick them up with two gin poles. The French contractor offered 
to rent us his equipment, but demanded a fabulous price and would not promise 
immediate delivery. 

Wire rope was obtained from the French navy yard and manila rope from 
the American naval base. Two steam winches for the gin-pole lines, together 
with the large blocks, were rented from a French machine shop, and an over- 
hauled tug boiler was bought from a French shipyard. The hand winch on 
the tower was borrowed from the French balloon station. This miscellaneous 
equipment operated satisfactorily all through the job. 

The assembled truss was laid on the ground with the hips opposite the 
foundation piers on which it was to be erected. Wire ropes passing over tHe 
top of each gin pole were fastened to the truss at these points, and a wire rope 
passing over the top of the tower was fastened to a stiffening stick lashed to 
the truss about 8 feet below the peak. 


In raising the truss, the entire load was carried on the two gin poles, and 
the line from the tower was used only to keep the truss from bending unduly. 
While it was being raised, the foot of the truss was shoved forward on skids 
toward the pier. The first three trusses were held in position by guy lines until 
the tower bracing was placed. The trusses were assembled and raised at the 
rate of one a day. No faster method was sought, as the erecting went faster 
than we received material. 

The hardest part of the work was placing the purlins to connect the first 
trusses, as only half a dozen of the men had ever done any " high " work, and 
it took time to train others to work aloft. 

At the time of the armistice this hangar was practically complete. Corru- 
gated metal from the States was placed on the roof and a third of the way 
down the sides. Below that point the sides were covered with French asbestos 
shingles 2 feet square, a very light and easily placed covering. Rolling doors 
were provided at each end, though only the east one, giving access to the 
French landing field, was to be used at first. The wind-break around this door 
was practically complete. The successful prosecution of this work was due 
in large measure to the energy and resourcefulness of Carpenter Stuart B. 
Scruggs, who was in direct charge of the construction work at the station 
from the beginning until October, 1918. 

The French navy informed us after the armistice that they would like to 
retain only the hangar as part of their station. The camp buildings and all 
surplus lumber were sent to the United States Army at Brest, 


Little construction work was done by our forces at the seaplane station, 
Treguier, as this station had been operated by the Fi-ench since 1917, and was 
turned over to us complete in August, 1918. Additional barrack and mess 
accommodations and officers' quarters were constructed. A fresh water supply 
was piped in from a spring 3,000 feet away. The canvas hangars were modified 
to give the necessary headroom for our HS-1 planes, but no other changes of 
importance were made. 

After the armistice this station reverted to the French except for the barracks 
we had erected, which were transferred to the United States Army at Brest. 




There was first observed in tlie spectrum of the sun's rays, in 1868. 
a line indicatiA-e of a previously unknown element, and thereupon 
attributed to a hypothetical element, which was called " helium." 
Helium was first identified as an actuality in 1895 by Lord Rayleigh 
and Sir William Ramsay, and was subsequently found to occur in 
the earth's atmosphere to the extent of 4 parts in 1,000,000, and in 
certain pools of natural gas in appreciable quantities. 

The use of helium as a buoyant agent in lighter-than-air craft was 
conceived by British scientists in the early stages of the war. Helium 
is adapted to such use by its chemically inert nature and its specific 
gravity, being lighter than any known substance except hydrogen. 
Because of the inflammability of hydrogen the advantage was obvi- 
ous of substituting for hydrogen as the buoyant agent in balloons 
and airships a gas which is noninflammable and at the same time has 
a high lifting power. Helium has about 92 per cent of the lifting 
power of hydrogen, and will retain balloon buoyancy longer than 
hydrogen because of its slower rate of diffusion with the elements of 
the atmosphere through the balloon fabric. 

The British, being unable to ascertain a feasible source of sujjply, 
soon after the United States entered the war requested American au- 
thorities to institute investigations along this line to determine the 
feasibility of obtaining helium from natural gas. The aircraft 
board on August 4, 1917, allotted to the Bureau of Mines $100,000, 
half each from the War and Navy Departments, for exploration and 
experimentation. As a result of a survey of gas fields by the Bureau 
of Mines, it was determined to exploit the Petrolia (Tex.) field, leased 
by the Lone Star Gas Co., for the extraction of helium from natural 

Funds were allotted for experimental purposes, and three experi- 
mental plants were constructed and operated, at Fort Worth and 
Petrolia, Tex., based upon three different processes for the separa- 
tion of helium from natural gas. As a result of these experiments 
it was decided by the aircraft board to construct a helium-produc- 
tion plant utilizing the process developed by the Linde Air Prod- 
ucts Co., and funds were allotted equally by the War and Navy De- 
partments for this purpose. It was mutually agreed between the 



two departments that the Navy should construct the plant and have 
cognizance of its operation. 

The plant was designed by the Bureau of Engineering, the Bureau 
of Yards and Docks, and the Linde Air Products Co., in consultation. 
The Bureau of Engineering contracted with the Linde Co. for the 
design, manufacture, and installation of the special separation appa- 
ratus. The Bureau of Yards and Docks constructed the plant and 
facilities accessory to the project, purchased certain apparatus, and 
installed all of the equipment except the separation apparatus. The 
plant is being operated under the cognizance of the Bureau of En- 

The helium-production plant was located at North Fort Worth 
rather than adjacent to the wells at Petrolia, for economic reasons. 
If the plant were located at Petrolia it would be necessary to con- 
struct a power plant or to transmit power about 90 miles. Surface 
water in adequate quantities is not available at Petrolia, and the 
artesian conditions in that vicinity are poor, due to the underlying 
pools of gas and oil. Furthermore, the labor, railroad, and highway 
facilities at Petrolia are very poor. At North Fort Worth a reli- 
able supply of power is available, the railroad and highway facili- 
ties are excellent, and an adequate water supply may be obtained by 
driving wells to a reasonable depth. 

A contract was entered into with the Lone Star Co., whereby Pe- 
trolia gas is to be furnished by that company, processed, and the dis- 
carded gas from the production plant is to be returned to the Lone 
Star mains. The gas extracted, absorbed, or dissipated in the pro- 
duction of helium is to be paid for at prevailing commercial rates. 
The Lone Star Co. further agrees, for certain consideration, to draw 
not more than 10,000,000 cubic feet of gas per day from the Pe- 
trolia field, as long as the open flow from the field does not exceed 
75,000,000 cubic feet per day. The consideration to the Lone Star 
Co. for this conservation is assumed to represent the cost to that 
company of the construction and operation of pipe lines to draw on 
other fields to supplement the maximum allowed draft from the 
Petrolia field. 


The location of the United States helium-production plant at 
North Fort Worth entailed the procurement of a pipe line to convey 
the natural gas from the wells to the plant. The existing line was 
the 16-inch pipe line of the Lone Star Gas Co. The Lone Star Co. 
piped to Petrolia certain nonhelium-bearing gas from Oklahoma, 
which was mixed at that point with Petrolia gas. To process this 
mixed gas for helium would have necessitated the handling of a 
larger quantity of gas to produce a given quantity of helium. There- 



m : 

"0 "• 


'*>< .'Jo 


''"■;■ :-*T^ 









fore it was agreed that the Government should build ii i)arallel pipe 
line of 10 inches inside diameter to convey Petrolia gas only. The 
length of this line is approximatelj^ 9G miles to map scale, although 
the actual length is over 100 miles, because of the rolling terrain over 
a large portion of the length. This is the longest gas pipe line in the 
United States without an intermediate compressor station. 

Right of way. — The Lone Star Gas Co, in 1909 laid a 16- inch gas 
line from Petrolia to their measuring station adjacent to the site of 
the helium-production plant at Xorth Fort Worth, At that time the 
Lone Star Co. purchased easements for the laj'ing of two parallel pipe 
lines between these two points, at a cost of $32,784.40. In order to 
expedite the laying of the Government pipe line, the Lone Star Co. 
consented to sell their available easements to the department. It 
was found that the diversion of the route, from that of the Lone 
Star Co, for a distance of about 9 miles between Newark and North 
Fort Worth would shorten the line about 3,200 feet and avoid several 
stream crossings, so easements were purchased by the department to 
effect this diversion. 

Pressure. — When gas wells were first drilled in the Petrolia field 
they showed closed pressures greater than 700 pounds per square 
inch. The pressures have decreased greatly, however, owing to the 
diminution of the supply, so that the present pressures are less than 
150 pounds per square inch. In order to convey a sufficient supply 
for the use of Fort Worth and Dallas, the Lone Star Co, built a 
compressor station at Petrolia intended to furnish a pressure of about 
300 pounds per square inch. The compressor station will be used also 
to furnish the pressure for the Government line. The present operat- 
ing pressure varies between 200 and 300 pounds. 

Capacity. — The derivation of a universal formula for the discharge 
or capacity of a pipe line is impossible, since many indeterminate 
factors are present. Formulae have been deduced, however, which 
are an approximate indication of the capacity. According to the 
formula by F. H, Oliphant, of the United States Geological Survey, 
the 10-inch pipe line from Petrolia to North Fort Worth, 104 miles 
in length, will discharge the following quantities of gas: 

Intake pres- 
sure per square 

Discharge pres- 
sure per square 

Capacity per 24 



Cubic feet. 








These capacities do not take account of changes in temperature. 
One hundred and ninety pounds per square inch is estimated as the 
average exit pressure in the pipe, with the plant running at full 
capacity. . 

Pipe. — About 7,700 tons of light steel pipe, of 10 inches inside 
diameter, weighing 28.035 pounds per linear foot, were used. The 
pipe is plain-end, of lengths averaging 20 feet. Before acceptance 
the pipe was submitted to a mill test of 600 pounds per square inch 
hydrostatic pressure, being struck with a hammer while under this 

Couplings. — " Friction " couplings were used, of the Dresser type. 
The gasoline content of natural gas attacks ordinary rubber packing 
destructively, so that the couplings were provided with special pack- 
ing to resist the deleterious action. One-half of the couplings were 
provided each with Paranite packing and with Goodrich " Grade 19 " 

Valves. — The line was divided by means of gate valves into nine 
approximately equal parts. This division was made for the pur- 
pose of saving gas in case repairs are needed. The valves are extra 
heavy 10-inch threaded and recessed gate valves. On the north side 
of each gate there is placed a blow-off for the purpose of relieving 
the line of pressure while repairs are being made. Each of these 
valves is placed opposite a similar gate on the Lone Star Co.'s line 
to facilitate maintenance. 

Blowing out and testing. — The pipe line was blown out by means 
of gas under pressure in order to clear the line of dirt and scale be- 
fore being put in operation. This blowing out was done in sections 
approximately 10 miles long by breaking a connection, raising the 
pipe out of the ground, and forcing the gas through from the north 
end, after which the line was again connected and the next section 
south was blown out, and so on. After the last section on the south 
end was blown out, the line was filled with gas at 260 pounds pres- 
sure, the pressure being allowed to equalize itself, and all gates were 
closed in order to determine the drop in pressure in each section. To 
determine the drop in pressure a gauge was installed on each side 
of every gate on the line, thus affording a pressure reading at each 
end of a section. The temperature at the time of year at which the 
test was accomplished does not change throughout the day enough 
to affect the pressure in a line below ground. However, thermom- 
eters were placed on the line and temperature readings taken. Read- 
ings on both pressure gauges and thermometers were taken hourly 
for 24 hours. The average drop in pressure during the 24-hour 
closed-line test was 4.1 per cent, and the maximum drop in pressure 
in any section was 7.5 per cent. It is considered that the results 
of the test were indicative of a well-laid line. 



Analysis of Petrolia gas. — The analysis of the effluent from the 
wells at Petrolia varies slightlj'' in the per cent content of each com- 
ponent. The properties of each component gas, with the average 
content, are tabulated as follows : 




Carbon dioxide 











per cent by 









gravity (hy- 




ture, °C. 

- 95.5 

in atmos- 


The first two items above include slight proportions of other 
hydrocarbons. It will be noted that this gas contains no carbon 
monoxide, free h3'drogen, sulphur gases, or unsaturated hydro- 
carbons, the presence of any of which would have introduced other 
difficulties in the separation. While the gas is at atmospheric pres- 
sure during one stage of the process, oxygen will probably be ab- 
sorbed from the atmosphere, so that a larger content of oxygen will 
have to be separated. 

The calorific value of the Petrolia gas is somewhat less than 800 
B. t. u. per cubic foot, this relatively low heating value being due to 
the relatively large nitrogen content. 

Nature of process. — Helium is extracted from the natural gas by 
effecting the liquefaction of each of the other gases, except carbon 
dioxide, contained with helium in the natural gas. This liquefaction 
is effected by the utilization of the process developed by the Linde 
Air Products Co. in their experimentation at the helium experi- 
mental plant No. 1 at North Fort Worth. This process consists 
essentially of the compression of the incoming gas to a high pressure, 
the removal of the heat of compression by a circulation of cold water, 
the progressive cooling resulting from the expansion of the highly 
compressed gas through an expansion valve to a low pressure, and 
the application of the cold waste gases and closed external refrigerat- 
ing cycles of nitrogen and carbon dioxide as refrigerating media. 
The hydrocarbons, oxygen, and nitrogen condense in the order 
named. The carbon dioxide content is removed from the incoming 
gas by chemical precipitation effected by contact with limewater, 
which is sprayed into the incoming gas. The helium, which with- 
stands the cold and pressure necessary to liquefy the remaining 
components, is finally recovered and stored in high-pressure cylinders 
for the requirements of the service. 



The helium production plant is located at North Fort Worth, in 
Tarrant County, Tex., about 1 mile north of the citj'^ limits of Fort 
Worth and about 3 miles north of the Tarrant County courthouse in 
Fort Worth. The site comprises 19.4 acres of fairly level land and 
is entirely cleared. The purchase price of the land was $409 per 
acre. A draw, draining about 270 acres, crosses the western portion 
of the site in a south b}^ southeasterh^ direction. The various build- 
ings comprising the plant were located on the higher ground toward 
the east side of the site to avoid this draw. The site consisted of 
grazing land entirely turfed. The top soil is a loam to a depth of 
1 to 6 feet, underlain by a bedrock of hard and unfaulted limestone. 


The locations of the buildings with reference to each other were 
governed by the cycles of gases through the process, so as to require 
minimum lengths of piping, especially high-pressure piping, between 
buildings. Inasmuch as the War Industries Board requested that 
all buildings be constructed of materials other than structural steel, 
the principal buildings were designed of a light concrete construc- 
tion. A large sash area was required for lighting the large buildings 
and allowing the escape of leakage gases, and this type of construc- 
tion was very well adapted to such features. Several buildings were 
advantageously designed of frame and stucco. The only structural 
steel included in the design of the plant was for transformer towers 
and small miscellaneous items. 

Compression huilding. — All of the compressors and carbon dioxide 
refrigerating units are installed in the compression building. This 
is a one-story building 97 feet wide, 290 feet long, and 32 feet high. 
A door is provided in each of the longitudinal bays in each side of 
the building to facilitate egress in case of combustion of escaping 
gases. A 20-foot concrete platform is provided at the end of the 
building adjacent to the railroad siding for the handling of cylinders 
and equipment. The building is provided with a concrete floor 
throughout, except in several panels adjacent to the loading plat- 
form, which are laid with wood block, so as to be nonsparking under 
trucking of cylinders. 

Separation huilding. — The Linde separation apparatus is installed 
in the separation building, which is one story in height with a clear- 
story central portion to admit the high three-stage stills. This build- 
ing is 68 feet wide and 199 feet long, with a height from grade to 
the top of the parapet walls of 42 feet and 27 feet, respectively, for 
the central and outer portions. 

Boiler and pump house. — The boiler and pump house, adjacent to 
the cooling pond, is one story in height, 49 feet long, 45 feet wide, 


interior view, separation building, United States licllum-Production Plant, Fort Worth, 


hm-nor vii'w, c-oiii{(rossor building, United States Ibliuni I'l 1.111111,111 i'i:iiii, I 'ml Worth, 



and 18 feet and 15 feet high, respectively, from grade to the tops of 
the parapets of the pump house and boiler room, with concrete walls, 
floor, and roof, steel sash, and metal bifolding and hinged doors. 

Pressure-reducer house. — The pressure-reducing valves are installed 
in a concrete building with steel sash, 17 feet wide, 27 feet long, and 
14 feet 6 inches high to top of parapet wall. 

Nitrogen cylinder house. — The nitrogen cylinders to provide an 
equalizing supply to the nitrogen compressors are housed in a one- 
story concrete building 14 feet by 11 feet 6 inches by 18 feet high. 

Office and laboratory huilding. — The office and laboratory building 
is occupied jointly by the Government and Linde personnel. The 
building is a two-story frame stucco building with concrete founda- 
tions and steps, 40 feet wide, 62 feet long, and 26 feet high from 
grade to the second-story ceiling. This building provides two office 
rooms, one toilet, and a laboiatory on the first floor, and eight office 
rooms and one toilet on the second floor. 

Building for carhon dioxide removal system. — A frame building 
provides for the housing of pumps, motors, and limewater storage 
and filter tanks between the scrubbing tanks of the COo removal 

Lime mixing shed. — The lime mixing vat is installed on a raised 
concrete platform with a wood roof supported by wood posts and 
with open side walls. 

Lime storage shed. — For the preparation of limewater for the CO^ 
removal system, lime is stored in a one-story frame building, with 
concrete foundations and floors, 14 feet wide, 67 feet long, and 15 
feet high. This building is adjacent to the railroad siding, with a 
wide window at the elevation of the box-car floor for the unloading 
of lime. The lime is wheeled from the lime storage shed up an 
incline to the mixing platform. 

Storehouse. — Spare parts for mechanical and electrical equipment 
and miscellaneous tools and material are stored in a one-story con- 
crete building, between the separation and compression buildings, 40 
feet square and 20 feet high from grade to the top of the parapet 
wall. This storehouse is equipped with suitable metal shelving. 

Lleating. — The office and laboratory building, storehouse, pump 
house, and the toilet and wash rooms of the compression and separa- 
tion buildings are heated by direct radiation. The compression build- 
ing is heated by four unit heaters. Steam is delivered by two 150- 
horsepower boilers, with stacks, installed in the boiler room adjacent 
to the pump house. The pump-house radiation is supplied with ex- 
haust steam from the boiler feed pumps. 

Hot water is provided for the toilet and wash rooms and the office 
and laboratory building by gas-burning heaters. 

37022—21 29 


Connections have been provided in the laboratory for hot and cold 
water, steam, gas, and electricit3^ A small motor-driven air com- 
pressor will be installed as a part of the laboratory equipment. 


Requirements. — Electrical energy is required to operate motors as 
prime movers for various mechanical apparatus and for lighting. 
The power required for motors is computed as 6,475 horsepower for 
operative purposes, plus 1,965 horsepower for stand-by units. The 
monthly consumption of energy is reckoned at 2,200,000 kilowatt 

Source and characteristics of supply. — Energy is delivered by the 
Fort Worth Power & Light Co. at a point on the company's trans- 
mission line approximately 3 miles from the site of the helium-pro- 
duction plant, from which point the Government has constructed 
under contract 3800-A, a transmission line to the main transformers 
at the plant. The energy delivered by the power company is 3-phase 
alternating current at 60,000 volts and 60 cycles. 

Transformers. — The larger part of the equipment is operated at 
2,200 volts. Therefore there were purchased four 2,000-kilovolt- 
ampere 60,000/2,300-2,200-volt General Electric single-phase trans- 
formers, of which one is a spare, with complete accessories. Three 
200-kilovolt-ampere and three 100-kilovolt-ampere 2,200/440-220- 
volt single-phase transformers were purchased, to step down the 
current for the motors for the limewater circulating pumps, the 
lime mixers, the cooling pond spray and circulating pumps, the well 
pumps, the fans, and the condensation pump. The lighting supply 
to the buildings is 3-wire 220-110-volt alternating current, with 110- 
volt branches carried to the various outlets. A 37.5-kilovolt-ampere 
single-phase 2,200/220-110-volt transformer has been provided for 
the lighting. A 7.5-kilowatt constant-current transformer has been 
provided for the fence lights. 

Measurement of supply. — The amount of power delivered by the 
power company will be measured by a recording wattmeter and the 
energy by an integrating watthour meter, installed and maintained 
by the power company on the secondary side of the main trans- 
formers. The power factor will be measured by a power-factor 
meter installed and maintained by the power company on the sec- 
ondary side of the main transformers. The Government has in- 
stalled meters to check each of these three meters, and the Govern- 
ment meters are to be conclusive as to the amount of power and 
energy delivered, in case of the failure of the power company's 
meters to register. 


Cost of poioer and energy. — A contract has been consummated with 
the Fort Wortli Power and Light Co., providing for the following 
rates : 

(a) $1.50 per kilowatt of maximum demand during each 
monthly billing period, but not less than $6,900 per month. 
(&) $0.01 1 per kilowatt-hour of energy for the first 120 hours' 
use of maximum demand during each monthly billing period. 
(<?) $0.01 per kilowatt-hour of energy for next 120 hours' 
use of maximum demand during each monthly billing 
{d) $0.00| per kilowatt-hour in excess of 240 hours per kilo- 
watt of maximum demand during each period. 
These rates are further varied by a sliding-scale agreement based 
on company production costs. 

Thus, with a maximum demand of 5,400 kilowatts and a monthly 
energy consumption of 2,200,000 kilowatt-hours, the average monthly 
cost will be $29,4G0, or approximately $0.01^ per kilowatt-hour. 


Gas-holder capacity has been provided as follows: 

Incoming natural gas, two 5,000 cubic-foot holders. 

Nitrogen, one 10,000 cubic-foot holder. 

Waste gas, one 10,000 cubic-foot holder. 

Impure helium, one 5,000 cubic-foot holder and one 10,000 

cubic- foot holder. 
Pure helium, two 5,000 cubic-foot holders. 
The 10,000 cubic-foot holders for nitrogen and waste gas have 
been furnished and erected under contract. The other holders were 
removed from the experimental plants, adjacent to the site of the 
production plant, and reerected at the production plant. 

All of the holders are single-lift. The water seals are prevented 
from freezing by steam pipe coils. 


The plant is designed for a production of 40,000 cubic feet of 

helium per day. 


The total cost of the helium-production plant and the natural-gas 
pipe line was approximately $3,500,000. 



The plant is operated by the Linde Air Products Co., under the 
supervision of the Bureau of Engineering, through an agreement 
whereby the Government shall sustain the operating expenses and 
pay to the Linde Co. a fee of $2,500 per month. 

The Linde Co. has estimated the operating personnel to be paid 
by the Government as 107 men, and the amount of natural gas to be 
extracted, absorbed, or dissipated as 10 per cent of that processed. 

Based on a production of 40,000 cubic feet of helium per day, or 
1,200,000 cubic feet per month, the operating costs may be estimated 
as follows: 

Cost per 

Cost per 

cubic feet. 

Power (maximum demand 5,400 kilowatts, energy 2,200,000 kilowatt-hours per ! 

month) $29,460.00 

Gas (16,000,000 cubic feet per month at $0.17 per 1,000 cubic feet) 2, 720. 00 

Labor (107 men at $160 average) 17, 120. 00 

Supplies, repairs, etc. (estimated) 10, 000. 00 

Lindefee..: , 2,500.00 

Total 61, 800. 00 

$24. 55 





The endeavors of the Navy Department during the eventful years 
1917 and 1918 were not entirely devoted to the customary ends of 
warfare. The treaty obligations of this Government to Santo Do- 
mingo and Haiti were scrupulously carried out, and improvements 
were made in our new acquisition, the Virgin Islands. The " mili- 
tary governments " were established to conserve the revenues, to de- 
velop the country, and to improve the methods and standards of the 
islands, directing and instructing with the intent of establishing 
these peoples in their places among the nations of the world. 

Since the Navy's work in these islands was constructive, it fell 
to the lot of the Corps of Civil Engineers to carry out important 
treat}^ obligations, at a time Avhen every officer and man was imbued 
with the martial spirit, and properly so. For this reason a full meed 
of credit attaches to those members of the corps who cheerfully and 
efficiently performed the duties assigned them, shut off from par- 
ticipation in the World AVar, in remote islands Avliere even the news 
of the great conflict was long in filtering. 


In Santo Domingo strenuous efforts were made to improve all 
means of communication. Most of the roads were formerly impas- 
sable except for pack animals, while now there are approximately 
100 miles of new macadam roads, with 15 large bridges — 7 of steel 
and 8 of concrete. In addition, there are about 100 miles of second- 
class and about 200 miles of third-class roads in the country. 

Two main trunk highways are under construction. One of these, 
from the capital, Santo Domingo City, to Monte Cristi, about 175 
miles long, is expected to be completed by July or August, 1921. 
This road unites the north and south coasts of the Eepublic. The 
other, running east and west, has been made passable for vehicles for 
a distance of about 225 miles. Only a small portion of this road is 
macadamized at the present time. 

Railroads, bridges, telephones, sewers, water systems, harbor im- 
provements, lighthouses, and customhouses have been built. Public 



buildings throughout the countiT have been repaired and provided 
with sanitary equipment. A leper colony, consisting of 40 houses 
for tlie jDatients, a mess hall, laundry, and administration building, 
has been established. 

In November, 1916, no more than 12,000 children wore in the pub- 
lic schools; while to-day — through the efforts of the department of 
public instruction — 120,000 children are receiving the education to 
fit them to become good citizens. To further this work a building 
program calling for an expenditure of about $1,000,000 has been ap- 
proved, and construction of schoolhouses in accordance with this 
program is in progress, some of the buildings being already occu- 
pied and man}^ others nearing completion. 

The work of the two civil engineer officers. Commander Ralph 
Whitman and Commander Ralph M. Warfield, successively assigned 
to supervision of public works in the Dominican Republic, was not con- 
fined solely to building operations. The officer now in charge has been 
assigned by the military governor, Rear Admiral Thomas Snowden, 
U. S. N., to the secretaryship of state for communications and the 
secretaryship of state for agriculture and immigration, both cabinet 
positions in the military government. Commander Whitman was 
detailed by the then military governor, Rear Admiral H. S. Knapp, 
U. S. N., as a member of the Dominican claims commission, which 
passed upon claims amounting to $15,000,000, of great number and 
varying degrees of complexity. 

Prior to June, 1917, nothing had been done along the line of agri- 
cultural education. Since that time the work of education has been 
extended and instruction given to agriculturalists on methods of 
seed selection, disease eradication in plants, and soil cultivation. An 
agricultural college has been built and made ready for opening for 
the education of young Dominicans in scientific agricultural pur- 
suits, as well as for the ascertainment of accurate information on 
plant diseases under conditions existing in the Republic. School 
gardens have been planted, and agricultural instruction has been 
given in connection with education in the various common schools. 

By efficient control of immigration (consisting principally of sea- 
sonal agricultural labor), by instruction and training of the rural 
element in improved agricultural methods, by the improvement of all 
means of communication, such as the construction of roads, rebuild- 
ing of telephone lines, and development of a postal system, by the 
building up of commerce through additional harbor facilities, and by 
a large building program the Civil Engineer Corps has done its 
utmost to support the military government in its ultimate object of 
developing and improving the country and preparing the people for 
self-government when the occupation shall have served its purpose. 



The civil government of the Republic of Haiti has not been dis- 
placed by American intervention, the military governor of Santo 
Domingo acting as military representative of the United States in 
Haitian affairs and assisting the President of Haiti in an advisory 
capacity. In this Eepublic, as in the neighboring Republic of Santo 
Domingo, the principal works coming before the treaty engineer for 
design and construction as well as for maintenance and repair were 
the following : 

Public roads, streets, bridges, and ferries. 

Public buildings and grounds. 

Water supply, sewerage, and drainage systems of cities and 

Rural irrigation, drainage, and flood protection. 
Harbor improvements, comprising wharves, piers, quays, etc. 
Lighthouses, buo3^s, and other aids to navigation. 
The telegraph and telephone services of Haiti, which are a 

Government monopoly. 
Topographic, geodetic, geologic, and cadastral maps and 

Inspection and control of existing concessions for railroads, 

lighting, etc. 
Building regulations. 
The President of the United States, in December, 1916, nominated 
Commander Ernest R. Gayler (C. E. C), United States Navy, for 
appointment by the President of Haiti as engineer for public works 
under the treaty, and upon the arrival of this officer he received a 
commission from the latter as engineer-in-chief to the Haitian Gov- 
ernment, reporting on January 3, 1917. 

By the fall of 1918 the number of officers of the Civil Engineer 
Corps commissioned by the President of Haiti as part of the treaty 
engineer organization had been increased to eight. Each office and 
division was operated, so far as possible, with no foreign personnel 
save the officer in charge. 

Upon the arrival of the Americans in Haiti there were practically 
no country highways in the land, the very complete system of high- 
ways which had been constructed by the French colonists prior to 
1790 having largely disappeared. As a result, there was very little 
internal traffic, and most of the carrying of agricultural products 
was done by pack animals bearing small loads along narrow and 
uneven trails which did not permit the passage of wheeled vehicles 
of any description. Highways have now been opened up from the 
extreme northeast point in Haiti, Ouanaminthe, to Les Cayes, the 
principal city on the south coast, passing through the important sea- 


coast town of Cape Haitien, Port au Prince. Carriage roads have 
also been opened up through the Plaine of tlie Cul de Sac to the head 
of the irrigation system at Bassin General, to the salt Lake Etang 
Saumatre, which forms part of the boundary line between Haiti and 
Santo Domingo, and to interior towns. 

Similar reconstruction work has been done upon the old French 
irrigation systems, comprising dams, masonry canals, and earth dis- 
tributing ditches. Largely as a result of these improvements more 
and better sugar cane is now being raised in Haiti than ever before 
in its history. 

The telegraph sj'stem has been developed, a telephone system in- 
stalled, and sanitary works have been prosecuted — the latter having 
already resulted in a marked reduction in the sick rate and having 
improved the appearance of the towns. 

The public works office has trained its native personnel in high- 
way and general engineering, so that the Corps of Haitian Engineers 
has been built up to a total of 30 men. The character of their service 
has proved quite adequate to requirements. 


Immediately after the appointment, in February, 1917, of Eear 
Admiral James H. Oliver, U. S. N., as first governor of the newly 
purchased Danish West Indies, it became evident that an officer of 
the Civil Engineer Corps was needed on his staff, and Lieut. Com- 
mander Gaylord Church (C. E. C), U. S. N., was soon ordered to the 

The conditions, administrative and physical, were far from en- 
couraging. There were no typewriters in any government office, 
and the method of accounting was so involved that three years were 
required before a final settlement in the transfer could be accom- 

A severe hurricane had occurred in the preceding year, and many 
of the schools were demolished, as well as one hospital ; roads, streets, 
and parks suffered severely. 

The process of reorganization along American lines was slow and 
discouraging at first. Upon the relinquishment by the former Danish 
civil engineer of his appointment as building inspector, the new 
naval civil engineer was assigned to the position. It was necessary 
for him to sit on the various committees and to try as diplomatically 
as possible properly to direct their activities. As these committees 
were usually composed of from five to seven members, the new build- 
ing inspector's occasions for tact can be imagined. 

The public works officer's greatest difficulty was with his surveys. 
His predicament can be understood when it is realized that all 


records and even the printed forms necessary to issue for land trans- 
fers were in Danish, that his only surveying instrument was an 
antiquated Danish one, and that the land records were in journal 
form and ran all the way back to the eighteenth century. 

A naval station was established, new radio towers erected, and a 
refrigerating plant installed. The public buildings were gradually 
repaired, and steps are now under way for the erection of several 
new school houses and for the equipping and installation of an 
adequate poorhouse and farm on the island of St. Croix. Funds 
have not been available for even the beginning of a water or sewerage 
system, but hope is entertained that with Navy Department funds a 
supply of water may eventually be obtained for the naval station, 
and that the city of St. Thomas may be supplied from this source, 
in part at least. 

Although no engineering enterprises of any magnitude have as 
yet been undertaken, the character of the work consisting mostly 
of minor repairs, nevertheless the reorganization and administra- 
tion of public- works activities have covered a wide range of subjects, 
and have been unique in this respect as an undertaking for a rep- 
resentative of the Bureau of Yards and Docks. Though out of the war 
zone and undisturbed by the great struggle of the World War, the 
activities in connection with the civil government were most in- 
teresting, and tried to the utmost the ingenuity of the public works 
officer. There prevailed a diversity of operations ranging from 
surveying a 100-acre property to measuring for floor tax all floors 
in a 30 by 30 foot house ; from installing a town clock in the court- 
house tower to inspecting a leper asylum of 60 inmates or an insane 
asylum of 20 patients ; from the placing of " white wings " on the 
city streets to settling a strike of grave diggers before a funeral; 
from diplomatically handling a committee of the Colonial Council to 
settling labor friction by employing the chief agitator in a fore- 
man's capacity ; and though all these presented no grave engineering 
difficulties, they Avere interesting enough to require the utmost 
exertion from the civil engineer, and it was with satisfaction that 
he saw emerge from chaos a smooth-running, well-organized depart- 
ment, a credit to the naval government in control, and having the 
loyal support and hearty approval of the native population, who at 
first looked with suspicion upon each innovation. 



Contracts. — From April 6, 1917, to November 11, 1918, the period of 
the war, proposals for public works were opened at the bureau for 
approximately'' 811 separate projects, while proposals for approxi- 
mately 439 additional projects were opened at the several yards and 
stations and the bids forwarded to the bureau for action. From 
this total of bids received, 1,016 awards, totaling approximately 
$120,000,000, were made, the balance of the bids being rejected. 
The largest number of rejections occurred during armistice time. 
For the week of November 4:, 1918, the bureau carried 41 projects 
on which no action had been taken; there were 23 openings and 
3 rejections; for the week of November 11 there were 53 projects 
not acted upon, 26 openings, and 6 rejections; for the week of No- 
vember 16 there were 52 projects not acted upon, 16 openings, and 
20 rejections; for the week of November 23 there were 23 projects 
not acted upon, 20 openings, and 10 rejections; while for the week 
of November 30 there were 23 projects not acted upon, 18 openings, 
and 1 rejection. 

In practically all cases, plans and specifications were prepared, and 
the work was regularly advertised prior to the openings of proposals. 
Bids were opened weekly, generally on Wednesdays at 11 o'clock, 
except when simultaneous openings were held at the bureau and at 
the yard concerned, when, owing to differences in time, a correspond- 
ing hour for opening would be set for the bureau. Proposals not 
accompanied by certified checks, as required by the specification, 
were declared informal and returned to bidders. Occasionally cer- 
tified checks totaling nearly $1,000,000 would be received at a single 
opening. Checks for $50,000 were not uncommon, and $75,000 checks 
were required on one opening, the largest check ever required being 
for $85,000. 

The bureau also awarded approximately 100 contracts for emer- 
gency work on the basis of actual cost plus a percentage. These 
contracts involved approximately $60,000,000, for which no pro- 
posals were requested, owing to the urgency of the work. Great 
care and discrimination were used in placing these contracts to 
secure the services of thoroughly reliable and responsible contractors. 



After recommendation of award had been made by the project 
managers to the contract section, and prior to award, the bids were 
submitted to the priorities committee of the War Industries Board 
for clearance. No awards were made until cleared. This procedure 
was necessary in order to eliminate, or postpone, the construction of 
any unnecessary work. 

Coincident with the declaration of war, authority was delegated to 
the chief of the bureau by the Secretary of the Navy to make awards 
and sign contracts for the department. This was done in all cases 
except cost-plus contracts, which were awarded and signed by the 

It may be interesting to note in passing that in comparison with 
the above figures the bureau for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1917, which period included the first three months of the war, 
awarded 172 contracts, involving approximately $30,000,000, of which 
sum approximately $12,000,000 was for work awarded on a cost-plus- 
percentage basis, divided into approximately 25 contracts. These 
contracts covered nearly all the emergency training camps, which 
were constructed under the first cost-plus contracts awarded. For 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, the bureau awarded 79 con- 
tracts, involving approximately $1,840,000; and for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1915, 84 contracts, involving approximately 

During the war period the bureau also entered into 128 supple- 
mental agreements covering extra work and involving approximately 
$10,000,000 additional. 

In all cases, except where work was awarded on a cost-plus basis, 
bids were opened by the bureau in the presence of bidders, and 
awards, when made, were made to the lowest bidder. Bids were 
required in duplicate. A bound copy of all papers received at open- 
ings, together with a list of bidders and the amount of each bid, was 
retained in the bureau files, properly indexed, for future reference. 
In addition, a contract-record book was kept, stating in each case 
the specification number and date of assignment of such number; 
title and location of project; name of project manager; Avhether 
bids were opened at the yard or at the bureau; estimated cost of 
work; date of opening; date and amount of award; time for com- 
pletion ; name and address of successful bidder ; all data pertaining 
to the signature and return of contract and bond and to the distribu- 
tion of copies to parties concerned; and the date of receipt by the 
contractor of his copy of the contract, which date marked the official 
time from which to compute the contract date for completion of the 
work. This copy was forwarded by registered mail, in order that 
the bureau might have on file the registered return receipt card as 


Several indexes were maintained : A cross-card index of contracts 
and contractors; a visible index of completed, uncompleted, rejected, 
and canceled projects, classified by yards and stations; a current 
index of all contracts by yards and stations, on thin white paper 
(carbon backed), for blue printing, showing work completed and in 
progress, with the present status of the latter, and giving total costs 
to date. This latter index was established, and is still maintained, as 
a basis for preparation of annual reports of the contract section for 
the chief of the bureau. With but- three or four exceptions, all con- 
tracts were drafted and typed by the contract section, and all final 
decisions in connection with their adjustment and settlement were 
made under bureau authority. 

A penal bond in a sum equal to 30 per cent of the contract price 
was required b}^ the bureau on all public works contracts except those 
awarded on a cost-plus basis. On cost-plus work the bureau fixed the 
amount of the bond at 5 per cent of the contract price. 

Bonds were furnished with either a corporation or individuals as 
sureties, a stamp tax of 1 per cent of the amount of the premium 
charged being required on corporate bonds, and a 50-cent stamp on 
personal bonds, unless a charge was made for its execution, in which 
case stamps totaling 1 per cent of the amount of the premium 
charged were required as on corporate bonds. The largest single 
stamp received was one for $500. 

Late bids for work were accepted when it was evident from the 
postmark on the envelope that the bid had been mailed in reasonable 
time to reach the bureau by the hour set for the opening. Bids 
forwarded to the bureau by registered mail, whether having a spe- 
cial-delivery stamp affixed or not, were greatly delayed in delivery. 
One bid mailed at Buffalo, and plainly postmarked, reached the 
bureau eight days after mailing. This was due entirely to con- 
gestion in the Washington registry office, an investigation showing 
that this office, equipped to handle a normal receipt of 5,000 
packages daily, was occasionally called upon, during the war period, 
to handle 50,000 packages per day. 

Changes. — Under lump-sum contracts, changes, involving addi- 
tions to, deductions from, or substitutions in the work originally 
contracted for, were deemed desirable and occurred with greater or 
less frequency as the requirements unfolded on the site of projects. 
In the more flexible contract types, such as the unit-price and cost- 
plus forms, the issuing of formal instructions by the bureau and the 
fixing of a definite price for changes were not so essential to com- 
pliance with the terms of the contract as in the first-mentioned type, 
since payment for the changes could be made without the issuing of 
what is known as a " change order." A change order, however, was 
neci?ssarv for each modification in any contract of the lump-sum 


type. Copies of such orders, besides being sent to the contractor, 
were forwarded to the Auditor for the Nav}' Department, the public 
works and disbursing officers at the 5'ard or station concerned, the 
bondsmen, and those within the department who required them for 
the purposes of accounting and record. 

Adjustments. — Early in April, 1917, the steel trade, through the 
American Iron and Steel Institute, agreed to supply the Navy's re- 
quirements (up to a certain fixed tonnage) at the special Government 
prices of 2.5 cents per pound for reinforcing rods, bars, and shapes, 
and 2.9 cents per pound for plates, both figures being base prices, 
f. o. b. Pittsburgh, Pa. These were considerably lower than the 
prices then prevailing. The bureau immediately began requiring 
of all bidders the steel quotations upon which their offers were predi- 
cated, and inserted adjustment clauses in the contracts. Upon an 
award being made, the tonnage requirements were obtained from the 
contractor and transmitted to the American Iron and Steel Institute, 
who in turn allocated the orders where they could best be filled. The 
contractor was immediately instructed by the bureau as to the mill 
or mills from which to obtain the steel, as well as the price to be paid, 
and advised him concerning the rate of credit accruing to the Gov- 
ernment. This credit was, in all cases, the difference between the 
base prices used by the contractor in his proposal and the Govern- 
ment prices; the card extras for cutting, bending, and size and the 
freight not entering into the adjustment, since they would have been 
the same in any case. At times, when it became apparent that delay 
on the part of the mills in delivering the steel according to schedule 
would have seriously retarded the progress of the work, the bureau 
authorized purchases for immediate needs from stock at an advanced 
price. This necessitated the calculation of a different set of adjust- 
ment figures. The bureau kept in close touch at all times, through 
the American Iron and Steel Institute, with conditions at the mills 
furnishing steel to Navy contractors and with the locations and 
prices of stock or warehouse material. As a result, very few delays 
on account of the steel situation occurred, and advantage was taken 
of the lowest warehouse prices. 

In the latter part of September, 1917, just after the Navy's 
tonnage agreement had been fulfilled, the base prices were raised 
by the War Industries Board, which had shortly before begun to 
function, to 2.9 cents per pound for reinforcing rods and bars, 3 
cents per pound for shapes, and 3.25 cents per pound for plates, all 
f. o. b. Pittsl)urgh. This required still another set of adjustment 
figures. In December, 1917, the cost of stock steel was fixed and 
agreed upon by the Nav3% in conjunction Avith the War Industries 
Board, at 1 cent per pound over that of mill material, whereas 
previous to that time it had been costing from 2 to 7 cents per 


pound more. This resulted in a considerable saving in money and 
time, and reduced the number of protests and discussions as to the 
proper allowances to be made. A close touch was still kept, how- 
ever, with the locations and character of the manufacturers' stocks. 
Later, when the selling prices of steel as fixed by the "War Industries 
Board became generally known to contractors, few adjustments had 
to be made, particularly when the bid stated that the fixed prices had 
been used. 

All adjustments were made by the public works officer upon the 
completion of the work. In some instances, these adjustments oper- 
ated to increase the contract price, especially when the contractor 
bid on the special Government prices and was instructed, because 
of the small quantity required, to obtain from stock. Cases such as 
this, however, were very rare. On steel adjustments, several hundreds 
of thousands of dollars were saved to the Government by this bureau 

In a similar fashion, in June, 1917, arrangements were made with 
cement companies whereby the Government obtained special prices. 
On this commodity, however, the Navy actually purchased the ma- 
terial, storing it at the several yards. It was parceled out to the con- 
tractors as it was needed, and the contract price was reduced by the 
product of the bid price for cement delivered at the site times the 
actual quantity used. A reduction was made on each monthly 
voucher for payment, according to the quantity used during the 
month. Due account was taken of sacks not returned, and of those 
returned but rejected by the mill as unfit for further use. As the 
bureau obtained the cement in large quantities, the special prices were 
approximately 25 cents per barrel less than the prevailing market 
prices. This resulted in a saving of thousands of dollars to the Gov- 
ernment, through the operations of this bureau individually. There 
were at all times sufficient quantities on hand to keep contractors 
supplied, and the aggregate of time thus gained was, in all prob- 
ability, very great. 

Expediting. — The contract section in the early stages of the war, 
before the priority system was put into operation, assisted as much 
as possible in expediting the delivery of manufactured articles to 
contractors by writing letters and sending telegrams explaining the 
urgent need of the completion of the contract. This correspondence 
in most cases had the desired effect, and supplies were obtained more 
quickly than if such action had not been taken. At the same time, a 
tracer system on shipments was adopted, which, after the car initial 
and number, its routing, the place and date of shipment, the com- 
modity, the consignee and consignor, the bill-of -lading number, etc., 
had all been obtained, located cars and expedited them to destination. 
During the railroad congestion this work was invaluable to con- 


tractors, and the Government benefited by obtaining the completed 
work sooner than would otherwise have been possible. 


At the time of the functional subdividing of the Design Division, it 
was felt that information relative to the status of projects should be 
obtainable at a single point. Tliis was considered necessary not only 
as a matter of convenience to bidders, materialmen, and trade rep- 
resentatives in general, but also as a means to obviate numerous in- 
quiries which would have seriously encroached upon the time of the 
various project managers and have handicapped them in the -execu- 
tion of their rapidly multiplying duties. To accomplish this result 
a new office, designated the " information section," was established 
under the Clerical Division, but it was transferred after a short period 
to the Construction Division, to which it was realized the duties more 
properly related. A change in name to the " plan section " was ef- 
fected. Methods presented themselves for recording and keeping 
conveniently on open file the several classes of data, as follows: (a) 
Lists of projects contemplated; (b) records of projects under ad- 
vertisement; (c) copies of drawings and specifications; (d) lists of 
prospective bidders; (e) briefs of bids received; and (f) records of 
awards of contracts. 

Cognizance over the plan files of the bureau is placed with this 
office. Since the declaration of war 30,000 drawings have been re- 
corded and filed. 

All completed specifications and proposed addenda are submitted 
to the chief of the bureau for approval through this section. This 
approval carries with it authority to advertise and to issue the 
bidding data to interested parties. 

In view of the fact that over 75 per cent of the bureau's blue print- 
ing was, and is, for the purposes of issuing drawings to prospective 
bidders, such work was naturally placed under the cognizance of this 
office. As the work increased and as contractors were compelled to 
seek Government contracts because of the lessening of commercial 
work, the capacity of the duplicating facilities of the bureau and of 
the commercial firms having annual contracts became so sorely taxed 
that the " deposit system " was inaugurated. 

A scale of deposits was established, varying in amount with the 
bulk of bidding data pertaining to a project, without reference to 
the estimated cost of the construction involved. Checks or money 
orders were required in the following amounts : $10 for 10 drawings 
or fewer, $20 for 11 to 20 drawings, $30 for 21 to 30, and so on up 
to $50. Where more than 50 drawings pertained a deposit of $100 
was required, which was also the maximum. A copy of specifications 
A\'as included with each set of plans. 


After award of contracts, deposits were not released until the several 
parcels of bidding data were returned to the bureau, except in the case 
of the successful bidder, whose deposit was automatically returned. 

The maximum deposit was required on several projects involving 
ii large number of buildings, notably the training camps ; but in by 
far the greatest number of instances a $10 earnest covered the data 

The above scheme of charges practically limited the issue of draw- 
ings and specifications to parties directly interested, and resulted in 
a net saving of about 40 per cent in the amount of blue printing. 


Under the organization of the Construction Division, of November, 
1916, all matters of inspection were handled by one assistant, with the 
part-time assistance of a stenographer. In the early part of 1917 
various filing systems and indexes were established to facilitate the 
handling of the work, and these readily expanded under the later 
inundation and proved invaluable. 

Inspection of all engineering materials, such as structural steel, 
motors, turbines, pumps, pipe, etc., which require special tests or 
examination at the point of or during j)rocess of manufacture, is 
under the cognizance of this section, whether such materials pertain 
to public works contracts or suppW contracts. 

The bureau maintains no inspection force directlj^, but utilizes 
the services of inspectors of engineering material and inspectors 
of machinery, under the Bureau of Engineering; timber inspectors, 
under the Bureau of Construction and Repair; and experts of the 
Bureau of Standards, under the Department of Commerce. 

As a result of war-time expansion, a separate bureau inspection 
organization was created, which engaged, at the peak of operations, 
two male assistants, one typist acting on part time as file clerk, and 
three stenographers. 

Field forces increased in like proportion, and as an indication of 
the volume of work performed it is of interest to note that three 
assistant inspectors were employed on full time in Detroit, solely for 
the inspection of motor vehicles bought under the cognizance of this 
bureau. Another interesting activity arose in connection with the 
procuring of secondhand locomotive cranes. The competition for 
such equipment became so great that the use of letters gave way to 
that of telegrams, and finally it became necessary to instruct the 
approximately 600 assistant inspectors in the field to keep on the 
alert for cranes wherever they might be found, and if one was located 
which appeared to be suitable, to obtain certain specified facts, such 
as capacity, length of boom, wheel arrangement, age, etc., and then 
to report at once, by telephone, to the chief inspector at the bureau. 
37022—21 30 


A list of requirements was on file, in tabulated form, and if the 
assistant inspector's information indicated that the crane in question 
would fit any request on the list he was instructed to notify tlie 
owner oralh^ that same was commandeered, and to remain in at- 
tendance until the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts could send the 
telegraphic notice of commandeer. Such notice was on the wire, in 
several instances, within two hours of the time of the receipt of the 
assistant inspector's message. 

Other functions which were, and are now, imder the cognizance 
of the inspection section, include the procuring and filing of monthly 
reports under contracts and yard allotments, progress photographs, 
and schedules of anticipated progress; and the procuring of piling 
reports, hydrographic reports, subsurface reports, etc. 

Monthly reports on contracts are made on cards 5 by 8 inches in 
size and show all pertinent data as to progress. They are filed in a 
visible-index device of the vertical pocket type. 

Monthly reports on work under allotments are similarly prepared 
and filed. 

Construction photographs are exceedingly important for the 
proper following up of projects by the bureau, and such photographs 
are required monthly on all contracts and also on all major work 
under allotment. These are indexed by yards and stations, and under 
36 subheadings according to the use required of the several structures. 
All prints are filed in cloth-mounted envelopes, which are lettered 
on the face to correspond to the cards of a separate index file. 

Schedules of progress are secured from contractors at the begin- 
ning of work, in order to ascertain their expected progress on all 
major items which go to make up their completed jobs. Such docu- 
ments are of value to the bureau in keeping a check on the actual 
prosecution of work, and also in connection with contractors' claims 
for extensions of time. 

Piling reports are secured from public Avorks officers, and afford 
pertinent data concerning the driving of all piles, showing such 
details as weight of hammer, height of fall, size of pile at butt and 
point, penetration, number of blows required to seat, etc. These 
data are listed in tabulated form and are accompanied by a key dia- 
gram. Such information affords an insight into foundation condi- 
tions at various points throughout a yard, and is of importance to 
the bureau for that reason, among others. 

Hydrographic reports are secured from yards quarterly, semi- 
annualh', or annually, as conditions of bottom dictate, and shoAV the 
depth of water in all berths and slips. 

Subsurface reports are received from yards quarterly, and furnish 
information as to any underground service which has been extended 
during the period. 




A division known as the Maintenance, Operating, and Clerical 
Division, under the direction of the chief clerk of the bureau, was 
established by a bureau order, dated Marcli 26, 1917, and was super- 
seded, under bureau order No. 121, August 6, 1917, by the Mainte- 
nance and Operating Division, under the direction of Mr. William 
M. Smith, special assistant, formerly chief clerk. 

Thef' duties assigned to the Maintenance and Operating Division 
were as follows: 

1. Financial accounts and records. 

2. Annual estimates. 

3. Navy yard personnel (clerical and technical). 

4. Requisitions. 

5. Furniture records. 

6. Officers' quarters. 

7. Navy yard transportation facilities. 

8. Navy yard communication systems. 

9. Public works data book (confidential). 

10. Rook of yard maps (confidential). 

11. List of stations (confidential). 

12. Accounting system at navy yards and job orders. 

(1) Financial accounts and records includes the keeping of obligation and 
expenditure accounts of all appropriations under the cognizance of the bureau ; 
the determining and making of regular and special allotments from annual 
and special appropriations ; examination of reports of expenditures and making 
proper entries therefrom. 

(2) Annnal estimates includes the calling for, getting in, and tabulation 
of annual estimates for public works and other Yards and Docks appropriations ; 
arrangement of explanatory data for convenient examination and action ; 
securing comment of interested bureaus or offices ; keeping record of action 
taken on each item ; preparation of explanatory statements for Secretary or 
congressional committees. 

(3) Navy yard personnel includes determining upon the number, rating, and 
pay of technical and clerical emploj^ees at navy yards and stations under the 
cognizance of the bureau ; securing authorization of necessary positions and 
selecting eligibles for appointment ; consideration of recommendations for pro- 
motions, reductions, or dismissals : provision of necessary facilities for health 



and comfort of uieu ; interviews and correspondence concernin;^ appointments 
and promotions. 

(4) Requisitions includes the examination of i-equisitions from yards and 
stations and keeping record of receipt of and action on same; determining the 
necessity for materials or articles required for ; the legal availal)ility of ap- 
propriations proposed to be used ; reasonableness of estimated costs and pro- 
posed time of deliveries; consideration of bids referred to the bureau for 
action ; arranging inspection in special cases, consideration of changes in orders, 
and matters of shipment and delays. 

(5) Furniture records includes determining proper allowance of furniture for 
officers' quarters and offices ; selection of designs ; placing of orders ; keeping 
record of furniture on hand; consideration of surveys covering repairs and 

(6) Officers' quarter's includes determination of necessity for repairs and 
alterations to officers' quarters and keeping record of occupants and assign- 
ment of quarters. 

(7) Navy yard transportation facilities includes determination of the neces- 
sity for equipment and the type, capacity, and number of various facilities or 
articles, such as locomotives, cars, locomotive cranes, motor trucks, passenger- 
carrying vehicles, railroad and crane tracks, horses and mules, garages, stables, 
roundhouses, etc. ; keeping a record of equipment on hand ; consideration of 
surveys covering repairs and replacements. 

(8) Navy yard commxmication systems includes determination of the type 
and extent of telephone, telegraph, tube, and other systems of communication 
at navy yards; making of necessary contracts for service; surveys covering 
repairs and replacements, etc. 

(9) Public iDorks data book (confidential) includes the keeping up to date of 
the data book. "Public Works of the Navy" (loose-leaf system), covering mis- 
cellaneous data concerning all places under the .jurisdiction of the depart- 
ment, details of land, facilities, dry docks, coaling plants, and structures of 
all kinds, showing their size, character, age, cost, etc. ; preparation, printing. 
and distribution of corrected pages. 

(10) Book of yard maps (confidential) includes tlie pi-eparing and issue at 
suitable intervals of maps of navy yards and stations, also the procuring and 
filing of plot plans of all land under the control of the Navy Department. 

(11) List of stations (confidential) under Navy Department includes the 
pi'eparing and issuing, periodically, of lists of stations and places owned or 
rented by the Navy Department. 

(12) Accouniinr/ system includes all, matters relating to accounting system at 
navy yards and examination of .iob orders. 

The clerical section was at the same time transferred to a newdy organized 
clerical division under the direction of the chief clerk (see chap. 1). 


"While the' Bureau of Supplies and Accounts is charged with the 
duty of keeping the accounts of expenditure of the Naval Establish- 
ment, it has always been necessary for the Bureau of Yards and 
Docks to keep obligation accounts of its many appropriations in 
order to know in advance what funds were free of incumbrance for 
each authorized project or purpose, and to determine whether the 


cost of work was kept witliin the approved allotment of funds 

The system of handling funds placed under the cognizance of the 
bureau by the appropriation acts is known as the allotment system, 
which is in effect an extension of the appropriation system. Congress 
makes appropriations by Avhich it places at the disposal of the chief 
of the bureau a certain sum of money for a certain purpose or a 
certain class of objects. The bureau, in turn, by making allotments, 
places at the disposal of the officer, charged with the execution or 
performance of the project or job, a sum of money for the purpose. 
Each appropriation made by Congress for the use of the bureau, and 
each allotment made by the bureau for the use of the navy yards and 
stations, constitutes a separate and distinct debit and credit account. 
Under the law, appropriations can only be expended for the specific 
purpose for which they are made, and, by bureau order, the same rule 
applies to allotments. Accurate accounting is therefore essential to 
prevent overoxpenditurcs and misapplication of funds. 

At the beginning of the war this system was in effect. It was fore- 
seen that there would be a sudden and enormous increase in the num- 
ber of accounts to be handled, due to war conditions and the necessity 
of knowing more promptly the condition of all accounts. In order 
that the sufficiency of the system to meet the approaching conditions 
might be definitely established, or another system adopted if neces- 
sary, the bureau secured the services of a firm of expert accountants, 
who made an exhaustive study of the system and its operation, and 
found it sufficiently elastic to absorb any increase in volume of work 
that might result from war conditions. The largest number of open 
accounts was carried during the first part of 1919, when there were 
■497 appropriation accounts and 15,379 allotment accounts active. 
These covered the accounting for approximately $342,000,000, and 
were successfully handled by a force varying from two to eight book- 
keepers and clerks. 

Every effort was made by the bureau to impress upon all officers 
and others charged with the expenditure of funds the necessity of 
exercising care to prevent any excessive or improper expenditure ana 
of keeping proper record of all financial transactions. The tendency 
toward extravagance and disregard of formalities attending the ex- 
penditure of money in cases of emergency is always strong, and as 
the emergency was very great, the bureau felt it advisable to issue 
warnings from time to time as reminders to those executing the orders 
of the department that eventually a full accounting would be ex- 


Early in the war period a placard ^Yas issued reading as follows : 

You can not get work done without money. You can not 
get money except from Congress, through the depart- 

The department can not give you money unless it has 
been given money by Congress for the purpose for 
which you want it. 

You have no right to spend money which has not been 
allotted to you by the office or bureau to which it has 
been given by Congress. 

You have no right to overdraw your account. 

If you want money, ask the man who has it and ' tell 
him why. 

If you want anything that costs money, get the money 

If you are in a hurry, say so, and ask for credit till you 
can get the money. 

Don't incur an obligation you are not prepared to meet, 
and don't ask anyone to do so for you. 

Money is needed to win the war — don't ask for it for any 
purpose which does not contribute to that end. 

Every penny must be accounted for. 

You will be asked what you did with what was given 

Hang this where you can see it every day — and read it — 
it will help you. 

Don't think because you do not handle the cash that you 
need not bother about the money — where it comes from 
or how much is spent. 

COOPEIIATE — We are all working toward the same end. 
Help those who must get money from Congress — help 
those who must pay it out — help those who niust ac- 
count for it — think of your coworkers and try to help 


The annual estimates prepared by the bureau consist of those cov- 
ering the annual appropriations for bureau salaries, maintenance of 
navy yards and stations, repairs and preservation of the property of 
the Navy ashore, contingencies, and the specific appropriations for 
the construction of new public works. The volume of the work 
involved in the preparation and submission of these estimates during 
the war period did not greatl}^ increase, for the reason that war 


expenditures were mostly made from large lump-sum appropriations 
placed at the disposal of the Secretary of the Navy. No increase in 
force was necessary to handle this item of the work of the division. 


The sudden activity resulting from the declaration of war required 
a large increase in the technical, clerical, messenger, and civilian 
police forces at the various navy yards and stations. Early action 
was taken to secure data indicating the probable requirements in this 
respect and to provide through the regular channels the necessary 
personnel promptly upon call. The result was fairly satisfactory, 
notwithstanding the great difficulty in securing competent employees 
without calling to such work men qualified for military service, or 
otherwise interfering with the more important work of the war. By 
close cooperation with the Civil Service Commission the bureau was 
able to have practically all appointments made in strict accordance 
with the law and regulations governing the civil service, and thus to 
avoid complaints and controversies. 


The requisitions involved under this heading are those covering the 
purchase of materials and supplies, or the procurement of services 
by contract, for jobs of a minor character, under funds provided for 
the work under the cognizance of the bureau at the various navy 
yards and stations. These ranged in importance, judged by the 
amount involved, from a few dollars to nearly $1,500,000. Requisi- 
tions are prepared on a prescribed blank form at the navy yard or 
station where the material or services are required, except in special 
cases, as where the bureau prepares a requisition covering articles or 
material to be delivered to various places. The form sets forth by 
items the material required, and indicates when and where it is to be 
delivered, where it is to be inspected, the appropriation and par- 
ticular account to which the expense involved is to be charged, and 
other pertinent facts necessary to enable the purchasing officer to 
secure competitive proposals and make award, arrange inspection, 
and have delivery made. Upon receipt of a requisition by the bureau 
a record of its receipt is duly made, after which a number of questions 
arise. Has the requisition been properly prepared? Is it signed by 
the proper official? Does it show the particular account to be 
charged? Are sufficient funds available under such account? Are 
the quantities called for reasonable or excessive? Are they suitable 
for the purpose? Could any material in stock be used instead of 
buying that requested? These and at times other questions require 


a most thorough and careful consideration of every requisition han- 
dled by the division by employees possessing excellent judgment 
and a considerable degree of technical knowledge and experience. 
From April, 1917, to July, 1919, 36,721 requisitions were received and 
28,676 were approved. From time accounts kept at various times 
it was found that 1.2 minutes of the time of the head of the division 
was required to vise and sign each requisition after it had been 
checked and made ready for signature. Upon this basis, and count- 
ing 7^ hours to a day, approximately 130 days of the period of 730 
working days reported upon, or approximately 18 per cent, were 
devoted to this work by the head of the division. 

In addition to the handling of the requisitions as stated above, the 
requisition section also handled such of the bids made for furnishing 
materials and supplies as were referred to the bureau for recom- 
mendation by purchasing officers, and arranged for the inspection of 
the materials and supplies purchased on the requisitions where in- 
spection at the place of manufacture was desired. 


The bureau is charged by law and regulations with providing fur- 
niture for Government houses and offices in navy yards and naval 
stations. All officers of the Navy, except midshipmen, are entitled 
to have furnished quarters provided for their occupancy or to be 
paid commutation therefor if quarters are not provided. At the 
beginning of the war, 289 sets of officers' quarters were available for 
use, furnished in accordance with the established allowance. This 
allowance covers four classes of quarters, namelj^, commandants', 
commissioned officers', bachelor officers', and Avarrant officers', and 
has been arranged with a view to providing furnishings in every 
way commensurate with the needs and standing of the service, 
durable and of good quality, without being elaborate. Prior to the 
war the average cost of furnishing a typical set of quarters was 
$1,200. At the present time articles are costing approximately three 
times the former prices. 

During the war a great many temporary quarters, largely bach- 
elor quarters of one or two rooms, were provided and furnished, 
principally at temporary training camps and section bases. When 
these activities ceased after the signing of the armistice the furni- 
ture was turned into store and reissued from time to time as required 
to replace worn-out furniture in the permanent quarters, w^hich had 
increased to 411 in number. In this way the loss which would have 
attended the sale of slightly used articles was avoided. 

The very large increase in office personnel during the war necessi- 
tated the purchase of large quantities of office furniture, principally 



desks and chairs, from time to time. Records of such furniture were 
maintained at the various navy yards and stations but not at the 

Upon the curtailment of activities after the signing of the armis- 
tice, all serviceable office furniture was stored for future issue except 
in a few cases where comparatively small quantities were transferred 
to other departments of the Government or sold to the new occupants 
of rented offices in order to avoid the expense of moving. Articles 
which had been damaged or much worn in use were surveyed and 
sold in the usual manner. 


As before stated, all officers of the Navy excepting midshipmen 
are entitled by law to have quarters provided for their occupancy 
when serving "with troops," which means, practically, when on 
active duty ashore. From the earliest days of the Navy it w^as the 
practice to provide living quarters in the various navy yards for the 
commandants and other officers whose duties made it essential that 
they be present at the yard at all times and available for instant 
duty in cases of emergency. The same rule still applies, and quar- 
ters are provided, not as a matter of convenience or comfort for the 
officers, but for the benefit of the Government and as an essential 
element of military discipline and protection. 

The available quarters for officers are assigned according to the 
relative importance of the presence of the officers at the yard at all 
hours, without regard to their rank. 

At the beginning of the war 289 sets of quarters were available 
under the cognizance of the bureau ; during the war period 122 sets 
were provided. 

A record is kept in the bureau of the name, rank, and duty of the 
occupant of each set of quarters and the dates of occupancy and 

A per annum allowance of funds for repairs and alterations of 
quarters is provided as follows : 

Number of chambers. 















An additional allowance of 20 per cent of the amounts above stated 
is made for necessary repairs incident to each new occupancy. 



The principal equipment required to meet the transportation re- 
quirements of the navy yards and stations includes locomotive cranes 
for the handling of heavy weights in transit, locomotives, railroad 
cars, motor trucks and trailers, passenger-carrying automobiles, 
motorcycles, bic^'cles, tractors, horses, wagons, etc. Ample equip- 
ment of this character in time of peace is important as an economic 
feature; in time of war it is a military necessity. The problem of 
transportation was one of the greatest of the war, and it was so 
regarded by the bureau and given the most careful and constant 

On June 30, 1916, the nine navy yards were equipped with 56 loco- 
motive cranes, 25 locomotives, 175 horses and mules, and 26 horse- 
drawn passenger-carrying vehicles. No motor trucks nor passenger 
automobiles had been provided up to this time. 

Eealizing the inadequacy of this equipment for war-time activities, 
the bureau took steps in August, 1916, to provide motor trucks for 
the navy yards, and the following month further steps were taken to 
provide 10 passenger automobiles. In March, April, and May, 1917, 
requisitions were made for 31 locomotive cranes, which were to be 
distributed to the various navy yards and stations. These cranes 
were secured at prewar prices, as they had been or were being manu- 
factured under prewar conditions of the labor and material markets. 
Shortly afterwards, as the war requirements developed, the manu- 
facturers of locomotive cranes were overwhelmed with orders, which 
far exceeded the normal combined capacity of their plants, and it 
became necessary for the War Industries Board to allocate the 
product of the plants to the various activities of the Government 
according to the importance of their requirements with reference to 
the paramount problem — the winning of the war. 

The bureau w^as complimented by the head of the crane section of 
the War Industries Board upon its foresight in having provided for 
its most urgent needs in advance of the general demand, and was con- 
gratulated upon having saved to the department a very substantial 
sum by securing prewar prices upon this equipment. 

In April, 1917, requisition was also made for additional locomo- 
tives, flat cars, box cars, motor trucks of various sizes, passenger auto- 
mobiles, and horse-drawn carts, wagons, and lumber trucks. 

Throughout the war period the bureau adhered to the manufac- 
turers' standards in the purchase of transportation equipment and 
found no necessity, or even desirability, of undertaking to standardize 
the products of the various makers. This was partly due to the fact 
that the requirements were mostly of a commercial nature, or of such 
character that the commercial product could be easily and inexpen- 


Typical yard 7-ton back-dumping truck. 

Typical yard motor street swim [i 


Typical yard ornne-tnick liaiidlins life raft. 

Typical yard crane truck for heavy weights. 



sively converted for special service when required. It was believed 
also, and found from subsequent experience to be true, that manu- 
facturers took much pride in having their standard product used for 
war service, and were not only willing but eager to follow it in the 
service and see that it operated efficiently and satisfactorily. This 
feeling on the part of manufacturers Avas of great assistance in 
promptly securing spare parts for repairs and expert advice when 

A comparative statement of the transportation equipment at the 
navy yards, showing the equipment on hand at the end of each fiscal 
year from 1916 to 1920, inclusive, illustrates the growth of the trans- 
portation systems during the war period. Where no figures are given, 
data are not available. 

Comparative statement of transportation equipment at the navy yards at the 
end of fiscal years 1916 to 1920, inclusive. - 









Locomotive cranes 


























- 25 














































































1 g 


Railroad cars 


Horses and mules 







Passenger vehicles (horse) 

Passenger vehicles (motor) 


\ Motor trucks 



Locomotive cranes 




Railroad cars 


Horses and mules 








Passenger vehicles (horse) 

Passenger vehicles (motor) . . 




New York 

Locomotive cranes 




Railroad cars 


Horses and mules 






Passenger vehicles (horse) 

Passenger vehicles (motor) 


Motor trucks.. . 



Locomotive cranes 




Railroad cars 


Horses and mules 







Passenger vehicles (horse) 

Passenger vehicles (motor) 


Motor trucks 



Locomotive cranes 




Railroad cars 


Horses and mules 




Passenger vehicles (horse) 

Passenger vehicles (motor) 


Motor trucks 



Locomotive cranes . . ... 




Railroad cars 


Horses and mules 






Passenger vehicles (horse).-. ..:..: 


Motor trucks 





RaUroad cars 





4 i 





Passenger vehicles (horse) 


Motor trucks 


Mare Island... 

Locomotive cranes 



Railroad cars 1 



37 1 



Motor trucks 




Comparative statement of transportation equipment at the navy yards at the 
end of fiscal years 1916 to 1920, inclusive — Continued. 








Puget Sound 

Locomotive cranes 





















Railroad cars 









Passenger vehicles (horse) 

Passenger vehicles (motor) 


Motor trucks 






Railroad cars 






Passenger vehicles (horse) 

Passenger vehicles (motor) 


Motor trucks 


During 1917 and 1018 orders were placed for motor vehicles and 
motor-truck trailers to be sent abroad as follows: Passenger cars, 
343; motor trucks, 594; motorcj'cles, 237; motor-truck trailers, 211. 
At the time of the signing of the armistice a number of these orders 
remained unfilled; at other times diversions or cancellations were 
ordered owing to changed conditions; so that the actual shipments 
abroad were reduced to the following quantities : Passenger cars, 261 ; 
motor trucks, 375 ; motorcycles, 197 ; motor-truck trailers, 194. The 
approximate total cost of this equipment was $2,700,000. 


The various Government-owned communication systems were ex- 
tended and otherwise improved during the war period as circum- 
stances required. While there was a very large increase in the 
business to be handled, there arose no necessity for any radical change 
in prewar methods, and the expansion was, therefore, handled in a 
routine way without difficulty. The operation of the systems and of 
the privatelj^-owned lines required for use outside the navy yards 
and stations during the war was under the cognizance of the Director 
of Communications, under the Chief of Naval Operations, and the 
activities of the Bureau of Yards and Docks were limited to matters 
pertaining to the Government-owned physical property. 


The " Public Works Data Book," so called, is a loose-leaf binder 
publication, designed to contain current information in detail con- 
cerning the physical property of the Naval Establishment on shore 
of a permanent character. This includes land, buildings, dry docks, 
sea walls, piers, roads and pavements, railroad and other tracks, 
building ways for vessels, marine railways, storage plants, sewers, 


Typical yard locomotive crane. 

Twenty-five-ton locomotive crane on elevated trLstlc for twin minesweeper construction. 
Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. 


ti\i' ami duinij-ear^. 


Typical yard 5-ton truck and trailer. 

Adaptation of yard t 
37022—21 31 


pipe lines. tele<!iaph and telephone lines, railroad and other tracks 
and equipment, power plants, radio towers, and similar property con- 
stituting the public works and public utilities of the Xavy. Revision 
of the contents of this book is one of the duties of the Maintenance 
and Operating Division. 


The book of yard maps consists of a loose-leaf binder, measuring 
16 bj' 21 inches, containing lithograph prints of the maps of navy 
yards and stations and of other important shore establishments. 
The maps are made annually and shoAv the conditions existing on 
June 30 of each year. 




The moiiuinental State, AVar, and Xavy Buildiiijr adjacent to the 
White House long ago became inadequate to its requirements, and 
various bureaus of the War and Xavy Departments had to seek office 
space elsewhere. Three years before tlie war a 0-story building was 
rented for naval bureaus and completely occupied by them. In this 
structure, near the corner of Xew York Avenue and Eighteenth 
Street, and known as the Xavy Annex, the Bureau of Yards and 
Docks had quarters. 

The threat of war caused a further overrunning of accommoda- 
tions, and the actual declaration of hostilities soon produced un- 
precedented colonization by numerous Government agencies of all 
conceivable office spaces in the city. The expansion of the War De- 
partment was naturally the greatest of any, but the Xavy's case 
was analogous. On July 1, 1917. this department was occupying 
space in nine different buildings, and was severely overcroAvded in 

The Bureau of Yards and Docks, for example, removed its head- 
quarters from the Xavy Annex to the American Xational Bank 
Building on July 28, 1917. By this move it increased its floor space 
from 8,300 to 28,600 square feet. Eight floors and the basement of 
tlie banking structure were occupied by it, but some of its most im- 
portant offices were still housed in three other Avidely separated 

Expedients for taking care of the continuous expansion of the 
Xavy Department were carefully considered— rentals, commandeer- 
ing of finished and unfinished structures, remodeling, and " emer- 
gency " construction. At one time during August, 1917, there was 
drawn up a detailed assignment of space for naval bureaus in the 
unfinished Arlington Building, which was set aside soon afterwards 
for the new Bureau of War Kisk Insurance. 

Then a scheme Avas formulated in the War Department Avhich Avas 
to make one bite of Iavo large cherries. This w^as nothing less than 
a proposal to shelter tlie Avhole oAcrflow of the Xavy Department and 



all homeless agencies of the War Department in a monster block of 
temporary 3-storv frame and pebl)lo-dash buildings at Sixth and 
B Streets, to contain 800.000 square feet of net office area — the 
Henry Park project. The Xavy was assigned one-third of this 
space, $2,000,000 was duly appropriated for the undertaking by 
Congress on October G. 1917. construction began on October 11, and 
an engineer in the Bureau of Yards and Docks, under the direction 
of Commander A. L. Parsons, resumed liis endless task of spa(;c as- 
signment for the Navy, The entire group of buildings, possibly the 
largest of its particular kind extant, reached final completion in 
February, 1918; and long before that time the demands of both the 
departments made it certain that placing the Xavy Department in 
Henry Park would be an ill-advised move. Fifty thousand square 
feet was the maximum space ever occupied in this group by naval 

Early in January it became clear that the Navy must shoulder 
its own burden. The work of devising adequate accommodations 
was delegated to the Bureau of Yards and Docks as the agency of 
" shore construction " — a violent departure from the orderly pro- 
cedure of peace times wherein the Fine Arts Commission exerts a 
controlling influence under the immediate cognizance of Congress. 
Some demur was occasioned, but the war could not wait. 

A bold solution presented itself. Efficiency demanded the location 
of the entire Navy Department under a single roof, and its activities 
and documents required quarters of fire-resistive construction. 
Speed in erection was essential, but an indefinite term of occupancy 
of the completed structure Avas contemplated as likely, while high 
unit costs were forbidden. 

The use of reinforced concrete seemed to meet the foregoing con- 
ditions most fully. Previous experience with this material by the 
bureau under war conditions had been extensive and fortunate, and 
Commander Pars'ons was able to make out a very clear case for its 
use in the project under consideration. Investigation revealed that, 
while a stupendous structure would be recjuired, it could be built 
of concrete with great rii])idity and at a cost not unreasonably above 
that of an equivalent frame structure. The interest of a construc- 
tion company of proved resources was enlisted, assuring the requisite 
labor and skill. Ixegular and speedy delivery of materials had 
alread}'^ been placed within the Government's command. Presented 
with such data, the House Appropriations Committee was favorably 
impressed with the argument for concrete. 

The next problem was the selection of a site, and informal surveys 
of the city were made afoot and by motor, the committee cooperating. 
Vai'ious locations were suggested, and it early developed that no 
structure so huge as the one contemplated could be usefully placed 




in Washington without (lish)catinir some ahTady formulated [)hin of 
civic development: so that the choice between evils became somewhat 
eclectic. The Ellipse was discussed and abandoned after preliminary 
plans had been drawn. A site south of the Tidal Basin was avail- 
able and was carefully studied only to be given up on account of its 
inaccessibility. The Monument grounds seemed to offer a solution, 
and plans were elaborated for an L-shaped structure to the north 
and west of the Monument. But ground contours there necessitated 
grading at a high cost, and many valuable trees of long growth 
would be destroyed ; furthermore, the project outgrew^ the available 
bounds during the very process of discussion. 

Finally the tract of land in Potomac Park south of B Street and 
west of Seventeenth Street w'as discovered. The War De})artment by 
this time had submitted formal request that still more offices for its 
bureaus be built along with the new undertaking, 2)ractically doubling 
the space requirements and necessitating a ground area extending 
nearly 2,000 feet from Seventeenth to Twenty-first Streets and some 
COO feet south from B Street. This tract could be easily served w^ith 
transportation by the building of a loop of car track of moderate 
length. The objection to the site was the proposed building's inter- 
ference with the plan of development of the Lincoln ISIemorial land- 
scape, and this objection had simply to be waived for future adjust- 
ment in view of the instant exigency. The term of occupancy of 
these concrete buildings, whether "permanent" or "temporary," is 
to this day a moot point. It is commonly referred to as " indefinite," 
though the official title of the structures in the appropriation act 
authorizing them is '•temporary buildings." 

The project was broached before Congress in the Committer 
of the Whole House by Mr. Sherley, chairman of the Committee 
on Appropriations, on February 15, 1918. His remarks maj' 
be interj)reted as a substitute for the customary committee hearings, 
the previous discussions between the committee and the bureau hav- 
ing been informal. Interesting questions were ])ropounded V)y Mem- 
bers, to wdiich Mr. Sherley was able to return satisfactory replies. 
The discussion continued at length on February 18 and was followed 
by the passage through the House of the urgent deficiency l)ill. in- 
cluding the appropiiation for the project. This bill became law on 
March 28. 1018. 

The a})propriation for the proposed concrete buildings, $5,775,000, 
was figured on a basis of $3.31 per square foot, areas of 940,000 and 
840,000 square feet being contemplated for the Xavy and War De- 
partments, respectively. 

Meanwhile, upon authentic assurance that the deficiency bill would 
pass, the luireau had gone ahead on the project with all the speed 
possible. Tiie Turner Construction Co. of New York, a concern 


familiar with reinforced-concrete work on a maximum scale, assumed 
the <reueral contract on February 25. 1918. They erected a construc- 
tion office 220 feet long, 30 feet wide, and two stories in height at the 
corner of Nineteenth and B Streets, and installed their supervisory, 
clerical, and engineering forces without delay. Preparation of the 
site Avas prosecuted, a construction plant of novel design was in- 
stalled, and large quantities of material began to be received. Prior 
to March 1, 1918, the advance force of the bureau took up quarters 
in the Turner construction office. This force consisted of the officer 
in charge of construction, Lieut. Commander O. A. Mechlin (C. E. 
C), U. S. N. E. F., a dozen draftsmen, and a detachment of enlisted 
men serving in auxiliary capacities. Elaboration of plans on the 
part of the contractor and the bureau went forward hand in hand 
with the earlier stages of construction. Two subcontractors for 
heating and plumbing and electrical work built a joint office on the 
site during February. 

The early history of the project may now be summarized, as 
follows : 

(a) Preliminary studies, January and early February, 1918. 

(h) Date of contract and beginning of work. Februarj^ 25. 

(c) Elaboration of plans, continuous, February- April. 

(d) Granting of appropriation. March 28, 1918. 

It is to be noted that the above steps occurred in practically the 
reverse order to the course of development of the majority of the 
bureau's projects as ordinarily executed. 

As the work progressed, at really phenomenal speed, the bureau's 
supervisory force was augmented to cover the job. At the period 
of maximum activity, from May to August, 1917, this organization 
included no less than 10 officers of the Civil Engineer Corps. U. S. 
N. R. F., 120 enlisted men drawn principally from the Public Works 
Regiment at Great liakes, acting as material checkers and inspectors, 
the architectural and drafting squad of 12 to 15 men, about 20 
clerks, including yeomen, and an adequate " expediting force." whose 
duty it was to keep materials flowing to the job at high velocity 
tlirough the exercise of freight priorities, commandeer orders, etc 


The group as constructed represents essentially a single operation. 
Its two halves, known as the Xavy Building and Munitions Building, 
are connected by a covered bridge of the full width of a cross-corri- 
dor, spanning the 100-foot roadway separating them. Considered 
thus as an entity, the project affords a greater area of available floor 
space than any other office building up to that time constructed, with 
1,800,000 square feet of floor (41 acres) as against 1,700,000 square 






The C'fe 

feet in the 41-stor3^ Equitable Building in New York, its nearest 
contemporary rival. 

The units are three stories in height, with a structural framework 
of reinforced concrete, gypsum-board and plaster partitions, steel 
sash, and brick curtain walls. The latter are omitted along the 
exposed front and side facades, where a two-storied window treat- 
ment is used, and the concrete surface finished with a white cement- 
and-sand mixture rubbed in by hand. 

The plan of each building is simple, consisting of parallel wings 
500 feet long and 60 feet wide connected at the front (north) along 
B Street by a so-called " headhouse " 60 feet in width. The Navy De- 
partment unit has nine such wings, the War Department eight ; this 
is their only essential difference in plan or treatment. The wings 
are separated from one another by courts 40 feet wide, each of which 
is crossed bj^ two 
covered gangways 
at the level of the 
second floor, 
ground occupied, 
inclusive of courts, 
driveways, and 
the parking space 
at the rear is about 
20 acres in area. 

Speedy erection 
demanded that the 
structural design 
be of the simplest 
type, and the 
beam-and-girder system was selected. This treatment resulted in a 
scheme of uniform structural units throughout, all column spacing 
and distances between girders being similar without exception, and 
complicated connections of Beams and girders at columns being 

As will be seen in the accompanying illustrations the two build- 
ings are identical in appearance, the front and side facades being 
divided by pilasters into bays. 

Upper floors are of reinforced concrete, designed to support a live 
load of 75 pounds per square foot, and are finished with a wearing 
surface of concrete. They are 3^ inches thick, with one-way rein- 
forcement of f -inch rods spaced 6 inches, center to center. Columns 
are spaced 20 feet apart throughout; interior columns are 18 by 18 
inches in section ; wall columns 13^ by 28 inches. The first story is 
12 feet 6 inches in height, floor to floor, the second and third 12 feet 
each. ColumiU reinforcement consists of four 1^-inch rods. 

Typical floor plan of Navy unit, emergency office buildings, 
Potomac Park, Washington, D. C. 


Girders art- i-2 by i?i) inches by 20 feet in span, reinforced with five 
l\!:-inch rods. Avhik* beams are spaced G feet 8 inches, center to center, 
and haA'e 3-rod reinfonement and a section of 8 by IJ: inches. 

Xo basement is provided, the ground floor resting on the mean 
level of the site. This site, wliich is part of the filled ground known 
as Potomac Park, alongside the Potomac Kiver, is well adapted to 
requirements, a minimum of grading having been necessary. To 
conform to minor diiferences of level, wings were " stepped " in cer- 
tain instances. 

The staircases are all of reinforced concrete, and are particularly 
wide — these being the only means of travel from one floor to the 
other. Besides four main flights located in each headhouse, each 
wing is provided Avith two or three supplementary stairways prop- 
€rly situated. 

In addition to the gypsum-board and plaster partitions generally 
used, partitions of a fire-resisting material are placed at intervals, 
dividing each floor into sections .so as to localize any fire that might 
break out. All openings in these partitions have automatic fire 
doors, thus making each section an independent compartment, and 
the staircases are so placed that egress from one section may be had 
without passage through any of the others. 

The use of steel sash insured rapidity of construction, large glazed 
areas affording ample natural lighting, and (where ghized with Avire 
glass) a considerable factor of fire protection. 

The corridor partitions have an unusually large glass area, which 
makes the corridors cheerful and pleasant on even the dullest days. 

Plaster is used on the partitions and inside the curtain walls; 
ceilings (except that of the third story), beams, and columns reveal 
the structural concrete as the forms left it, giving the not disagree- 
able effect of heavy timber construction. Water-color paints of har- 
monious tints are used throughout the interior concrete and plaster 
surfaces. The roof structure is identical with the floors, except for 
necessary slopes. Pitch and gravel over 5-ply felt is the roofing 
material used. A suspended ceiling of gypsum board and plaster 
extends over the entire upper floor at a height of 11 feet. 


It was at first .supi)osed that i)ile foundations would not be needed, 
l)ut investigations made during the first two weeks of preliminary 
work showed this assumption to be in error. Tiie area on which the 
buildings were to stand proved to overlie a portion of the old river 
bed. To reach solid ground through fill and soft material actually 
required piling varying from 20 to 52 feet in length. Where jiracti- 
cable, concrete piles (cast in place within predriven shells) were 


used: but in a certain per cent of the cases the penetration necessary 
compelled the use of so-called " composite "' piling, consisting of a 
wooden pile surmounted by one of concrete. The total number of 
piles driven was 5,048 — the first one on March 25 and the last one 
on May 28. Piling follows the lines of the outside Avails over prac- 
tically the whole area. Occupation of the buildings, however, was 
delayed by this operation not more than 30 da5^s beyond the period 
originally estimated. Four pile drivers were operated continuously 
by three shifts^ of workmen 24 hours a day, including Sundays. 

Much credit is due the contractor for the skill Avith which his 
great resources and organization were applied to the peculiar dif- 
ficulties of concrete placing on this job. The project was extraor- 
dinarily thin in distribution, requiring less than 2 cubic feet of con- 
crete per square foot of ground covered. XcAertheless the bulk of 
concrete was vast, and it had to be placed with all possible speed. 

A construction plant was devised which admirably met the con- 
ditions. A lieaA'y trestle was built paralleling the entire length of 
the site (2,200 feet) at the rear, 17 feet in height, and having ap- 
proaches from the street level with a gradient of 11.8 per cent. This 
trestle Avas designed to carry 5-ton motor trucks, Avhich brought sand 
and gravel li'oni near-by river dredgings, and cement in bags from 
a railroad siding adjacent. Eight storage units for this material 
Avere placed at intervals underneath the trestle, each provided with 
separate bins for 55 cubic yards of sand, 110 cubic yards of graA-el, 
and a suitable supply of cement. The aggregate bins Avere covered 
by gratings of 4-by-12-inch planking, set on edge and spaced 4 inches 
apart. Over the trestle a fairly steady procession of trucks passed 
from east to Avest, dumping sand or gravel through the proper grat- 
ings or delivering sacked cement through chutes for storage as 

MidAvay of alternate courts of the buildings under erection were 
located the mixing plants, each connected with one of the storage 
units by a straight track of narrow gauge at right angles to the 
trestle and about 300 feet long. Upon these tracks ran small cars 
of the industrial' type, having separate compartments for sand and 
gravel, and controlled by an endless rope from a motor at each 
mixing plant. Brought to a stop under the trestle, they were auto- 
matically loaded Avith sand and graAcl in proper quantities from the 
bins, and cement being then throAvn in on top they were ready for 
the return trip to the mixer. 

Each mixing plant comprised a l^-yard mixer sunk beloAV ground 
level, a 40-horsepoAA-er electric motor for its operation, and a tower- 
hoist for the distribution of the mixture. 

Concrete was delivered to place iii tAvo-wheeled buggies, operating 
at four levels from platforms adjoining the towers, no chuting being 


employed at any stage. The capacity of each mixing and distribut- 
ing unit, with 50 hands each, was -100 cubic yai'ds per day, restric- 
tions as to quantity of dry material having been eliminated by the 
system alread}^ described. Since each plant w^as entirely independent 
of the rest, the theoretical maximum capacity on the job was 3.200 
cubic yards of concrete per 10-hour day, though practical conditions 
kept the recorded maximum down to 1,750 yards, equivalent to a 
section of the building 300 feet long. 

The placing of the structural concrete was accomplished in 13^ 
weeks from April 5.1917, an achievement which is thought to have 
established a record for this type of work. The weekly output was 
equivalent to a 780-foot section of the structure, Avhile the total 
yardage of concrete employed on the job w^as 68,000. Concreting of 
the ground floor was a separate constructional operation and one of 
the last performed. This floor is of concrete 6 inches thick over 
a puddled and rolled fill of earth and cinders, with a wearing sur- 
face similar to that of the upper floors. 

It is not to be supposed that the construction of these immense 
buildings proceeded b}'- definitely separated steps. Such a thing 
would have necessitated sudden and complete replacements of large 
bodies of workmen as the character of the work changed. Eather 
the progress of the project was a development proceeding in general 
from east to west. Concreting overlapped pile driving and at last 
displaced it; roofing had been placed on the first w^ing before form 
work was complete on the last; bricklaying followed the advance 
of the concrete frame; partitions were being constructed on the 
upper floors before the ground floor had been laid. 


As previously intimated, the interior finish of the buildings is, in 
general, far from elaborate ; but some care was devoted to the archi- 
tectural treatment of the two main entrances. 

Both buildings have in the center of the headhouses large vesti- 
bules entered by nine double doors, giving free passageway' under the 
most difficult conditions. Opening from the vestibules are the main 
staircase halls, of such dimensions as to admit of the transaction of 
preliminary business concerning identification and similar matters. 

The vestibules and halls present a finished appearance, having 
plaster walls and ceilings with embellishments of columns, pilasters, 
and cornices. A durable floor is provided in these rooms, consisting 
of cement and small pebbles, the latter being treated so as to give 
a pleasing finished texture and color to the surface. 

The floors are subdivided to. meet the particular needs of the 
various bui'eaus, but so arranged that access may be conveniently 


gained to any and all parts of the buildings. The office rooms are 
plain, well lighted, and of workable proportions. 

The suite of rooms assigned to the Secretary of the Navy and his 
working force has an individual treatment, though of modest design 
and material. Ornamental plaster cornices decorate this suite, to- 
gether with presentable fireplaces and mantels and cork-tile floors. 
A similar treatment was given to certain important offices in the War 
Department unit. 

The buildings, being located at some distance from the center of 
the city, and consequently inconveniently situated as regards restau- 
rants, have large and well-arranged cafeterias to accommodate the 
many clerks during the limited period allowed for luncheon. Oc- 
cupying the third floor of an entire wing in each building, the cafe- 
terias are of such size as to provide service for 1,300 patrons at one 
time without confusion or apparent haste. The most modern me- 
chanical cooking devices are in use in the kitchens, which were planned 
from data gained through an investigation of the largest cafeterias 
in the country connected with industrial institutions. 

The toilet facilities are carefully placed and equipped with a sub- 
stantial standard grade of fixtures. These rooms are exceptionally 
well lighted and ventilated and are generous in size. The women's 
toilets have rest rooms adjacent, a necessary adjunct in a building of 
this character. 

Numerous ice-water fountains are conveniently placed in the cor- 
ridors. Protection from fire is furnished by the installation of a 
modern fire-alarm system and hose equipment. 

Two elevators, electrically controlled and operated, are located in 
each building for the purpose of handling freight. No passenger 
elevators are provided, the height of the building not warranting 
their use. 

A low-pressure vacuum-return steam system is used for heating 
the buildings, the live steam being furnished by a local power com- 
pany. This steam is transmitted from the point of supply, a mile 
distant, to the buildings by means of underground steel piping, each 
length of pipe being welded to the next and expansion joints being 
inserted at regular intervals. 

The telephone system of the Navy Building is controlled from a 
large exchange located in the center wing of the first floor, and pro- 
vides a complete intercommunicating system in addition to the usual 
outside service. 

This building also has its own post office, equipped and maintained 
as a branch of the city post office. It is complete in every detail and 
so arranged as to handle expeditiously the enormous amount of mail 
passing through the department each day. 


Proper protection of floors of the two buildings was a problem 
which occasioned careful thought as the project developed. Disin- 
tegration of concrete Avearing surfaces, no matter how finished, was 
considered an inevitable final outcome of intensive o:'cupancy, wdth 
the consequent probability of irritating dust in the air of the rooms. 
Other familiar characteristics of concrete floors suggested that any 
covering used should be resilient and chill resistive, especially in con- 
sideration of the large proportion of women among tlie prospective 

Linoleum Avas the material seemingly best adapted to conditions, 
and with the full approval of Congress the major area of the two 
buildings was thus provided. The fabric chosen was a linoleum three- 
sixteenths inch thick, of a good commercial grade and a solid brown 
color. It was not laid until some months after the completion of the 
buildings, a period being allowed for .the curing of the concrete. 

The contract for supplying and placing this linoleum was no small 
undertaking, involving as it did an outlay of some $325,000. A 
force of 75 men worked for five months, from January to Ma}^ 1919, 
laying the fabric. Even then, only 29 acres out of 41 were covered, 
corridors and certain special areas being left bare. The choice of 
linoleum in lieu of other floor treatment is considered to have justi- 
fied itself in every respect, having contributed largely to health, 
comfort, and efficiency. 

To accommodate the large number of automobiles previously 
parked in the neighboring streets, a macadamized space for the pur- 
pose is provided at the rear of the building. This space is large 
enough to accommodate 500 machines, and is inconspicuousl}' inclosed 
by tall wire fencing. Gateways at various points, attended by 
guards, control the passage of the machines. 


The maximum construction force on the buildings, including both 
skilled and unskilled labor in the employ of the general contractor 
and all subcontractors, was approximately 3,400 men. of whom ap- 
proximately 1,600 were carried as common labor. This maximum 
was maintained through June and July, 1918. Workmen of all the 
building trades were employed in numbers unequaled by any pre- 
vious job of the kind in the District of Columbia. Speed was a 
primary consideration in the work, and its wide distribution made 
possible the effective employment of many large independent gangs. 

The contractor brought to bear every worthy incentive on his work- 
men of all ranks to maintain a high standard of output. To this 
(Mid iiis|)ii'ati()nal nnrl '• Avolfiir(> "* activities of a variety ada|)ted to 



conditions were carried on throughout the life of the job. Graphic 
charts were exhibited showing the weekly progress of construction. 
Records of conspicuous gangs were posted and higher records en- 
couraged. Frequent opportunities were afforded for the entire per- 
sonnel to assemble in rallies and mass meetings at midday or. in the 
evening. A patriotic spirit was fostered at such gatherings by means 
of addresses by persons of prominence, singing of popular airs, band 
music, and the like. Evening entertainments such as boxing bouts, 
pie-eating matches, and dancing competitions proved helpful in main- 
taining a degree of morale. An illustrated paper abounding in car- 
toons, portraits of noteworthy gangs and individuals, personal ref- 



le 17 Z4 I 8 15 U es 5 12 t9 26 X |0 n 24 31 7 M Zl 

IB 25 

erences, and items of project news was issued weekly. An illustrator 
of proved ability was engaged to reside on the job and produce 
posters and other pictorial work for the stimulation of enthusiasm. 
A " job flag," displaying an eagle poised on a broom, was designed 
by him and flown during working shifts. The sale of war savings 
stamps was pushed with considerable publicity. 

But economic conditions at the time were such as to offset a great 
volume of inspirational and welfare work. Common labor caused 
the greatest concern, beginning about the middle of May to develop 
a pronounced migratory tendency, which was simply a reflection of 
the Avorkers" unrest affecting the entire country. Rates of pay for 


unskilled labor on this job started at 30 cents an hour and increased 
rapidly to 44 cents in order to compete with the Xew York market. 
Railroad fare and expenses were paid for incoming workmen and 
return fare for the minority who continued at their tasks until 

Little difficulty was experienced in securing common labor up to 
the time the gang reached 1,000, and during the first ten weeks of 
the project, up to May 15, it was necessary to employ only 12 per 
cent more hands than were actually at work. On that date, owing to 
the increasing unrest, the ratio of men hired to men employed took 
a sudden jump, which is w^ell illustrated in the accompanying dia- 
gram. During the life of the job 7,500 common laborers (principally 
Negro) were hired by the general contractor to recruit his labor 
gang, which never included more than 1,500 or 1,600 men at any one 
time. Keeping up the average force at this number for a period of 
seven weeks necessitated the hiring of 2,800 men, after 3,400 had 
already been sifted to establish the initial gang of 1,500. 

As the work progressed, it was soon found necessar}^ to build bar- 
racks and provide a commissary to take care of the men as they came 
in. Accommodations for nearly 1,200 men were provided, the bar- 
racks serving not so much as a permanent abode as for a transfer 
station pending the location of the laborers in other lodgings. These 
quarters were crowded to capacity, during the height of construction, 
Avith the transients and such others as chose to keep up a longer 

Needless to remark, the immense labor turnover in the face of ex- 
pensive efforts to forestall it was a source of great anxiety. Every 
measure was adopted to prevent its interference with the scheduled 
rate of building. Such measures, while in general effective, were 
necessarily a factor in the great increase of costs above estimates. 


The dates on which important phases of the project were begun 
and completed are given in the following list : 

Contract signed and work conum'nced on site Feb. 25, 1918. 

Appropriation granted Mar. 28, 1918. 

Pile fonndation decided on Mar. 9, 1918. 

First pile driven Mar. 25, 1918. 

Last pile driven May 28, 1918. 

Concreting started (footings) Apr. 5, 3918. 

Concreting finished July 27, 1918. 

Moving in begun (Navy Department) Aug. 17, 1918. 

Moving in begun (Munitions Building) Aug. 31, 1918. 

Bureau of Yards and Docks moved in October 1, 2, and 3. 1918. 

Occupation complete Early October, 1918. 


It is thus seen that only 5| months elapsed between the signing of 
the contract and the securing of beneficial occupancy of this record- 
breaking twin structure. Approximately 14,000 employees were 
transacting business within its walls at the date of the armistice. 

Its cost has been defrayed from the appropriation of $5,775,000, 
made available on March 28, 1918, and from a later one of $1,490,000 
made to cover deficiencies incurred. The said deficiency is attribu- 
table in large part to the unexpected labor turnover, the enforced 
use of pile foundations, and the employment of linoleum as a floor 
covering. The cost of the entire project, reckoned on a volume basis, 
amounts to approximate!}^ 29 cents per cubic foot. 

The contract was let on the basis of cost plus a fixed fee, which en- 
abled the contractor to prosecute his work almost as speedily as the 
necessities of Avar bureaus demanded. 


Navy Building has nine wings and headhouse. 
Army Building has eight wings and headhouse. 
Wings and headhouses are 60 feet wide. 
Wings are 500 feet long from back to headhouse. 
Length of Navy Building, over all, 862 feet. 
Length of Army Building, over all, 782 feet. 
Depth of both buildings, over all, 561 feet. 
Total floor area inside of walls : 

Square feet. 

Navy Building 940, 000 

Army Building 840, 000 

Total 1, 780, 000 

Equals 41 acres. 

Area occupied by halls, toilets, stairways, etc., is 22 per cent, or 
390,000 square feet, leaving net office area of 1.390,000 square feet. 
Total cubic contents of both buildings is 25,000,000 cubic feet. The 
prism inclosing the buildings is 1,744 feet long by 561 feet wide, 
with a height of 40 feet. 

The wings and headhouse placed end to end would make a 3-story 
building 60 feet wide and 1.9 miles long. The Navy and War 
Buildings together are three times as large in volume as the House 
Office Building. As for the State, War, and Navy Building, it would 
take six such structures to provide equal office space. To walk 
through these buildings and make an inspection of the radiators, 
a man would have to travel 25 miles; to make a circuit of the cor- 
ridors only would require a tramp of 12 miles. 

The Navy and War Buildings are constructed of enduring ma- 
terials, and are on foundations of the most permanent character, 

37022—21 32 


and. in respect to their arrangements for light and air for office 
purposes, are equal to if not better than any of the permanent build- 
ings in Washington. 

A bill of materials for the project, if drawn up in a single docu- 
ment. ^Yould have included the following items: 

Steel reinforcing bars, 4,500 tons. 

Eight and one-half acres of steel sash. 

Twenty thousand separate window shades. 

Roofing felt, 3,000.000 square feet. 

Xails, 8 carloads: lumber. 314 carloads — 7.500.000 feet; glass, 
18 carloads : putty for same, 3 carloads. 

Radiators, 3,200; heating piping. 27 A miles; plumbing fix- 
tures, 2,800. 

Trenches, 14 miles. 

Lighting fixtures, 15,000. 

Outlet boxes and fittings, 50,000. 

Push buttons, 5,000. 
The project was executed under the general direction of Com- 
mander A. L. Parsons (C. E. C), U. S. N.. at that time assistant 
chief of the bureau. Construction proceeded under the resident 
supervision of Lieut. Commander O. A. Mechlin (C. E. C), U. S. 
X. R. F., acting as public works officer. The architectural features of 
the design were developed by a committee of the bureau consisting of 
Lieut. Commander F. W. Southworth (C. E. C). U. S. N. R. F., and 
Messrs. II. J. Briggs. George P. Hales, and Charles H. Stratton. 

The general contractors were the Turner Construction Co., of 
XeAv York. 

chapt:er XXIV. 


The shortage of housing which the L'nited States Housing Cor- 
j^oration was created to meet as a war-time emergency Avas not a 
new thing arising wholly by reason of the war. The war simph* 
aggravated a chronic, widespread, steadily growing trouble of peace 
times, which still persists. Emergency conditions ai'ising out of the 
war merely discovered the situation in a new light by emphasizing 
the vital relation between housing and the employment of working- 
men. Increased pay. together with patriotic sentiments, brought 
many highly skilled workers to the jobs, but neither of these motives 
could compensate for intolerable living conditions: and the labor 
turnover, due in large measure to insufficient and unsatisfactory 
housing, was so huge as to result in some cases in actual decreases 
in output in spite of higher wages. 

It became clearh^ apparent in the summer of 1917 that the housing 
shortage had become something with which the Government must 
concern itself, and which must be handled as a war emergency, since 
it was a great and increasing menace to the speed and continuity 
of production of numitions of war. On May IG. 1918. after various 
investigations and reports by a subcommittee on labor of the Council 
of National Defense and by various other agencies. Congress author- 
ized the President to expend $00,000,000 (which was raised to 
$100,000,000 on July 8, 1918) " for the purpose of providing housing, 
local transportation, and other general community utilities for such 
industrial workers as are engaged in arsenals and navy yards of 
the Ignited States and industries connected with and essential to 
the national defense, and their families, * * * only during the 
continuation of the existing war."' The President delegated this 
authority to the Secretary of Labor. By Executive order, confirmed 
in the act of June 4, 1918. the Bureau of Industrial Housing and 
Transportation was created in the Department of Labor. On July 
25. 1918, the United States Housing Corporation, created as an 
executive agent of the Housing Bureau, was first authorized to 



expend these funds for actual acquirement of land and for construc- 

After that date all additional housing required for civilian em- 
ploj^ees of Navy shore establishments and of private plants perform- 
ing Navy work, was provided by the United States Housing Cor- 
poration out of these funds appropriated by Congress. Prior to 
July 25. 1918, some little emergency housing had been built by the 
Navy out of emergency funds at its own disposal. IJear Admiral 
H. H. Rousseau. U. S. N.. of the Civil Engineer Corps, acted as 
the representative of the Navy Department on housing matters with 
the United States Housing Corporation. Avith the title of associate 
director. Mr. Philip Hiss, a well-known architect of New York City, 
was employed by the bureau as special assistant in connection with 
this work, and he also rendered valual)le service as consultant on 
architectural projects originating within the bureau. 

Additional quarters from which the Navy has benefited were 
provided by the United States Housing Corporation at Bath, 
Me., Bridgeport, Conn., Bremerton, Wash., Charleston, W. Va., 
East Moline, 111., Erie, Pa., Indianhead, Md., New London and 
Groton, Conn.. Newport, R. L, Norfolk and Portsmouth, Va., Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Portsmouth, N. H., Quincy, Mass., Vallejo, Calif., and 
Washington, D. C. Additional projects under contemplation were 
abandoned upon the signing of the armistice, November 11, 1918. 

In addition to improving the housing situation, the United States 
Housing Corporation was responsible for the improvement of pas- 
senger transportation facilities, from which the Navy work bene- 
fited, at Bethlehem, Pa., Bridgeport, Conn., Norfolk, Portsmouth, 
and Newport News, Va., and Philadelphia, Pa. 

The following projects are typical illustrations of the work done 
by the United States Housing Corporation in the construction of 
housing for the Navy Department. For a more comprehensive 
account of the various ]:)rojects attention is invited to the United 
States Housing Corporation's Report on War Emergency Construc- 
tion (G. P. O., 1919), in Avhich all information concerning these 
developments is fully set forth. 


The largest project constructed l)y the Ignited States Housing 
Corporation for the Na\ y Dei:)artment was that at Bridgeport, Conn., 
where contracts for war munitions for the Array and Navy amounted 
to ai)proximately $60,000,000. The housing shortage here was one 
of the first to come to general notice, being specially noted in the 
report of the committee on labor of the Council of National De- 
fense, in 1917, long before there was any housing organization! Here 


were found in aggravated form the objectionable conditions of over- 
crowding, high rents, and insanitary living, with the resulting waste 
and delay due to labor turnover. Some 15,000 workers wereemployed 
in the following local industrial plants on Navy contracts : Lake Tor- 
pedo Boat Co., building submarines; Eemington Arms Co., ordnance; 
Crane Co., pipe fittings, etc. ; and the American & British Manufac- 
turing Co., ordnance. For the benefit of these employees the Housing 
Corporation constructed for the Navy housing in the amount of 
approximately $G,000,000, accommodating a total of 889 families. 
This housing consisted of 5 detached houses, 52 semidetached, row 
houses for 242 families, 73 detached 2-flat, 3 semidetached 2-flat, row 
2-flat houses for 5G families, and apartments for 324 families. These 
houses ranged in size from three to six rooms Avith bath. There 
were five sites in various parts of the city. 

The site near the plant of the Crane Co., known as the Crane tract, 
is also near many other plants in the Avest-central manufacturing 
district of Bridgeport. This site is particularly interesting from an 
architectural and artistic viewpoint on account of the fact that 
though the ground was almost level, with few trees, a surprisingly 
diversified and attractive general appearance has been obtained. 
This result was accomplished by the employment of an extremely 
irregular, picturesc{ue, and accidental-seeming plan instead of the 
usual gridiron or the stilted curvilinear system of laj^out. The de- 
signers prepared block models of the building masses and studied 
their relations to each other from every point of view in three 
dimensions, a precaution of great value in getting such results as 
were here secured. These houses have an air of domesticity, a look 
of comfort, due to several causes. In the first place they are com- 
paratively low — they seem to cling to the ground and to each other 
in neighborliness ; they have a look of solidity, for their materials 
are of a permanent nature, being brick with slate roofs. They are 
]>leasant to the eye, being of a soft red tone, and they appeal to 
good taste because of tlieir simple long lines, and the delicate mold- 
ings of doorways and cornices and their general proportions. There 
is a distinct similarity in the houses, yet nowhere is the view of any 
row monotonous. The plan of the interiors is comfortable, con- 
sisting of four rooms and bath, and diversified in layout so as to 
suit the convenience of almost any small family. This projco, ic- 
commodates 257 families. It was ready for occupancy May 27, 1919, 
and completed September 1, 1919. 

All of the houses built by the United States Housing Corporation 
in Bridgeport are of brick, wdiich fact makes them especially worthy 
of future study with a view to determining their true value as a 
marketable real estate development. 



The great advantage of Hampton lioads as a harbor and shipping 
point led to an enormous deveh>pment of these facilities by the Gov- 
ernment along various lines. The largest undertakings in this re- 
gion were the additions to the [)lant and to the work of the United 
States navy yard at Norfolk, the naval operating base, and the 
ammunition depot at St. Julien's Creek, all for the Navy, and some 
large developments for the Army. 

While the Navy had large contracts with the Newport News Ship- 
building & Dry Dock Co., which is located in this general region, 
it happened that this company was also performing a great amount 
of work for the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet 
Corporation, which latter corporation had its own special appropria- 
tion from Congress to relieve unsatisfactory housing conditions in 
the vicinity of private shipbuilding and other plants performing 
work for the Emergency Fleet Corporation. The existence of an 
arrangement between the Navy Department and the Emergency 
Fleet Corporation, whereby the latter undertook to provide addi- 
tional housing in the neighborhood of Newport News, made it unnec- 
essary for the Navy Department to re(j[uest any assistance in this 
locality from the United States Housing Corporation. 

BetAveen May 1, 1917, and January 1, 1918, 20,000 people came into 
the Hampton Roads district — about 7,000 white and 3,000 colored 
Avorkers, Avith equal numbers of dependents. By January, 1918, the 
housing shortage became very serious. At this time the various 
industries employed over 18,000, and the work in prospect called for 
at least 40,000. It Avas estimated that housing Avas needed for 20,400 
men, and the estimated cost Avas $10,000,000. As the total operati(ms 
of the Army and those of the Navy Avere of about the same size in 
this district, it Avas suggested that each pay one-half of this amount 
from its available funds. Ultimately, hoAvever, the Housing Cor- 
poration assumed responsibility for this project, out of the funds 
authorized for its use by Congress. 

There Avere three sites chosen — GleuAvood, near the site of the 
JamestoAvn Ex[)osition. serving the Navy operating base and the 
Army operating base; Trnxtun. for colored Avorkers, just outside of 
Portsmoiitli. serving tlie navy yard: and Cradock. for Avhite Avorkers, 
south of Poi'tsmoutli, on Paradise Creek, also serving the navy yard. 
The OlenAA'ood project Avas discontinued after the signing of the 

At Xruxtun the Housing Corporation built 19S detached houses 
and 26 semidetached houses, all of the same five-room type, Avith 
four different elcAations, and some modification of porches to vary 
the design. There Avere also built four ai)aT-tni(Mit liouses. Alto- 


gether provision was made for the accommodation of 254 families, 
with an expenditure of approximately $900,000. This project is 
well adapted for housing the colored families of the district. 

The Cradock project was designed before the stringent rules of 
the War Industries Board went into effect and before the standard 
plans had been formulated, so that there was opportunity to make 
possible an unusually satisfactory architectural result. There were 
some 50 designs used, made up of about 40 different plans, of houses 
with five to seven rooms and bath. There were built 417 detached 
houses, 72 semidetached, 94 row one-family, and 9 apartments— hous- 
ing for 771 families— and also 12 stores. This project was ready for 
occupancy on January 9. 1919, and was completed on August 15, 
1919. The total approximate expenditures of the Housing Corpora- 
tion on the enterprise were $5,345,739.28. 

This development is situated on Paradise Creek, on low flat land, 
the average surface being only about 10 to 12 feet above mean low 
tide. The tidal variations of the water in Paradise Creek introduced 
a serious problem because, though the creek is very attractive at high 
tide, it is largely a mud flat at low tide. Only such filling has been 
done as would prevent the standing of any fresh water to breed 
mosquitoes. To provide access to the navy yard, the Housing Cor- 
poration built one bridge to connect Gillis Road with Gilmerton 
Boulevard, as extended. Also it was necessary to construct and 
properly pave the extension of Gilmerton Boulevard from the creek 
to the nav}^ yard, both for the future traffic to and from Cradock 
and for the convenience of the Housing Corporation in the construc- 
tion of the town; for the existing roads, poor enough at best, were 
turned into a slough in wet weather by heavy traffic. 

The particular form of the street layout came about from the 
adaptation of plans to the topography and the determined sizes of 
lots and blocks. All the street names are those of men of note in the 
United States Navy. The names of places are arranged alphabeti- 
cally in a circumference, beginning at Prospect Field and running 
contraclockwise ; and the names of streets are arranged alphabetically 
from northwest to southeast. Most of the houses face northwest arid 

In addition to the stores the Housing Corporation arranged for a 
temporary schoolhouse and also for a hospital, the latter to serve 
not only Cradock itself but also accident cases from the navy yard. 
Sites for churches were provided, to be turned over to responsible 
church societies at a low or nominal charge. 

The Avater supply was obtained from the existing water system in 
Portsmouth. This necessitated carrying a 16-inch water line from 
the Goodwin Street pumping station to the Belt Line Railroad 


and a 12-inch main from tliis point to the hoiisinfr development, the 
total len^rth of 16-inch and 12-inch pipe aggregating slightly more 
than 2 miles and costing approximately $85,000. The distribution 
system within the development was made up of 12, 8. 6, and 4 inch 
mains, with sufficient hydrants to provide necessary fire protection. 
All services were metered. 

A complete sewerage system was installed, including sanitary and 
storm-water sewers, and a sewage pumping station. The outfall 
sewer was arranged to discharge into deep water in the southern 
branch of the Elizabeth River. 

An electric lighting system for streets and residences was installed, 
electricity being furnished by the Virginia Light & Power Co. at 
rates identical with those in force in the city of Portsmouth. This 
lighting system, by contract between the Housing Corporation and 
the Virginia Light & Power Co., the latter is to acquire at an ap- 
praised value which is to be made one j^ear after the close of the war. 

The labor question in constructing this development Avas a very 
serious one. Scouts were sent over the country as far as Missouri 
and Texas, and a maximum labor force of 3,000 was employed. Ex- 
cellent meals at the commissary, a w^elfare building, and other induce- 
ments Avere provided: but the labor secured was largely of the float- 
ing type, and the turnover was approximately 30 per cent per month. 

The method of erecting the buildings was to build the project in 
sections, by forming gangs of workmen to perform certain fixed 
kinds of work, and through repetition rendering them more efficient. 
Portable sawmills Avere erected on the site to take care of and cut 
all framing lumber and door and windoAv frames. The amount of 
material required for each house was sorted and stacked in a pile 
near where it was to be used. All the framing for the houses was 
cut at the mill, so that all that had to be done Avas to assemble it in 
the field. The Avails of the houses Avere erected on the ground and 
then lifted up into place. 

Owing to the intense desire for speed, Avhich seemed to permeate 
the very atmosphere, and the resultant tension under Avhich eA^eryone 
Avas living, it was necessary to provide a guard to protect the prop- 
erty and prevent quarrels. The guard consisted of loO marines, and 
access to and egress from the property was had b}' means of a pass. 
The guards made periodic inspections of the negro labor camps, and 
after each inspection came aAvay Avith a small arsenal of arms. 

This Cradock development was the largest single project con- 
structed b}^ the Housing Corporation, and is one of the most success- 
ful from an architectural standpoint, on account of the ample size 
and the beauty of design of all the numerous types, Avhich cause them 
to be suitable for the highest type of Avorker. 


To provide quarters for the laborers in the vicinity of Norfolk, 
the Bureau of Yards and Docks built certain labor camps out of 
emergency funds. A camp Avith a capacity of 500 to TOO men was 
built outside the naval operating base ; a camp for colored laborers, 
capacity about 300 men, at the navy yard; and another camp out- 
side the navy yard for white laborers, capacity about 1,000 men. 
This last camp was next to a camp constructed by the Housing Cor- 
poration, having a capacity of 2,000 men. 


At the navy yard, Philadelphia, Pa., there was tremendous ac- 
tivity and an influx of new workers. At the east end of the yard 
was the new naval aircraft factory employing 1,400 men. At the 
west end, new drj' clocks, piers, and shipways for the construction 
and repair of the largest ships were under way, one ship to cost 
$19,000,000 being under construction. By the spring of 1918, 15,000 
workers were expected, and there was an entire lack of houses for 
men with families within one hour and a half of the navy yard by 
trolley. The percentage of labor turnover at the navy yard was 
large and was complicated by the fact that the Hog Island, Cramps, 
and other shipyards near-by offered man}^ inducements. 

For the benefit of the navy yard employees, the Housing Corpora- 
tion made plans for two sites. One of 36.5 acres lay along Oregon 
Avenue, and was 1^ miles north of the yard, all the land between 
being ver}^ low and requiring heavy filling. The other site com- 
prised an area of 94 acres on Penrose Avenue, which project was 
discontinued upon the signing of the armistice. 

At the Oregon Avenue site the Housing Corporation constructed 
650 brick row houses at an expenditure of $3,693,636.29. These 
houses are grouped on blocks larger than the typical Philadelphia 
block, and the series of row houses in each block was made to group 
around a central open space, this space in each group serving and 
being developed as a neighborhood playground. 


At Quincy, a city of about 50,000 people, 7 miles southeast of Bos- 
ton, are located the great Fore River shipyards of the Bethlehem 
Shipbuilding Corporation. Before the war the shipyards employed 
about 4.000 men. Navy Department and Shipping Board contracts 
increased this number nearly fourfold, producing a most serious 
housing shortage and entailing an enormous labor turnover. Over- 
crowding and the resulting bad sanitary conditions were most com- 
mon, A portion of the work of the shipyard continued night and 


day, beino: conducted on a three-shift basis, and in some of the 
boarding houses beds were used on a three-shift basis also. 

TheHousino: Corporation, after a careful study of the situation, de- 
cided that the housing provided must be within walking distance of 
the yards on account of the congestion of street-car traffic and vari- 
ous transportation difficulties. Accordingly four sites were chosen, 
none being more than one-half mile from the yards. Housing was con- 
structed for 424 families in the form of 90 detached houses, 109 de- 
tached two-fiat, 57 semidetached, and 10 old houses repaired. At 
Cleverly Court there Avere built 21 dormitories for single men. accom- 
modating 4G men each, a total of 96G men. The expenditure for this 
housing was approximately $3,272,698.73. Some of the houses were 
built of brick, others of shingle or clapboard; roofs were of slate or 
asphalt shingles, generally green. The houses are of colonial type, 
as is fitting, considering the surrounding distric^. 


The jNIare Island navy yard force was greatly augmented by 
reason of the war, and employees could find accommodation neither 
on Mare Island nor in the adjacent town of Vallejo. The nearest 
available site for civilian housing, not held at lot prices, was on the 
rather* steeply sloping hillsides north of Yallejo. facing southwest 
across Mare Island Strait, near the end of the causeway connecting 
Vallejo with the navy yard. Two tracts were secured by the Hous- 
ing Corporation, one of about 7 acres for dormitories and the other 
of about 110 acres for houses. Of the 110 acres only about half were 
developed, though all were planned. The site for houses is a steep 
hillside slope with a beautiful outlook toward the mountains of 
Marin County. The present development lies on the hillside fac- 
ing Mare Island Strait. The whole site was open pasture land, with 
neither houses nor trees. 

Approach to the site is by Wilson Avenue, along the shore. An 
imloading pier was built in front of the development, so that most 
of the materials might come by water, making a substantial differ- 
ence in the cost of the work. 

Provision was made in the plan for sites for two schools, a com- 
munity hall, and small group of stores, but none of these have yet 
been built. There is also opportunity for other community groups, 
including churches, moving-picture halls, and stores. The main lines 
of the street system consist of the approach street, Wilson Avenue, 
along the water front, and the main arterial street, Daniels Avenue, 
leaving Wilson Avenue at a narrow angle to minimize gradient, and 
lunning between the two rounded hill summits to the northern 
boundary of the property. There are also two other lines loading 


bcack from the shore, Sims Avenue, running on easy curves over and 
around the hill where the slopes are less steep, and a series of streets 
near the southern boundary of the property, climbing the steep hill 
in a series of zigzags to obtain possible gradients, and even then 
being in places as steep as 12 per cent. The rest of the streets run 
for the most part parallel to the hillsides. There were a number of 
•instances where advantage was taken of the steep slopes and the 
considerable area betwen parallel streets to provide sites for groups 
of neighborhood garages, the buildings to be cut into the hillside. 
These have courts and approach drives to the near-by streets. The 
trend of most of the residential streets is east of south and west of 
north, and as they are arranged in tiers along the hillsides, houses 
facing them not only get morning and afternoon sun, but either the 
front or the rear rooms and porches command an inspiring view 
across the narrow strait, low-lying Mare Island, and the upper 
Avaters of San Francisco Bay to the mountains of Marin County 
and the summit of Mount Tamalpais only about 20 miles to the 

Because of the somewhat isolated location of the project, it was 
necessary to consider it as an independent town-site development, for 
which original provision for all utilities had to be made. The per- 
manency of the project as an adjunct of the navy yard being assured, 
the type of construction adopted was of a more durable character 
than that which might otherwise have been used. The side-hill 
location of the streets necessitated heavy grading, and the street 
paving demanded was of a type that would withstand moderately 
heavy traffic on fairly steep gradients, with adequate provision for 
heavy surface storm drainage. 

The water supply of the project is the same as that furnished the 
navy yard, being pumped into the main which crosses Mare Island 
Strait from pumping plants some miles distant near Cordelia, as 
well as being fed from gravity reservoirs. The main has been tapped 
on the Vallejo side of the strait. Fire protection is assured by the 
construction of a 500,000-gallon storage reservoir on the highest point 
of the property at an elevation of 210 feet. Water is delivered to 
this storage reservoir from the supply mains by means of a duplicate 
pumping plant, each pumping unit having a delivery capacity of 600 
gallons per minute under a maximum head of 250 feet. These pumps 
are controlled both by hand and by an automatic electric control ap- 
paratus. All water entering the project is metered after leaving the 
supply main through a Venturi meter equipped with a recording ap- 
paratus. Individual meters measure all water from the distributing 
mains to the consumers. 


The entire tract was sewered in conformity with the most modern 
practice. The dormitory and house sections of the project each have 
separate outfall seAvers extending into the tidal water of Mare Island 
Strait. The main outfall sewers were built sufficiently large to 
provide for any future extensions of the project which might be 
served by them. 

A complete system of 4-inch and G-inch gas mains was installed 
throughout the project for the distribution of low-pressure gas for 
heating and lighting. For the most part the water and gas pipes 
were carried in the same trenches. 

The system of street lighting adopted was that of single-globe 
electroliers placed along the curbs at intervals determined partly by 
the curvature of the streets. The maximum spacing of standards 
was 250 feet, with an aA^erage spacing of 190 feet. Each standard 
Avas equipped Avith tAAo 400-Avatt lamps. The Aviring for the street 
lighting system Avas carried throughout in underground conduits 
laid in the sidewalk area betAveen the curb and the walk. All elec- 
tricitA" for house lighting and such uses was carried by means of 
aerial circuits upon pole lines placed at the rear of lot lines betAveen 
the houses, Avith aerial drops from the poles to the houses. At no 
point is there an overhead AA'ire crossing on anj^ of the streets. Elec- 
tric current is furnished from the central switchboard of the Mare 
Island navy yard to the transformer station of the project, Avhich 
is located at the pumping station. Telephone service Avas provided, 
aerial cables being carried upon the poles at the rear of the lots AA'ith 
aerial drops to the houses. All telephone Avires were carried across 
the streets in underground conduits. At the dormitory site both 
the street and house lighting circuits AAere carried in underground 

An interesting planting scheme has been executed, Avhich includes 
a considerable variety of street trees, many of them evergreens, not 
spaced regularly, howeA'er, but arranged quite informally in con- 
nection AA'ith groups of shrubbery and such hardy ground cover as 
Mesembrianthemum. Care Avas taken to use only such plants as 
Avhen once established aa-ou1(1 thriA-e AAuth a minimum amount of 
maintenance and no irrigation, and as Avould best Avithstand the 
strong Avinds, Avhich are continuous through the summer months. 

The Housing Corporation built in this project 83 detached houses, 
12 semidetached. HO semidetached 2-flat. and 10 dormitories, AA'ith 
cafeteria building, altogether accommodating 227 families and 400 
single men, the approximate expenditure for this housing being 
$1,077,594.88. Certain lots, too steep for building, AA'ere set aside 
for neighborhood parks, and a generous playground of four acres 
AA'as reserved for the proposed upper school. All of these open spaces 
are to be treated informally as to paths and planting. Through co- 


operation with the Navy Department, in connection with periodical 
maintenance dredging in Mare Island Strait, it is hoped to fill in 
the flats immediately in front of the housing project, and this filled 
ground would eventually be turned into a park or water-front play- 

The roofs of the houses are all of wood shingles, which are left 
to weather naturally. All the trim was painted white, and the 
chimneys gray; the blinds were painted light green, and the walls 
of the houses of various colors. The project as a whole, because of 
its situation and topography, is one of the most picturesque of all 
the housing developments. The successful result is due to the cor- 
rect conception of the kinds of houses suitable for the site, and to 
skillful adjustment of the streets and house locations to the steep 
and rolling hillside. 


The following summary of housing activities in the vicinity of 
the Puget Sound navy yard (Bremerton, Wash.) is taken from 
the account of the civil engineer officer in charge of public works 
there at the time. Capt. L. E. Gregorv : 

By the month of March, 1918, the need of additional housing had become 
so apparent that the commandant of the yard strongly urged a liberal hous- 
ing program, and in this work the public works officer necessarily became 
quite active in consultation relative to needs and ways and means. Being fa- 
miliar with contractors in the locality, the sources of supply of materials, and 
local conditions generally, he was in close touch with all the various com- 
mittees representing the Housing Corporation. The program finally adopted 
was the construction of a 350-room hotel on land owned by the Navy Depart- 
ment on the north side of Burwell Avenue, immediately opposite the navy yard 
foundry. An apartment house of 45 apartments was built on the corner of 
Seventh and Warren Streets. Both of the above-mentioned projects were made 
of substantial brick, with interiors of slow-burning, practically fireproof con- 
struction, and supplied with every modern convenience. There were also built 
2.50 detached houses, scattered throughout the communities of Charleston and 
Bremerton, these being of wood construction of 3, 4, or 5 rooms, many of 
them with heating plants installed, and all with modern plumbing and light- 
ing facilities. The justification for this construction was proved by the prompt 
occupancy of all these houses, the apartments, and the hotel to the fullest 
capacity, practically as soon as they were available. Subsequent to the war 
the Housing Corporation adopted the policy of selling all of the individual 
houses, and further justification of the program is indicated by the promptness 
with which the houses were all sold. It has been reliably stated that the 
Bremerton houses were sold more readily .than those of any other project in 
the country. ' The hotel is being retained for operation under the direction of 
the commandant of the navy yard, inasmuch as it is located on Government 
property and connected directly with the navy yard by means of a tunnel under 
Burwell Avenue, making its location substantially as though it were within the 
physical limits of the yard. 



At Indianlieail, McL, and South Charleston, W. Va., as at Bremer- 
ton, the situation arose Avhere the Housing Corporation constructed 
its projects on hind owned by the Xavy Department. AVhen the 
question of disposal of the various housing projects came up, it was 
decided that it would be desirable for the Navy Department to take 
over the above projects also. This transfer, from the Department 
of Labor to the Xavy Department, was effected by Executive order 
on June 29. 1920. The projects at Indianhead and South Charleston 
were jjlaced under the cognizance of the Bureau of Ordnance, and 
the operation of the hotel at Bremerton was placed under the direc- 
tion of the commandant of the yard, as stated. The hotel was oper- 
ated during the year, up to the date of transfer, under the Depart- 
ment of Labor, in accordance with a. contract originally entered into 
•with the Xavy Yard Hotel Association (Inc.), an organization of 
navy yard emploj-ees. This association afterwards assigned its 
lease to a second party. The lease, which was originally for one year, 
has since been extended for a term of three years. 

All of the remaining projects constructed by the L^nited States 
Housing Corporation for the Xavy Department are being appraised 
as rapidly as possible, and sold by the Housing Corporation, an 
effort being made to sell the dwelling houses direct to prospective 
individual home owm.'rs who are citizens of the United States, and 
Avho desire the houses for theii' own occupancy. 




Acknowledgments 5 

Air compressors, reciprocating and 

rotary 059 

Akron, Ohio, Navy extension to plant 

of Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co 232 

Alameda, Calif., Xavy extension to 
Union plant of Bethlehem Ship- 
building Corporation 227,229 

Alexandria, Va., torpedo-assembly 

plant 284 

Ammunition depots 280 

Annapolis, Md., high-power radio sta- 
tion 363 

Sec also Naval Academy. 
Appropriations : 

Bancroft Hall extension 37 

Bunkering plants 358 

Hospital construction 103 

Marine railways 211 

Shipbuilding and repair facil- 
ities 156 

Storage facilities, specific appro- 
priations since 191G 321 

Armor and projectile plants, Charles- 
ton, W. Va 301 

Armor Plant Board .301 

Aviation facilities 395 

Bay Shore, L. I., air station 401 

Brest, France, air station 429 

Brittany, stations in 425 

Brooklyn, N. Y., airplane storage 

building at fleet supply 331 

Brunswick, Ga., construction of 

emergency air station 404 

Cape May, N. J., air station 401 

Chatham, Mass., air station 401 

Coco Solo, C. Z., air station 401 

Dunkerque. France, aviation 422 

Eastleigh. England, aviation as- 
sembly and repair base 422 

Functions of land bases 395 

Guipavas, France, dirigible sta- 
tion 435 

Hampton Roads, Va. — 

Airplane-storage building at 

fleet supply base 331 

Air sta/tion 401 

lie Tudy, France, seaplane sta- 

tion-__ 433 

Key West, Fla.. air station 401 

I/Abervrach. France, seaplane 

station 434 

I>abor difficulties in France 425 

Aviation facilities — Continued. 

Magnitude of work accomplished Page, 
abroad 426 

Moutauk, L. I., air station .390 

Pauillac, France, aviation repair 

base 421 

Pensacola, Fla., pernianeiit air 

station ^n 

Philadelphia, Pa. — 

Airplane-storage building at 

aircraft factory 331 

Naval aircraft factory 417 

Quecnstown, Ireland, aviation 

repair base 421 

Rockaway Beach, L. I., air sta- 
tion 39G 

San Diego, Calif., air station- 401, 412 

Treguier, France, seaplane sta- 
tion 4;{(j 

United States, eight original sta- 
tions 396 

United States, expansion ex- 
pected : cost 407. 40S 

United States, stations closed 

since the war 408 

United States, supplementary 

program 402 

War construction abroad 417 

War construction abroad, re- 
capitulation 419 


Bak<nhus. Capt. R. E. : 

Assistant chief of bureau 30 

Member Armor Plant Board 301 

Baldwin, Loammi, jr., designer of 

public works for Navy 33, 34 

Baltimore, Md., reserve coal-storage 

depot 351 

Bancroft Hall. (See Naval Acad- 
Bar Harbor. Me., radio barracks and 

quarters 22!) 

Barracks. (See Camps, Barracks. 

and Quarters.) 
Bay Ridge. Brooklyn, N. Y., receiving 

ship 61 

Bay Shore. L. I., air station 401 

Bellevue, D. C. new structures at 

naval magazine 300 

Bensonhurst, L. I., Base Six 55 

Berthing facilities, Norfolk. Va 207 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation : 
Navy extension to Fore River 

plant 230 




Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corpora- 
tion — Continued. Page 
Navy extension to Union plant, 

San Francisco, Calif 227, 229 

Torpedo-destroyer plant, Squan- 

tum. Mass 218 

Board for the development of navy- 
yard plans 129 

Boston (Mass.) Navy Yard : 

Boston, South, dry dock pur- 
chased from Commonwealth of 

Massachusetts 252 

Bumkin Island training camp 46 

Foundry and shops 169 

General storehouse 315 

Machine shop 175 

Marine railway 211 

Metals storage 332 

Power-plant extension 271 

Receiving ship 46 

Boston, Mass., reserve coal-storage 

depot 348 

Bremerton, "Wash. : 

Housing project 505 

Water-supply improvements for 

yard and city use 146 

Brest, France : 

Air station 429 

Fuel-oil tanks shipped and 

erected 360, 361 

Bridgeport, Conn., housing project-. 496 

Brittany, aviation stations in 425 

Brunswick, Ga., construction of 

emergency air station 404 

Brooklyn, N. Y. : 

Airplane - storage building at 

fleet supply base 331 

Armed-guard camp. City Park 58 

Bay Ridge, receiving ship 61 

Fireproof hospital buildings and 

nurses' quarters 114 

Fleet supply base 317, 338 

Temporary storehouses, South 

Brooklyn 328 

Bumkin Island (Boston), training 

camp 46 

Bunce Board recommendations for 

dry-dock construction 17 

Bungalow camp, Norfolk, Va 65 

Bunkering plants_'_ 352 

Burrage, A. C, Boston philanthro- 
pist 46 

Cambridge, Mass., Harvard radio 


Camden, N. .1., Navy extension to 
yard of New York Shipbuilding 


Camps, Barracks, and Quarters: 

Armed-guard camp, City Park, 


Barracks and commissary pro- 
vided for workmen, Potomac 
Park operation, Washington, 
D. C 





Camps, Barracks, and Quarters — ^^Con. 

Barracks for "Eagle" boat Page, 
crews, Detroit, Mich 76 

Barracks for marine guards at 

ammunition depots 283 

Base Six, Bensonhurst, L. I 55 

Boiler plants for camps, types 

of 81 

Bungalow camp, Norfolk, Va 65 

Camp, Summerville, N. Y 55 

Cloyne Field training camp, 

Newport, R. I 52 

Coasters Harbor Island train- 
ing station, Newport, R. I 49 

Coddington Point training camp, 

Newport, R. I 51 

" Composite camp," the 80 

Construction camp for Lafayette 

radio station 369, 371, 376 

Contracts, cost-plus, rapid exe- 
cution of camp projects 
under 42,43 

Cooking school, Naval Home, 

Philadelphia, Pa 64 

Design of barracks for subma- 
rine crews 382 

P'ast camp, Hampton Roads, Va_ 69 

Emergency training camp, Gulf- 
port, Miss 74 

Ensigns' school. Naval Acad- 
emy, Annapolis, Md 69 

Fuel-oil school, Quincy, Mass 48 

Goat Island training station, 

original, San Francisco, Calif- 41 

War expansion 78 

Harvard radio school, Cam- 
bridge, Mass 48 

Housing for the Navy 495 

Isolation against contagious dis- 
eases at camps 43,44 

Marine Corps barracks, Key 

West, Fla 93 

Marine Corps barracks, Peking, 

China 93 

Marine Corps barracks, Phila- 
delphia 93 

Marine Corps barracks, Ports- 
mouth, N. H 93 

Marine Corps expeditionary 

base, San Diego, Calif 93 

Marine Corps training camp, 

Parris Island, S. C 94 

Marine Corps training camp, 

Quantico, Va 94 

Medicine and surgery minimum 
allowances for sleeping quar- 
ters in camps 47 

Prison camp. Portsmouth, N. H_ 48 

Quarters and shops, Indian- 
head, Md 291 

Radio barracks and quarters. 

Bar Harbor, Me 306 

Receiving ship and barracks, 

Mare Island, Calif 78 

Receiving ship and bungalow 

camp, Charleston, S. C 70 



C.-iiiips, Barracks, and Quarters — Con. Page. 

Receiving ship and training 

camp, Puget Sound, Wash 79 

Recei%'ing ship, Bay Ridge, 

Brooklyn. N. Y Gl 

Receiving ship, Boston, Mass 4G 

Receiving ship, Norfolk, Va G5 

Receiving-ship quarters, Ellis 

Island, N. Y 59 

Recreation facilities in canips__ 44 

Schools at training camp, 

Hampton Roads, Va G6 

Seaman gunners' (piarters at 

Washington .\ard_^ 300 

Steam engineering school, Ste- 
vens Institute, Hohoken, N. J 62 

St. Helena training station. 

Norfolk, Va 41 

. Subdivisions, typical, of a camp 45 

Tent camp, Tarrytowii, X. Y 55 

Training camp and rereiving 

ship, Philadelphia, Ba 02 

Training camp, Balboa Park. 

San Diego, Calif 77 

Training camp, Bumkin Island 

(Boston) 40 

Training c a m p, Coddington 
Point, Newport, R. I., com- 
pletion of 82 

Training camp, Hampton Roads, 

Va G5 

Training camp. Hingham, Mass_ 47 

Training camp, Key West, Fla 73 

Training camp, New Orleans, 

La 74 

Training camp on grounds of 
State University, Seattle, 
Wash 79 

Training camp, Pelham Bay 

Park, N. Y 55 

Training camp,, San Pedro, 

Calif 77 

Training station. Great Lakes, 
111., war expansion and ca- 
pacity of 75 

Training station, original. Great 

Lakes, 111 41 

Tiaining station, original, New- 
port, R. I 41 

Training stations, original 41 

War-time expansion of training 

system , 42 

Water supply for camps 81 

Wissahickon Barracks, Cape 

May, N. .1 04 

• a-ije May. \. J. : 

Air station 401 

Section base, marine railway at_ 211 

Wissahickon Barracks 04 

Causeway between Mare Island yard 

and Vallejo, Calif 150 

yard and Vallejo. Calif 150 

<'avito, P. I. : 

Ammunition depot 280 

Radio station 305 

37022—21 33 

Cayey, P. R., high-power radio Page. 

station 365 

Change orders, priorities, and expe- 
diting under bureau contracts 457, 459 

Charleston ( S. C. ) Navy Yard: 

Additional camp 70 

Ammunition depot 280 

Destroyer ways 197 

General storehouse 315 

Marine railway 211 

Pattern shop and storage build- 
ing 170 

Power plant 259 

Radio tower 306 

Receiving ship and bungalo^\• 

camp 70 

Reserve coal-storage depot 351 

Torpedo storage 287 

Charleston, W. Va., armor and pro- 
jectile plants 301 

Armor plant — 

Construction on day-labor 

basis 313 

Contract for power supply- 314 

Crane' installations 306 

Development of plans 302 

Forge and furnace building. 309 

Gun-treatment building 310 

Housing project 506 

Machine shop 310 

Open-hearth plant 309 

I^rojectlle plant — 

Construction under con- 
tract 315 

Foundry and forge shop 302 

Machine shop 302 

Chatham, Mass., air station 401 

Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, Navy 
coal-storage plant of, Newport 

News, Va 233,234 

Civil Engineers, U. S. Navy, Corps 

Activities in the West Indies 449 

Endicott, Rear Admiral M. T. — 
First chief of bureau from 

Civil Engineer Corps 35 

Increases in Civil Engineer 

Corps obtained by 35 

Historical 33 

Reserve officers 35 

Reserve officers enrolled for 
duty on Lafayette radio sta- 
tion 368 

Sanger, W. P. S., civil en- 
gineer of the Navy 34 

Strength of corps at different 

I^eriods 35 

Clarke. Commander F. II., member 

Armor Plant Board 301 

Cloyne Field training camp, New- 
port, R. I 52 

Coal storage and handling: 

Baltimore, Md., reserve coal- 
storage depot 351 

Boston, Mass., reserve coal- 
storage depot 348 



Coal storage and handling — Contd. 

Charleston, S. C, reserve coal- Page. 

storage depot 351 

Constable Hook, N. J., reserve 

coal-storage depot 347 

Emergency fueling plants 321, 347 

Hampton Roads (Lamberts 

Point), bunkering plant 352 

Iloboken, N. J., bunkering plant- 356 
Newport News, Va. — 

Bunkering plant 352 

Navy coal-storage plant., 
Chesapeake & Ohio Rail- 
way 233,234 

Sewalls Point, Va., Navy coal- 
storage plant, Virginian Rail- 
way 233,234 

Coasters Harbor Island training sta- 
tion 49 

Coco Solo, C. Z. : 

Air station 401 

Development of submarine basc_ 386 

Torpedo storage 287 

Coddington Point training camp, 

Newport, R. I 51 

Cold-storage plant, Hampton Roads, 

Va 328 

" Composite camp," the 80 

Constable Hook, N. J., reserve coal- 
storage depot 347 

Construction Division of Bureau of 

Yards and Docks 455 

Contracts, adjustment and settlement 

of, by bureau 458 

Contracts, bid openings, and awards, 

bureau 456 

Contracts, cost-plus 396, 402, 455 

Awarded for training - camp 

power plants 263 

Rapid execution of camp proj- 
ects under 42, 43 

Cooking school, Naval Home, Phila- 
delphia, Pa 64 

Corfu, Greece : 

Hospital, proposed 127 

Marine railways, proposed 211 

Cranes. (See also Shops.) 

Charleston armor plant Installa- 
tions 306 

Factors entering into design of 

cranes 162 

Fitting-out piers and cranes, 

general design 197 

Mare Island, Calif., 150-ton 

floating crane 208 

New York, dry-dock crane 208 

Norfolk, Va. — 

Auxiliary fltting-out cranes- 204 

Dry-dock crane 208 

150-ton floating crane 208 

Overhead cranes and runways 

for shipbuilding 183 

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, dry-dock 

Crane 208 

Cranes — Continued. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Page, 

Aiixiliary fitting-out crane- .\04 

Dry-dock cranes 208 

350-ton fitting-out crane 199 

Washington, D. C. — 

I^arge cranes in gun shop 296 

Outside cranes for gun han- 
dling 300 

Croix d'llins, France, Lafayette radio 

station 366, 367 

Cuban Government, radio towers pro- 
cured for 36G 


Detroit, Mich. : 

Barracks for " Eagle " boat 

crews 76 

Navy extension to Ford Motor 

Co. plant 223 

Dispensaries 125 

Dunkorque, France, aviation base 422 

Dry docks : 

Boston, South, dry dock pur- 
chased from Commonwealth 

of Massachusetts 252 

Bunco Board recommendations 

for dry-dock construction 17 

General description of a dry 

dock 237 

Hunters Point, Calif., dry dock 
available for naval use under 

contract 252 

Jefferson, Thomas, project for 

multiple dry dock 33 

Latrobt', Benjamin H., consult- 
ant on multiple dry dock 33 

Naval docking plant, 1916 238 

Naval docking plant, present 238 

New York, dry-dock crane 208 

Norfolk, Va.— 

Dry-dock crane 208 

Dry Dock No. 4, design and 

construction of 239 

Dry Docks Nos. 6 and 7 240 

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii — 

Dry-dock crane 208 

Dry Dock No. 1 — 

Design and construc- 
tion of 244 

First unwatering 251 

Formal opening 251 

Philadelphia, Pa. — 

Dry-dock cranes 208 

Dry Dock No. 3, design and 

construction of 243 

Puget Sound, Wash., dr dock 

for shipbuilding 190 

U. S. S. Pyro and Nitro built in 

Puget Sound dock 195, 197 


Eagle boats. Navy plant extension 

for construction of 223 

Eastleigb, England, aviation assem- 
bly and repair base 237, 238 



Ellis Island, K. T., receiving-ship Page. 

quarters 62 

Emergency Fleet Corporation dry 

docks at Norfolk 240 

Emergency hospitals established dur- 
ing the war, list of 98 

Emergency office buildings, Potomac 

Park, Washington. D. C 479 

Accessory and incidental fea- 
tures 488 

Beginnings of project 479 

Completion ; cost 492 

Construction of buildings 486 

Design of buildings 48."? 

Labor problem 490 

Miscellaneous data 49.5 

Endicott, Rear Admiral M. T. : 

First chief of bureau from Civil 

Engineer Corps 35 

Increases in Civil Engineer Corps 

obtained by 35 

Erie, Pa., Navy extension to plant of 

Erie Forge Co 223 

Establishment of Bureau of Yards 

and Docks 34 

Ensigns' school, Naval Academy, An- 
napolis, Md 69 


Financial accounts and records, bu- 
reau sj'stem 463, 464 

Fire protection : 

Fire protection at ammunition 

depots 282 

Foam fire protection for oil 

tanks 359 

Fitting-out cranes : 

Norfolk, Va., auxiliary fitting- 
out cranes 204 

Philadelphia, Pa. — 

Auxiliary fitting-out crane- 204 

350-ton crane 199 

Fitting-out piers : 

Norfolk. Va 198 

Philadelphia, Pa 198 

Piers and cranes, general design- 197 
Fleet supply bases : 

Brooklyn, N. Y 317, 338 

Hampton Roads, Va 317, 344 

Fletcher, Rear Admiral F. F., chair- 
man Armor-Plant Board 301 

Ford Motor Co., Navy extension to 

plant. Detroit, Mich 223 

Fort Lafayette, N. Y., ammunition 

depot 280 

Fort Mifflin, Pa., ammunition depot- 280 
Fort Worth, Tex., helium production 

plairt 437 

Foundries : 

Boston (Mass.) Navy Yard, foun- 
dry and shops 169 

Charleston, W. Va., armor plant, 

foundry and forge shop 302 

General design of foundries 169 

Norfolk, Va., navy yard 169 

Philadelphia, Pa., navy yard 169 | 

Foundries — Continued. Page. 

Washington (D. C.) Navy Yard — 

Brass foundry 298 

General foundry extension. 298 

Freight shed. Mare Island, Calif 337 

Fuel-oil school. Quincy, Mass 48 

Fuel-oil storage : 

Brest, France, fuel-oil tanks 

shipped and erected at 300, 361 

Foam fire protection for oil 

tanks 359 

Furt. France, fuel-oil tanks 

shipped and erected at 360, 363 

General Board recommendations- 359 
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, oil-stor- 
age plant 359 

L'Orient, France, fuel-oil tanks 

shipped and erected at 360, 363 

La Pallice, France, fuel-oil tanks 

shipped and erected at 360, 363 

Melville, R. I., oil-storage plant- 359 
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, oil-storage 

plant 359 

Puget Sound, Wash., oil-storage 

plant 359 

San Diego, Calif., oil-storage 

plant 359 

Yorktown, Va., naval fuel depot- 360 
Furt, France, fuel-oil tanks shipped 

and erected at 360, 363 

Funds allotted by bureau 465 


Galvanizing plants 176 

Gas holders for helium production 

plant. Fort Worth, Tex 447 

General development of yards and 
stations : 

Board for the development of 

navy-yard plans 129 

Great Lakes, 111., harbor devel- 
opment 153 

Hampton Roads, Va., naval oper- 
ating base — 

Bulkheading, dredging, and 

filling 136, 139 

Development plan 132 

Developments undertaken 

during war 132, 135 

Jamestown Exposition site 

taken over 135 

Steam and electric railway 

improvements 140 

Training camp undertaken. 136 
Mare Island, Calif., navy yard, 

developments undertaken 150 

Mooring facilities 154 

Naval base, proposed, San Fran- 
cisco Bay, studies for 154 

New York (N. Y.) Navy Yard, 

developments undertaken 143 

Norfolk (Va.) Navy Yard — 

Development plan 131 

Developments undertaken — 143 
Pensacola, Fla., air station, de- 
velopments undertaken 15?. 



G<^neral development of yai-ds and 

stations — Continued. Pago. 

Philadelphia, Pa., navy yard — 

Development plan 131 

General development and 

increase of area 143 

Puget Sound (Wash.) Navy 
Yard — 

Development plan 131 

Developments undertaken — 140 
Type plan for navy yard — 131 

Gibraltar, proposed hospital 127 

Goat Island training station, San 

Francisco, Calif., war expansion — 78 

Great Lakes (111.) Naval Training 
Station : 

Contracts and costs S4, SS, 89 

Harbor development 153 

Lumber contracts 84 

Marino railway 211 

Organization of public works 

force S5, 88 

Policy of expansion urged by 

Capt. Moffett S3 

Training station, original 41 

Training station, war expansion 

and capacity of 75 

Types of construction 90 

Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, oil-storage 

plant 359 

Guipavas, France, dirigible station — 435 
Gulfport, Miss., emergency training 

camp "^4 

Gun manufacture, large caliber, re- 
quirements for, at Charleston 

armor plant 305 

(Jun-shriiikage pit, Washington, D. C- 297 


Haiti, activities of the Corps of Civil 

Kngineers in 451 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, proposed emer- 
gency hospital 110 

Hampton Roads, Va., naval operat- 
ing base : 

Airplane-storage building at fleet- 
supply base 331 

Air station 401 

Itoiler plant at East Camp 265 

r.oiler plant at original train- 
ing camp 204 

P.oiler plant, permanent, in in- 
dustrial section 265 

P.ulkhcading, dredging, and fill- 
ing 130 

Cold-storage plant 328 

Development plan 132 

]>ivelopm<'nts undertaken during 

■\v;^ 1' 132, 13o 

East camp 69 

Fleet-supply base 317, 344 

General storehouse 317 

Housing project 498 

.Tamestown Exposition site taken 

over 1"5 

I*iml)erts Point Imnkiring plant_ 332 

Hampton Roads, Va.. naval operat- 
ing base — Continued. Page. 

Merchandise piers 344 

Schools at training camp 66 

Submarine base 390 

Temporary storehouses 328 

Torpedo storage 287 

Training camp, original 65, 136 

Harris, Rear Admiral F. R., chief of 


Harvard radio school, Cambridge, 



Boiler plant at East Camp, 

Hampton Roads, Va 

Boiler plant at original train- 
ing camp, Hampton Roads, 


Boiler plant. Cloyne Field, New- 
port, R. I 263 

Boiler plants. Coddington Point, 

Newport, R. I 

Boiler plant, permanent, in in- 
dustrial section,, Hampton 

Roads, Va 

Centralized heating system at 
Coaster's Harbor Island camp, 


Heating plant, Pelham Bay Park, 

N. Y -— - 

Naval aircraft factory, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., boiler plant 

Types of boiler plants for camps. 
Vacuum-return system used in 

Potomac Park buildings 

Helium, discovery of 

Helium Production Plant, Fort 

Worth, Tex 

Capacity and costs 448 

Experimental plants 437 

Gas holders 447 

Pipe line for natural gas, Pe- 

trolia. Fort Worth 438 

Power supply 446 

Separation of helium from nat- 
ural gas 

Site ; buildings 

Hollyday, Rear Admiral R. C, chief 

of bureau 

Hinsham, Mass. : 

Ammunition depot 

Training camp 

Holtoken, N. J. : 

Bunkering plant 356 

Steam ongini ering school, Ste- 
vens Institute •'2 

Hospitals : 

Appropriations for construction- 
Brooklyn. N. Y., fireproof hos- 
pital buildings and nurses' 


Corfu. Greece, proposed hospital- 
Costs of emergency hospital con- 





















Hospitals — ContiNued. 

Emergency hospitals established Page. 

during the war 98, 100, 103 

Gibraltar, proposed hospital 127 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, proposed 

emergency hospital 119 

Hospital bases, proposed, de- 
sign of 97 

Hospitals constructed overseas- 125 
Laboratories for research at 

hospitals 120 

New Orleans, La., emergency 

hospital 109 

Norfolk, Va., emergency hos- 
pital, development of 110 

Pelham Bay Park, N. Y., de- 
velopment of emergency hos- 
pitals at camp 113 

Queenstowu, Ireland, naval 

base hospital No. 4 126 

Recreation facilities at hospi- 
tals 120 

Wards Island, N. Y., emergency 

hospital 114, 119 

Washington, D. C, emergency 

hospital 113 

Yorktown, Va., proposed hospi- 
tal 120 

Housing for the Nav> : 

Bridgeport, Conn 49C 

Charleston. W. Va 506 

Hampton Roads, Va 498 

Indianhead, Md 506 

Mare Island, Calif 502 

Norfolk, Va 501 

Philadelphia, Pa 501 

Puget Sound, Wash 505 

Quincy, Mass 501 

Hunters Point, Calif. : 

Dry dock available for naval use 

under contract 252 

Navy extension to Union plant 
of Bethlehem Shipbuilding 
Corporation 227, 229 


He Tudy, France, seaplane station__ 433 
Indianhead (Md.) Naval Proving 
Ground and smokeless-powder 

factory 290 

Artesian water-supply system 292 

Bulkhead and timber pier 295 

Housing project 506 

Power-plant extensions 277 

Quarters and shops 291 

Railroad connection 292 

Storehouse and factory build- 
ings 290 

Information office, bureau 24, 460 

Inspection section, bureau 461 

lona Island, N. Y.. ammunition 

depot 280 

Isherwood Hall. (See Naval Acad- 
Isolation against contagious dis- 
eases at camps 43, 44, 77 


Jamestown Exposition site taken 

over . 135 

.Tefferson, Thomas. project for 

multiple dry dock 33 


Keyport, Wash., torpedo station 284 

Key West, Fla., naval station : 

Air station 401 

Marine Corps barracks 93 

Submarine base 393 

Training camp 73 

Kuahua, Hawaii, ammunition depot. 280 


L'Abervrach, France, seaplane sta- 
tion 434 

Laboratories for research at hospi- 
tals 120 

Labor problem in construction of 
emergency office buildings, Poto- 
mac Park, D. C 490 

Labor problem on Cradock housing 

project, Portsmouth. Va 500 

Lafayette radio station 366.367 

Lake Denmark, N. J., ammunition 

depot 280 

LaPallice, France, fuel oil tanks 

shipped and erected at 360, 363 

Latrobe, Benjamin II., consultant 

on multiple dry dock 33 

Laundry facilities at Croix d' Hins 

camp, France 379 

Letter of request from Secretary 

Daniels 3 

Letter of transmittal b.v Admiral 

Parks 5 

Linoleum, use of, in Potomac Park 
buildings 490 

Long, Hon. .John D.. favorable 

action on Bunce Board report 18 

L'Orienl, France, fuel-oil tanks 

shipped and erected at 360, 363 

Luce Hall. (See Naval Academy.) 

Lumber contracts, training station, 

Great Lakes, 111 84 

Lumber storage : 

General program executed 337 

Type layout for 332 


Maintenance and Operation Division 

of the Bureau of Yards and Docks- 463 

Mare Island (Calif.) Navy Yard: 

Ammunition depot 1 280 

Battleship wavs, reconstruction 

of 197 

Boat-storage building 331 

Destroyer ways 197 

Freight shed 337 

General development 150 

Housing project 502 



Mare Island (Calif.) Navy Yard— Page. 

Machine shop 175 

150-ton floating crane 208 

Oxygen - hydrogen - acetylene 

plant 176 

Power plant improvements 273 

Receiving ship and barracks 78 

Structural shop 164 

Submarine base 390 

Torpedo storage 287 

Marine Corps projects : 

Barracks for guards at ammuni- 
tion depots 283 

Barracks, Key West, Fla 93 

Barracks, Peking, China 93 

Barracks, Philadelphia, Pa 93 

Barracks, Portsmouth, N. H 93 

Expeditionary base, San Diego, 

Calif 93 

Quartermaster and advance-base 

storehouse, Philadelphia, Pa_ 93 
Quartermaster storehouse, Pearl 

Harbor, Hawaii 93 

Training camp, Parris Island, 

S. C 94 

Training camp, Quantico, Va 94 

Marine railways : 

Appropriations 211 

Boston, Mass 211 

Cape May, N. J., section base — 211 

Charleston, S. C 211 

Corfu, Greece, proposed 211 

General data 211, 214 

Great Lakes, 111 211 

Newport, R. I., training station. 211 

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 211 

San Diego, Calif 211 

Medicine and Surgery, Bureau of : 
Cooperation with yards and 
docks on training-camp facili- 
ties 43 

Hospitals started overseas 140 

Minimum allowances for sleep- 
ing quarters in camps 47 

Request for additional hospital 

facilities at Norfolk 110 

Sanitary requirements. City 

Park camp 59 

Sanitary requirements. Mare 

Island receiving-ship camp __ 78 
Space requirements at Norfolk 

camp 65 

Melville, R. I., oil-storage plant 359 

Merchandise piers at Hampton 

Roads, Va 344 

Mine depots 287 

Standard mine-storage building- 289 

Moniauk, L. I., air station 396 

Mooring facilities 154 


Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. : 

Appropriations for Bancroft 

Hall extension 37 

Ensigns' school 69 

Naval Academy, Annapolis. Md. — Con. Pag?. 

Power plant extension 271 

War-time development of acad- 
emy 37 

Naval base, proposed, San Francisco 

Bay, studies for 154 

Naval ratings clearing port of New 

York during war 62 

Navassa Island, West Indies, landing 

of spar for radio station 366 

New London, Conn., submarine base : 

Ammunition depot 280 

General development 385 

General storehouse 317 

Mine depot 288 

New power plant 267 

Torpedo storage 287 

New Orleans, La., naval station : 

Ammunition storage 280 

Emergency hospital 109 

Power plant 274 

Training camp 74 

Newport News, Va. : 

Bunkering plant 352 

Navy coal-storage plant, Chesa- 
peake & Ohio Railway 233, 234 

Newport News Shipbuilding & 
Dry Dock Co., Navy plant ex- 
tension 221 

Newport, R. I. : 

Cloyne Ficld^ 

Boiler plant 263 

Training camp 52 

Coasters Harbor Island — 

New power plant 263 

Training station 49 

Coddington Point — 

Boiler plants 263 

Training camp 51 

Training camp, completion 

of 82 

Torpedo station 283 

Torpedo station, new power 

plant at 265,267 

Torpedo storage 287 

Training station, marine rail- 
way at 211 

Training station, original 41 

New York Navy Yard — 

Armed-guard camp. City Park, 

Brooklyn 58 

Dry-dock crane 208 

General development 143 

General storehouse 317 

Details of design 327 

Machine shops 175 

Metals storage 332 

I'ower plant 270 

Receiving-ship congestion 52 

Structural shop 164 

Temporary storehouses 328 

Ways for battleship construc- 
tion 189 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation, 
Navy extension to yard at Cam- 
den, N. .1 224 



Norfolk (Va.) Navy Yard: Page. 

Auxiliary fitting-out craues 204 

Berthing facilities 207 

Bungalow camp 65 

Development plan 131 

Dry-dock crane 208 

Dry Dock No. 4, design and con- 
struction 239 

Dry Docks Nos. 6 and 7 240 

Emergency hospital, develop- 
ment of 110 

Fitting-out pier 198 

Foundry 169 

Galvanizing plant 176 

General development . 143 

Housing project 501 

Lumber-storage project 337 

Machine shop, neavy 175 

150-ton floating crane 208 

Oxygen - hydrogen - acetylene 

plant 176 

' Pattern shop and storage build- 
ing 170 

Power plant 180,255 

Receiving ship ' 65 

St. Helena training station 41 

Steel-storage shed 163 

Structural shop, details of 163 

Temporary storehouses 328 

Tracks, streets, and sewers 207 

Ways for liattleship construc- 
tion 189 

Xurses' quarters. (See Hospitals.) 


Olongapo, P. I., ammunition (lepot__ 280 
Ordnance facilities 279 

Alexandria, Va., torpedo-assem- 
bly plant 284 

Barracks for marine guards at 
ammunition depots 283 

Bellevue, D. C, new structures 

at naval magazine 300 

Cavite, P. I., ammunition depot- 280 

Charleston, S. C. — 

Ammunition depot 280 

Torpedo storage 287 

Charleston, W. Va., armor and 

projectile plants 301 

Coco Solo, C. Z., torpedo stor- 
age 287 

Fire protection at ammunition 

depots 282 

Fort Lafayette, N. Y., ammu- 
nition depot 280 

Fort MiflBin, Pa., ammunition 

depot 280 

Hampton Roads. Va., torpedo 

storage 287 

Hinghani. Mass., ammunition 

depot 280 

Indianhead (Md.) Naval Prov- 
ing Ground and smokeless- 
powder factory 290 

Power-plant extensions 277 

Ordnance facilities — Continued. Page, 

lona Island, N. Y., ammunition 

depot 280 

Koyport, Wash., torpedo sta- 
tion 284 

Kuahua, Hawaii, ammunition 

depot 280 

Lake Denmark, N. J., ammuni- 
tion depot 280 

Mare Island, Calif. — 

Ammunition depot 280 

Torpedo storage 287 

New London, Conn. — 

-Ammunition depot 280 

Mine depot 288 

Torpedo storage 287 

New Orleans, La., ammunition 

storage 280 

Newport, R. I. — 

Torpedo station 283 

Torpedo storage 287 

Olongapo, P. L, ammunition 

depot 280 

Pensacola, Fla., torpedo storage. 287 
Puget Sound, Wash., ammuni- 
tion depot 280 

Railway connection for mine de- 
pot, Yorktown, Va 289 

St. Juliens Creek, Va — 

-Vmmunition depot 280 

Mine-filling plant 288 

Torpedo storage 287 

Torpedo storage, standard store- 
houses and racks for 287 

Trackage, additional, at ammu- 
nition depots 282 

Washington, D. C, Navy Yard — 

Expansion of facilities-. 295, 300 

Gun shop 180, 296 

Yorktown, Va., mine depot and 

filling plant 288 

Organization : 

Bureau of Yards and Docks, 

1916 to armistice 21 

Construction Division of Bureau 

of Yards and Docks 455 

Maintenance and Operation Di- 
vision of the Bureau of Yards 

and Docks 463 

I'ublic-works force at Great 

Lakes 85,88 

Overseas projects : 
Aviation — 

Construction abroad 417 

Construction abroad, reca- 
pitulation 419 

Croix d'Hins, France, Lafayette 

radio station 360, 307 

Fuel-oil storage 360, 361 

Hospitals 125 

Oxygen-hydrogen-acetylene plants 170 


Parks, Rear Admiral C. W., chief of 

bureau ^^ 

Parris Island, S. C, Marine Corps 

training camp 94 

Parsons, Comdr. A. L 480,494 



Pauillac, Franco, aviation repair Page, 

base 421 

I'eail Harbor, Hawaii, naval station : 

Dry-docli crane 208 

Dry Dock No. 1 — 

Design and construction of- 244 

First unwatering 251 

Formal opening 251 

General storehouse 317 

Kualiua, ammunition depot 280 

Machine shop 1"5 

Marine Corps quartermaster 

storehouse 93 

Marino railway 211 

Oil-storage plant 359 

Power-plant equipment, purchase 

of 273 

Radio station 365 

Submarine base 382 

Pelting, China, Marino Corps bar- 

racliS 93 

Pelham Bay Park, N. Y., training 
camp : 

Construction of 5G 

Development of emergency hos- 
pitals at camp 113 

Heating plant 264 

Necessity for camp 55 

Pensacola, Fla., air station 411 

General development 153 

Power plant improvements 274 

Torpedo storage 287 

Personnel : 

Naval ratings clearing port of 

New York during war 02 

Organization of public-works 

force at Great Lakes 85, 88 

Personnel of Bureau of I'ards 
and Docks — 

General 25 

Technical 27 

Philadelphia, Pa., Naval Home, cook- 
ing school 64 

Philadelphia (Pa.) Navy Y'ard : 

Airplane-storage building at air- 
craft factory 331 

Auxiliary fitting-out crane 204 

Boat shop 176 

Boat-storage building 331 

Development plan 131 

Dry-dock cranes 208 

Dry Dock No. 3, design and con- 
struction of 243 

Fitting-out pier 198 

Foundry 160 

Galvanizing plant 176 

General development and in- 
crease of area 143 

General storehouses 317 

Housing project 501 

Machine shop, heavy 175 

Marine Corps barracks 93 

Marine Corps quartermaster and 

advance-base storehouse 93 

Mine-sweeper ways 197 

Naval aircraft factory 417 

Philadelphia (Pa.) Navy Yard — Con. Page 
Naval aircraft factory, boiler 

plant in 268 

Oxygen-hydrogen-acetylene plant 176 
I'attern shop and storage build- 
ing 170 

Power plant 180,255 

Radio lowers 366 

Structural shop 164 

Submarine station 386 

Temporary storehouses 328 

350-ton fitting-out crane 199 

Tracks, streets, and sewers 207 

Training camp and receiving ship 62 
Ways for capital-ship construc- 
tion 184 

Photograph flics, Bureau 

Piers : 

Coco Solo, C. Z., development of 

submarine base 386 

Fitting-out piers and cranes, 

general design 107 

Hampton Roads, Va. — • 

;\[( rcliandisc i)i('rs 344 

Submarine base 390 

Key West, Fla., submarine base_ 393 
Mare Island, Calif., submarine 

base 390 

Now London, Conn., submarine 

base, general development 385 

Norfolk, Va., fltting-out pier 198 

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, submarine 

base 382 

Philadelphia, Pa. — 

Fitting-ont pier 198 

Submarine station 386 

Piers and other improvements at 

ammunition depots 282 

Type plan for submarine base — 381 
Y^orktown, Va. — 

Fuel-oil pier 360 

Pier at mine depot 289 

Pipe line for natural gas, Pctrolia- 

Fort Worth 438 

Plan files of bureau 460 

Port au Prince, Haiti, radio masts__ 366 
Potrero works, San Francisco, Calif., 
Navy extension to Union plant of 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corpora- 
tion 227, 229 

Portsmouth, N. II., navy yard : 

Machine shop 175 

Marine Corps barracks 93 

Power plant 260 

Prison camp 48 

Submarine ways 197 

Potomac Park emergency office huild- 

ings, Washington, D. C 479 

Power plants : 

Boston, Mass., power plant ex- 
tension 271 

Charleston, S. C -59 

Charleston, W. Va., armor plant, 

contract for powei- supply 1114 



Power plants — Coutiiuied. 

Contracts, cost-plus, awarded 

for training camp power Page. 

plants 263 

Hampton Roads, Va. — 

Boiler plant at East Camp- 265 
Boiler plant at original 

training camp - 264 

Permanent boiler plant in 

industrial section 265 

Indianhead, Md., naval proving 
ground and smokeless-powder 
factory, power-plant e x t e n - 

sions 277 

Mare Island, Calif., power plant 

improvements 273 

Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md., 

power plant extension 271 

New Loudon. Conn 267 

New Orleans, La 274 

Newport, R. I. (Cloyne Field), 

boiler plant 263 

Newport, R. I. (Coasters Harbor 

Island), new power plant 263 

Newport, R. I. (Coddington 

Point), boiler plants 263 

Newport. R. I., torpedo station. 

new power-plant 265,267 

New York 270 

Norfolk, Va 180, 255 

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, equip- 
ment, purchase of 278 

Pelham Bay Park, N. Y., heat- 
ing plant 264 

Pensacola, Fla.. improvements 274 

Philadelphia. Pa 180, 255 

Philadelphia, Pa., naval air- 
craft factory, boiler plant in_ 268 

Portsmouth, N. H 260 

Power plants, centralization of_ 41 
Puget Sound. Wash., improve- 
ments 273 

Washington. D. C 261 

Power supply for helium-production 

plant. Fort Worth. Tex 446 

Power-transmission line, Croix 

d'Hins, France 371 

Public works of the Navy : 

Baldwin, Loammi, jr.. designer 

of 33,34 

Relation of Bureau of Yards 

and Docks to 17 

Value of. 1897 IS 

Value of, 1914-1919 19 

Puget Sound (Wash.) Navy Yard; 

Ammunition depot 280 

Development plan 131 

Dry dock for shipbuilding 190 

General development 146 

General storehouse 317 

Housing project 505 

Metals storage 332 

Minesweeper ways 197 

Oil-storage plant 359 

Power plant improvements 273 

Receiving ship and training 

camp 79 


Quantico, Va., Marine Corps train- Page. 

ing camp 94 

Queenstown, Ireland : 

Aviation repair base 421 

Naval base hospital No. 4 126 

Quincy, Mass. : 

Fuel-oil school 48 

Housing project 501 

Navy extensions to Fore River 
plant of Bethlehem Shipbuild- 
ing Corporation 230 

Squantum torpedo-destroyer 
plant 218 


Radio stations 365 

Annapolis, Md., high-power 365 

Bar Harbor, Me., barracks and 

quarters 366 

Cavite, P. I 365 

Cayey. P. R., high-power 365 

Charleston, S. C, tower 366 

Croix d"Hins, France, Lafayette 

radio station 366, 367 

Cuban Government, radio tow- 
ers procured for 366 

Minor projects 366 

N a V a s s a Island, West Indies, 
landing of spar for radio sta- 
tion 366 

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 365 

Philadelphia, Pa., towers 366 

Port au Prince, Haiti, masts 366 

San Diego, Calif 365 

St. Thomas, V. I., towers 366 

Radio school, Cambridge. Mass 48 

Railways. (See Transportation ; 

Marine railways.) 
Receiving ships : 

Bay Ridge, Brooklyn. N. Y 61 

Bensonhurst. L. I., Base Six 55 

Boston, Mass ^ 46 

Charleston, S. C, receiving ship 

and bungalow camp 70 

City Park, armed-guard camp, 

Brooklyn 58 

Ellis Island, N. Y., receiving- 
ship quarters 59 

Mare Island, Calif., receiving 

ship and barracks 78 

Norfolk. Va 65 

Philadelphia, Pa., training camp 

and receiving ship 62 

Puget Sound, Wash., receiving 

ship and training camp 79 

Receiving-ship congestion at 

New York Navy Yard 52 

Recreation facilities at camps 44 

Recreation facilities at hospitals 120 

Requisitions, handling of, during war 

period, by bureau 467 

Reserve officers. Corps of Civil Engi- 
neers, U. S. Navy 35 



Risdon yard. San Francisco, Calif.. 

Navy extension to Union plant of Page. 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corpora- 
tion 227, 229 

Rockaway Beach, L. I., air station__ 396 
Rousseau, Rear Admiral H. H., chief 

of !)ureau 35 

San Diego, Calif. : 

Air station 401,412 

Marine Corps expeditionai-y base_ 93 

Marine railway 211 

Oil-storage plant 359 

Radio station 365 

Training camp, Balboa Park 77 

San Francisco, Calif. : 

Goat Island training station. 

original (Yerba Buena) 41 

Goat Island training station, war 

expansion 7S 

Naval base, proposed, San Fran- 
cisco Bay, studies for 154 

Navy extension to Union plant 
of Bethlehem Shipbuilding 

Corporation 227, 229 

Sanger, W. P. S., first civil engineer 

of the Navy 34 

San Pedro, Calif., training camp 77 

Santo Domingo, activities of the 

Corps of Civil Engineers in 449 

Schmoele tract, Norfolk Navy Yard-- 143 
Seattle, Wash., training camp on 

grounds of State University 79 

Sewage disposal : 

At Lafayette radio station con- 
struction camp 371 

At naval air station, Chatham, 

Mass 402 

Norfolk, Va., tracks, streets, and 

sewers 207 

Philadelphia. Pa., tracks, streets, 

and sewers 207 

Portsmouth. Va.. system in- 
stalled at Cradock housing 

project 500 

Vallejo, Calif., system installed- 504 
Sewalls Point, Va., Navy coal-storage 

plant, Virginian Railway 233, 234 

Shipbuilding and repair facilities : 

Appropriations 156 

Development of plans and re- 
sults accomplished 157, 158 

General conditions and program 

undertaken 155 

Shipbuilding slips : 

Charleston, S. C, destroyer 

ways 197 

General design of slips, runways. 

cranes, and launching ways- 180. 183 
Mare Island. Calif. — 

Battleship ways, reconstruc- 
tion of 197 

Destroyer ways 197 

Shipbuilding slips — Continued. 

Newport News, Va., ways pro- page, 
vided under Navy plant exten- 
sion -__ 221 

New York, ways for battleship 

construction 189 

Norfolk, Va., ways for battleship 

construction 189 

Philadelphia, Pa. — 

Minesweeper ways 197 

Ways for capital-ship con- 
struction 184 

Portsmouth, N. H., submarine 

ways 197 

Puget Sound, Wash. — 

Dry dock for shipbuilding- 190 

Minesweeper ways 197 

Quincy, Mass., Navy extensions 
to Fore River plant of Bethle- 
hem Shipbuilding Corporation- 230 
San Francisco, Calif., Navy ex- 
tension to Union plant of 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Cor- 
poration 227, 229 

Squantum, Mass., destroyer 

ways 218 

U. S. S. Pyro and T^lttro built in 

Puget Sound dock 195. 197 

Shipyard and industrial plant exten- 
sions : 

Akron, Ohio. Navy extension to 
plant of Wellman-Seaver-Mor- 

gan Co 232, 233 

Camden, N. J.. Navy extension 
to yard of New York Ship- 
building Corporation 224 

Detroit. Mich., Navy extension 

to Ford Motor Co. plant 223 

Erie, Pa., Navy extension at 

plant of Erie Forge Co 223 

Necessity, character of assist- 
ance, etc 215 

Newport News, Va., Navy coal- 
storage plant, Chesapeake & 

Ohio Railway 233,234 

Projects undertaken, general 217 

Quincy, Mass.. Navy extensions 
to Fore River plant of Bethle- 
hem Shipbuilding Corpora- 
tion 230 

Sewalls Point, Va., Navy coal- 
storage plant. Virginian Rail- 
way 233. 23^ 

Shops : 

Boat shop, Philadelphia, Pa 176 

Factors entering into design of 

shops 162 

Forge and furnace building at 

Charleston. W. Va 309 

Foundry and shops. Boston, 

Mass 16S 

Galvanizing plant, Norfolk, Va_ 176 
Galvanizing plant, Philadelphia, 

Pa 176 

General development, submarine 

base. New Jjondon, Conn 3S5 



Shops — Continued. Page 

Gun shop, Washington, D. C- 180,296 

Gun-treatment building at ar- 
mor plant. Charleston, W. Va_ 310 

Machine shop at armor plant, 

Charleston, W. Va 310 

Machine shop, Boston, Mass 175 

Machine shop, heavy, Norfoll^, 

Va 175 

Machine shop, heavy, Philadel- 
phia, Pai 175 

Machine shop. Mare Island. 

Calif 175 

Machine shop. Pearl Harbor, 

Hawaii 175 

Machine shop, Portsmouth. 

N. H 175 

Machine shop, projectile plant, 

Charleston, W. Va 302 

Machine shop, Washington, 

D. C 297 

Machine shops, general design 

of 170 

Machine shops. New York 175 

Naval aircraft factory, Phila- 
delphia. Pa 417 

Navy extension at plant of Erie 

Forge Co., Erie, Pa 223 

Navy extensions to Fore River 
plant of Bethlehem Shipbuild- 
ing Corporation, Q u i n c y , 
Mass 230 

Navy extension to Ford Motor 

Co. plant, Detroit, Mich 223 

Navy extension to plant of Well- 
man-Seaver-Morgan Co., Ak- 
ron, Ohio 232, 233 

Navj' extension to Union plant 
of Bethlehem Shipbuilding 
Corporation. San Francisco. 
Calif 227, 229 

Navy extension to yard of New 
York Shipbuilding Corpora- 
tion, Camden, N. J 224 

Newport News Shipbuilding & 
Dry Dock Co. Navy plant ex- 
tension 221 

Open-hearth plant, Charleston, 

W. Va 309 

Optical shop, Washington, 

D. C 298 

Oxygen - hydrogen - acetylene 

plant, Mare Island, Calif 176 

Oxygen - hydrogen - acetylene 

plant, Norfolk, Va 176 

Oxygen - hydrogen - acetylene 

plant, Philadelphia, Pa 176 

Pattern and joiner shop, Wash- 
ington, D. C 298 

Pattern shop and storage build- 
ing, Charleston, S. C 170 

Pattern shop and storage build- 
ing, Norfolk, Va 170 

Pattern shop and storage build- 
ing, Philadelphia, Pa 170 

Shops — Continued. Page. 
Pattern shop and storage build- 
ings, general design of 170 

Quarters and shops, Indian- 
head, Md 291 

Structural shop. Mare Island, 

Calif 164 

Structural shop. New York 164 

Structural shop, details of, 

Norfolk, Va 163 

Structural shop, Philadelphia, 

Pa 164 

Structural shops, general de- 
sign of 163 

Type plan for submarine base 381 

Sims, Admiral W. S., request for oil 

tanks for Brest 360 

Specifications, preparation, and issue 

of, by Bureau 455, 460 

Squantum, Mass., torpedo-destroyer 

plant 218 

Stanford, Rear Admiral H. R., chief 

of Bureau 36 

Steam Engineering School, Stevens 

Institute, Iloboken, N. J 62 

St. .Tuliens Creek, Va. : 

Ammunition depot 280 

Mine-filling plant 288 

Torpedo storage 287 

Storage facilities : 

Baltimore, Md., reserve coal- 
storage denot 351 

Boston, Mass. — - 

General storehouse 317 

Metals storage 332 

Reserve coal-storage depot- 348 
Brooklyn. N. Y. — 

Airplane-storage building at 

fleet supply base 331 

Fleet supply base 317, 338 

Temporary storehouses. 

South Brooklyn 328 

Constable Hook, N. J., reserve 

coal-storage depot 347 

Charleston, S. C. —